Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 94

Growth Related Abstracts

94 The Effect of Soil in the Allelopathic Potential of Artemisia herba-alba and Oudneya africana Crude Powder on Growth of Weeds

Authors: Salhi Nesrine, Salama M. El-Darier, Halilat M. El-Taher

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of two type of soil (clay and sandy soils) in the potential allelopathic effects of Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana crude powder on some growth parameters and phytomass of two weeds (Bromus tectorum and Melilotus indica) under laboratory conditions (pot experiment). The experimental findings have reported that the donor species crude powder concentrations were suppressing to shoot length (SL), root length (RL), fresh and dry weight of shoot and root (SFw, RFw, SDw and RDw, respectively and the leaf number (LN)) in both soil types and caused a gradual reduction particularly when they are high. However, the reduction degree was varied and species, concentration dependent. The suppressive effect of all the eight donors on the two weedy species was in the following order Bromus tectorum> Melilotus indica. Generally, the growth parameters of two recipient species were significantly decreased with the increase of each of the donor species crude powder concentration levels. Concerning the type of sol the t-test indicated that the difference was insignificant between clay and sandy soils.

Keywords: Growth, Soil, Weeds, Allelopathy, Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
93 Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Mohammad Taghi Karbalaei Aghamolki, Fateh Chand Oad, Hawa Zee Jaafar, Sharifh Kharidah, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Shahram Soltani

Abstract:

The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were: growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted at 38oC+2 (day) and 22oC+2 (night) for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashsemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr receiving heat stress during booting stage. In all growing conditions and growth stages, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion and flag leaf length. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield slightly decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. Similar results were found in all other exotic cultivars recording to lower grain yield in the heat stress condition during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Keywords: Morphology, Growth, stress, Heat, temperature, Rice, Yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
92 Trehalose Application Increased Membrane Stability and Cell Viability to Affect Growth of Wheat Genotypes under Heat Stress

Authors: S. K. Thind, Aparjot Kaur

Abstract:

Heat stress is one of the major environmental factors drastically reducing wheat production. Crop heat tolerance can be enhanced by preconditioning of plants by exogenous application of osmoprotectants. Presently, the effect of trehalose pretreatment (at 1 mM, and 1.5 nM) under heat stress of 35±2˚C (moderate) and 40±2˚ (severe) for four and eight hour was conducted in wheat (Tricticum aestivum L.) genotypes viz. HD2967, PBW 175, PBW 343, PBW 621, and PBW 590. Heat stress affects wide spectrum of physiological processes within plants that are irreversibly damaged by stress. Membrane thermal stability (MTS) and cell viability was significantly decreased under heat stress for eight hours. Pretreatment with trehalose improved MTS and cell viability under stress and this effect was more promotory with higher concentration. Thermal stability of photosynthetic apparatus differed markedly between genotypes and Hill reaction activity was recorded more in PBW621 followed by C306 as compared with others. In all genotypes photolysis of water showed decline with increase in temperature stress. Trehalose pretreatment helped in sustaining Hill reaction activity probably by stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus against heat-induced photo inhibition. Both plant growth and development were affected by temperature in both shoot and root under heat stress. The reduction was compensated partially by trehalose (1.5 mM) application. Adaption to heat stress is associated with the metabolic adjustment which led to accumulation of soluble sugars including non-reducing and reducing for their role in adaptive mechanism. Higher acid invertase activity in shoot of tolerant genotypes appeared to be a characteristic for stress tolerance. As sucrose synthase play central role in sink strength and in studied wheat genotype was positively related to dry matter accumulation. The duration of heat stress for eight hours had more severe effect on these parameters and trehalose application at 1.5 mM ameliorated it to certain extent.

Keywords: Growth, Heat Stress, Triticum aestivum, trehalose, membrane thermal stability, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, reduction test, sugar metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
91 Effect of Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, Salinity, salicylic acid, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
90 EDTA Assisted Phytoremediation of Cadmium by Enhancing Growth and Antioxidant Defense System in Brassica napus L.

Authors: Shafaqat Ali, Mujahid Farid, Muhammad Bilal Shakoor

Abstract:

Heavy metals pollution of soil is a prevalent global problem and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) are considered useful for the restoration of metal contaminated soils. Phytoextraction is an in-situ environment-friendly technique for the clean-up of contaminated soils. Response to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in combination with a chelator, Ethylenediamminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was studied in oilseed rape grown hydroponically in greenhouse conditions under three levels of Cd (0, 10, and 50 µM) and two levels of EDTA (0 and 2.5 mM). Cd decreased plant growth, biomass and chlorophyll concentrations while the application of EDTA enhanced plant growth by reducing Cd-induced effects in Cd-stressed plants. Significant decrease in photosynthetic parameters was found by the Cd alone. Addition of EDTA improved the net photosynthetic and gas exchange capacity of plants under Cd stress. Cd at 10 and 50 μM significantly increased electrolyte leakage, the production of hydrogen peroxidase (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant reduction was observed in the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase under Cd stress plants. Application of EDTA at the rate of 2.5 mM alone and with combination of Cd increased the antioxidant enzymes activities and reduced the electrolyte leakage and production of H2O2 and MDA. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) actively accumulated Cd in roots, stems and leaves and the addition of EDTA boosted the uptake and accumulation of Cd in oil seed rape by dissociating Cd in culture media. The present results suggest that under 8 weeks Cd-induced stress, application of EDTA significantly improve plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic, gas exchange capacity, improving enzymes activities and increased the metal uptake in roots, stems and leaves of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) respectively.

Keywords: Growth, cadmium, antioxidant enzymes, chelator, EDTA, oilseed rape

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
89 Effect of Pre-Treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Saudi’s Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Mike Dennett, Saad Howladar

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, Salinity, salicylic acid, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
88 Growth of Public Listed Construction Companies in Malaysia

Authors: M. C. Theong, F. L. Ang, G. J. Muga

Abstract:

Growth of firms is influenced by environmental changes such as the global and national economy. On the other hand, it indicates the economic situation of a country. Therefore, it is imperative for firms to be sensitive to changes and to stay competitive and remain compatible with the environment. The Malaysian construction industry is prone to environmental changes due to its complexity. In order to survive in the construction industry, focus on the development of the firms themselves to achieve long term their long term goals is vital besides maximizing profits. The objective of this paper is to measure growth of the public listed construction companies in Malaysia and to investigate the development of the companies with highest, moderate and lowest growth. Growth is measured based on the companies' sales between year 2008 and 2012 collected via secondary data collection method. Findings show that the highest average growth created is 235.20 % while the lowest average growth is -22.75%. The construction companies remained active in the construction industry by implementing different sets of strategies and involving in several types of construction projects.

Keywords: Growth, Malaysian construction industry, public listed companies, sales

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
87 Successful Management of a Boy with Mild Persistent Asthma: A Longitudinal Case

Authors: Irwanto, A. Lubis, L. Setiawati, A. R. Setyoningrum, A. Suryawan

Abstract:

Asthma is a condition that causing chronic health problems in children. In addition to basic therapy against disease, we must try to reduce the impact of chronic health problems and also optimize their medical aspect of growth and development. A boy with mild asthma attack frequent episode did not showed any improvement with medical treatment and his asthma control test was 11. From radiologic examination he got hyperaerated lung and billateral sinusitis maxillaris; skin test results were house dust, food and pet allergy; an overweight body; bad school grades; psychological and environmental problem. We followed and evaluated this boy in 6 months, treated holistically. Even we could not do much on environmental but no more psychological and school problems, his on a good bodyweight and his asthma control test was 22. A case of a child with mild asthma attack frequent episode was reported. Asthma clinical course show no significant improvement when other predisposing factor is not well-controlled and a child’s growth and development may be affected. Improving condition of the patient can be created with the help of loving and caring way of nurturing from the parents and supportive peer group. Therefore, continuous and consistent monitoring is required because prognosis of asthma is generally good when regularly and properly controlled.

Keywords: Development, Asthma, Growth, chronic health problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
86 Vitamin C Enhances Growth and Productivity of Sunflower Plants Grown under Newly-Reclaimed Saline Soil Conditions

Authors: Wael M. Semida, Saad M. Howladar, Mostafa M. Rady

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the two successive seasons of 2012 and 2013 in the Experimental Farm (newly-reclaimed saline soil; EC = 7.8 dS m-1), Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt to investigate the effect of vitamin C foliar application at the rates of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mM on the possibility of improving growth, seed and oil yields, and some chemical constituents of Helianthus annuus L. plants under the adverse conditions of the selected soil. Significant positive influences of all vitamin C treatments were observed on growth, seed and oil yields and some chemical constituents in both seasons. Compared to unsprayed plants (control), spraying plants with various rates of vitamin C significantly increased vegetative growth traits (i.e. plant height, No. of leaves plant-1, leaf area leaf-1, total leaves area plant-1, and dry weights of leaves and shoot plant-1) and seed and oil yields and their components (i.e. head diameter, seed weight head-1, 100-seed weight, seed yield feddan-1 and oil yield feddan-1). In addition, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids and total phenols in fresh leaves, and total carbohydrates, total soluble sugars, free proline and some nutrients (i.e. N, P, K, Fe, Mn, and Zn) in dry leaves were also increased significantly with all vitamin C applications. Vitamin C treatment at the rate of 3 mM was generated the best results. These results are important as the potential of vitamin C to alleviate the harmful effects of salt stress offer an opportunity to increase the resistance of sunflower plants to grow under saline conditions of the newly-reclaimed soils.

Keywords: Growth, Sunflower, Chemical Composition, Salinity, seed yield, oil content, Helianthus annuus L, ascorbic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
85 Growth Performance of New Born Holstein Calves Supplemented with Garlic (Allium sativum) Powder and Probiotics

Authors: J. J. Baloyi, T. W. Kekana, M. C. Muya, F. V. Nherera

Abstract:

Secondary metabolites (thiosulphinates) from Allium sativum are able to stimulate the production of volatile fatty acids. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding Garlic powder or probiotics or a combination of both on feed intake and growth performance of Holstein calves. Neonatal calves were randomly allocated, according to birth weight, to four dietary treatments, each with 8 calves. The treatments were: C control, no additive (C), G: supplemented with either 5g/d garlic powder (G) or 4 g/d probiotics (P) or GP 5g/d garlic powder and 4 g/d probiotics compound (GP) with the total viable count of 1.3 x 107 cfu/g. Garlic and probiotics were diluted in the daily milk allocation from day 4. Commercial (17.5% CP) starter feed and fresh water were available ad libitum from day 4 until day 42 of age. Calves fed GP (0.27 kg day-1) tended (P=0.055) to have higher DMI than C (0.22 kg day-1). Milk, water, CP, fat intake and FCR were not affected (P>0.05) by the treatments. Metibolisable energy (ME) intake for GP group tended (P=0.058) to be higher than C calves. Combination of G and P (60.3 kg) tended (P = 0.056) to be higher than C (56.0 kg) calves on final BW. Garlic, probiotics or their combination did not affect calve’s HG, ADG and BL (P>0.05). The results of the current study indicated that combination of garlic and probiotics may improve nutrients intake and body weight when fed to calves during the first 42 days of life.

Keywords: Growth, Probiotics, intake, garlic powder, Holstein calves

Procedia PDF Downloads 544
84 Effect of Sowing Dates on Growth, Agronomic Traits and Yield of Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.)

Authors: Amira Racha Ben Yakoub, Ali Ferchichi

Abstract:

In order to investigate the impact of sowing time on growth parameters, the length of the development cycle and yield of tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), a field experiment was conducted from March to May 2011 at the Laboratoire d’Aridoculture et Cultures Oasiennes, ‘Institut des Régions Arides de Médénine’, Tunisia. Results of the experiment revealed that the early sowing (the middle of March, the beginning of April) induced a cycle of more than 100 days to reach the stage maturity and generates a marked drop in production. This period of plantation affects plant development and leads to a sharp drop in performance marked primarily by a reduction in growth, number and size of leaves, number of flowers and pods and weight of different parts of plant. Sowing from the end of April seems appropriate for shortening the development cycle and better profitability than the first two dates. Seeding of C. olitorius during May enhance the development of plants more dense, which explains the superiority of production marked by the increase of seed yield and leaf fresh and dry weight of this leafy vegetables.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, sowing date, tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius L)

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
83 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel

Abstract:

Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Growth, Nitrogen, operation, Light, Microalgae, Phosphorus, ponds

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
82 The Effect of Double Fortification of Iron and Zinc of Synbiotic Fermented Milk on Growth of Rat

Authors: Siti Helmyati, Endri Yuliati, Narendra Yoga Hendarta, Moh. Darussalam, Maharani Jibbriella, Fauziah Oktavira Hayati Fakhruddin, Faisal Hanin

Abstract:

Background: Both of iron and zinc has vital role in growth. The prebiotics fermentation by probiotics lower the acidity of intestine thus increase mineral absorption. Objective: To know the effect of double fortification of synbiotic fermented milk on growth. Methods: An Indonesian local isolate, Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 and Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used in making synbiotic fermented milk. It, then was double fortified with 100 ppm Fe and 50 ppm Zn. A total of 15 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and given: synbiotic fermented milk (CO), synbiotic fermented milk with NaFeEDTA and Zn acetate (NZ) and synbiotic fermented milk with Fe gluconate and Zn acetate (FZ) every day for one month. Body weight and body length were measured before, every week and after intervention. Results: Body weight and body length were similar at baseline among three groups (p > 0.05). All groups showed similar growth after intervention, from 62,40 + 6,1 to 109,0 + 9,0; 62,0 + 7,9 to 110,3 + 14,2; and 64,40 + 4,7 to 115,1 + 7,7 g for CO, NZ, and FZ, respectively (p > 0.05). The body length after intervention was also similar (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Fortification of iron and zinc did not modify effect of synbiotic fermented milk on growth.

Keywords: Growth, Probiotics, Prebiotics, Iron, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
81 Deltamethrin-Induces Oxidative Stress to the Freshwater Ciliate Model: Paramecium tetraurelia

Authors: Berrebbah Houria, Amamra Ryma, Djebar Mohamed Reda, Moumeni Ouissem, Otmani Hadjer

Abstract:

The problem of environmental contamination by the excessive use of organics cannot be neglected. Extensive application is usually companied with serious problems and health risk. It is established that many chemicals, in common use, can produce some toxic effects on biological systems through their mode of action or by production of free radicals that damage all cell compounds. Deltamethrin, a widely used type II pyrethroid pesticide, is one of the most common contaminants in freshwater aquatic system. In this study, we investigate the effects of deltamethrin exposure on the induction of oxidative stress to the freshwater ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. After the treatment of paramecium cells with increasing concentrations of insecticide, we followed up the growth kinetics, generation time and the percentage response. Also, we studied the variation in biomarkers of stress such as: GSH content, GST, GPX and CAT activities. Our results showed a significant decrease in the proliferation of cells correlated by the decrease in generation number and the increase in generation time. Also, we noted an inhibition in the percentage response. The monitoring of biomarkers revealed depletion in GSH content in a proportional and dose dependent manner accompanied by an increase in the GST activity. In parallel, a strong induction in the CAT and GPX activities was noted specially for the highest dose. In summary, under the current experimental conditions, deltamethrin is highly toxic to the freshwater ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Exposure to low concentrations showed significant adverse on growth accompanied with the induction of oxidative damage supported by the decrease in GSH content and the intensification of the antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Growth, Oxidative Stress, antioxidant, deltamethrin, Paramecium tetraurelia

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
80 Liquidity and Cash Management in Business-A Key to Business Survival and Growth: The Nigerian Case

Authors: Ugbor Raphael Oluchukwu

Abstract:

Focusing on liquidity comes more naturally to a Chief Executive Officer than an Accountant who is trained to practice accrual accounting. When business is just commencing, it is essentially run on a cheque book (cash accounting) and for as long as there is cash in the accounts, the business is solvent. When complexity sets in and the business adopts financial accounting, the effect of liquidity and cash management becomes more pronounced. The management of cash no doubts impacts positively on the survival and growth of firms. What is in doubt is the amount of cash to be held by a firm as enough cash to enable the firm stay “afloat”. The focus of this paper is to determine liquidity and cash management in business, the Nigerian case. The specific objectives of the study are to do a theoretical review of the amount of cash to be held by a firm as enough cash to enable it stay afloat and to do a theoretical analysis to show the effect of cash flow on the survival and growth of firms in Nigeria.

Keywords: Growth, liquidity management, cash, firm survival

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
79 Comparison of Growth and Biomass of Red Alga Cultured on Rope and Net

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Saeedeh Dashti, Hakimeh Fekrandish

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to study the method of culture and comparing growth and biomass of Gracilariacorticata cultured on rope and net for 50 days through two treatments (first treatment: culture of alga on net and the second treatment: culture of alga on rope and each treatment was repeated by four cases). During culture period, the water of aquariums was replaced once every two days for 40-50%. Also, 0.3-0.5 grams of Urea fertilizer was added to the culture environment for fertilization. Moreover, some of the environmental factors such as pH, salinity and temperature of the environment were measured on a daily basis. During the culture period, extent of longitudinal growth of the species of both treatments was equal. The said length was reached from 8-10 cm to 10.5-13 cm accordingly. The resulted weight in repetitions of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment in such a way as in the first treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 21.119 grams and in the second treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 17.663 grams. On a whole, it may be stated that that kind of alga being studied has a considerable growth with respect to its volume. The results have revealed that the percentage of daily growth and wet weight at the end of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment and it was registered as 0.934, 6.072 and 811.432 in the first treatment and 0.797, 4.990 and 758.071 in the second treatment respectively. This difference is significant (P < 0.05). Growth and biomass of G. corticata through culture on net was more emphasizing on numerous branches due to wider bed. Moreover, higher level of the species in this method was exposed to sunlight and this increased biosynthesis and eventually increases of growth and biomass.

Keywords: biomass, Culture, Growth, red alga, net, rope

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
78 Management of Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) Tree in Oman: The Case of Using Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) Pods for Feeding Omani Sheep

Authors: S. Al-Khalasi, O. Mahgoub, H. Yaakub

Abstract:

This study evaluated the use of raw or processed Prosopis juliflora (Meskit) pods as a major ingredient in a formulated ration to provide an alternative non-conventional concentrate for livestock feeding in Oman. Dry Meskit pods were reduced to lengths of 0.5- 1.0 cm to ensure thorough mixing into three diets. Meskit pods were subjected to two types of treatments; roasting and soaking. They were roasted at 150оC for 30 minutes using a locally-made roasting device (40 kg barrel container rotated by electric motor and heated by flame gas cooker). Chopped pods were soaked in tap water for 24 hours and dried for 2 days under the sun with frequent turning. The Meskit-pod-based diets (MPBD) were formulated and pelleted from 500 g/kg ground Meskit pods, 240 g/kg wheat bran, 200 g/kg barley grain, 50 g/kg local dried sardines and 10 g/kg of salt. Twenty four 10 months-old intact Omani male lambs with average body weight of 27.3 kg (± 0.5 kg) were used in a feeding trial for 84 days. They were divided (on body weight basis) and allocated to four diet combination groups. These were: Rhodes grass hay (RGH) plus a general ruminant concentrate (GRC); RGH plus raw Meskit pods (RMP) based concentrate; RGH plus roasted Meskit pods (ROMP) based concentrate; RGH plus soaked Meskit pods (SMP) based concentrate Daily feed intakes and bi-weekly body weights were recorded. MPBD had higher contents of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than the GRC. Animals fed various types of MPBD did not show signs of ill health. There was a significant effect of feeding ROMP on the performance of Omani sheep compared to RMP and SMP. The ROMP fed animals had similar performance to those fed the GRC in terms of feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR).This study indicated that roasted Meskit pods based diet may be used instead of the commercial concentrate for feeding Omani sheep without adverse effects on performance. It offers a cheap alternative source of protein and energy for feeding Omani sheep. Also, it might help in solving the spread impact of Meskit trees, maintain the ecosystem and helping in preserving the local tree species.

Keywords: Growth, Meskit, Omani sheep, Prosopis juliflora

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
77 Crop Genotype and Inoculum Density Influences Plant Growth and Endophytic Colonization Potential of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Sohail Yousaf, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Birgit Mitter, Angela Sessitsch

Abstract:

Most bacterial endophytes originate from the soil and enter plants via the roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues. The mechanisms allowing bacteria to colonize plants endophytically are still poorly understood for most bacterial and plant species. Specific bacterial functions are required for plant colonization, but also the plant itself is a determining factor as bacterial ability to establish endophytic populations is very often dependent on the plant genotype (cultivar) and inoculums density. The effect of inoculum density (107, 108, 109 CFU mL-1) of Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN was evaluated on growth and endophytic colonization of different maize and potato cultivars under axenic and natural soil conditions. PsJN inoculation significantly increased maize seedling growth and tuber yield of potato at all inoculum density compared to uninoculated control. Under axenic condition, PsJN inoculation (108 CFU mL-1) significantly improved the germination, root/shoot length and biomass up to 62, 115, 98 and 135% of maize seedling compared to uninoculated control. In case of potato, PsJN inoculation (109 CFU mL-1) showed maximum response and significantly increased root/shoot biomass and tuber yield under natural soil condition. We confirmed that PsJN is able to colonize the rhizosphere, roots and shoots of maize and potato cultivars. The endophytic colonization increased linearly with increasing inoculum density (within a range of 8 x 104 – 3 x 107 CFU mL-1) and were highest for maize (Morignon) and potato (Romina) as compared to other cultivars. Efficient colonization of cv. Morignon and Romina by strain PsJN indicates the specific cultivar colonizing capacity of the bacteria. The findings of the study indicate the non-significant relationship between colonization and plant growth promotion in maize under axenic conditions. However, the inoculum level (109 CFU mL-1) that promoted colonization of rhizosphere and plant interior (endophytic) also best promoted growth and tuber yield of potato under natural soil conditions.

Keywords: Growth, colonization, potato, crop genotype, inoculum density, Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
76 Role of Salicylic Acid in Alleviating Chromium Toxicity in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Ghulam Hassan Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, Ghazala Akhtar, M.Anwar-ul-Haq

Abstract:

Heavy metals are significant pollutants in environment and their toxicity is a problem for survival of living things while salicylic acid (SA) is signaling and ubiquitous bioactive molecule that regulates cellular mechanism in plants under stress condition. Therefore, exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) under chromium stress in two chickpea varieties were investigated in hydroponic experiment with five treatments comprising of control, 5 µM Cr + 5 mM SA, 5µM Cr + 10 mM SA, 10µM Cr + 5 mM SA, and 10µM Cr + 10 mM SA. Results revealed that treatments of plants with 10 mM SA application under both 5 µM Cr and 10 µM Cr stress resulted in maximum improvement in plant morphological attributes (root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, membrane stability index and relative water contents) relative to 5 mM SA application in both chickpea varieties. Results regarding Cr concentration showed that Cr was more retained in roots followed by shoots and maximum reduction in Cr uptake was observed at 10 mM SA application. Chickpea variety BRC-61 showed maximum growth and least concentration of Cr in root and shoot relative to BRC-390 variety.

Keywords: Growth, Chromium, chickpea, salicylic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
75 Influence of Sulphur and Boron on Growth, Quality Parameters and Productivity of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill)

Authors: Shital Bangar, G. B. Khandagale

Abstract:

The experimentation was carried out to study the influence of sulphur and boron on growth parameters and productivity of soybean in kharif season of 2009-2010 at Experimental Farm, Department of Agricultural Botany, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani (M.S.). The object was to evaluate the impact of sulphur and boron on growth, development, grain yield and physiological aspects of soybean variety MAUS-81. Nine treatments consisted of three levels of sulphur i.e. 20, 30 and 40 Kg/ha as well as three levels boron i.e.10, 15 and 20 kg boron/ha and the combinations of these two mineral elements i.e. Sulphur @30 kg/ha + Borax @15 kg/ha and Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha with one control treatment in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The effect of sulphur and boron on various growth parameters of soybean like relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were remained statistically on par with each other. However, the application of higher dose of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha enhanced significantly all the growth parameters. Application of the nutrients increased the dry matter accumulation of the crop plant and hence, other growth indices like RGR and NAR also increased significantly. RGR and NAR values were recorded highest at the initial crop growth stages and decline thereafter. The application of sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha recorded significantly higher content of chlorophyll ‘a’ than rest of the treatments and chlorophyll ‘b’ observed higher in boron @15 kg/ha as well as [email protected] kg/ha, whereas total chlorophyll content was maximum in sulphur @40 kg/ha. Oil content was not influenced significantly due to above fertilization. The highest seed yield and total biological yield were obtained with combination of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha, single sulphur and boron application also showed a significant effect on seed and biological yield.

Keywords: Productivity, Growth, Quality, Boron, soybean and sulphur

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
74 Magnetic Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth, and Chemical Composition

Authors: Farzad Tofigh, Saeideh Najafi, Reza Heidari, Rashid Jamei

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: Protein, Growth, Enzymes, Magnetic Field, Germination, flavonoid, DPPH, proline, phenol, carotenoid, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
73 Growth Analysis in Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar

Abstract:

The study was carried out on effect of water stress and variety on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), during 2009/10 and 2010/11 dry seasons. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress) and two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kauze/Weaver) laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Water stress was assigned to the main-plot while variety was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed significant (P<0.05) effect of water stress, water stress at tillering significantly (P<0.05) reduced plant height, LAI, CGR, and NAR. Variety had a significant effect on plant height, LAI, CGR and NAR. In conclusion water stress at tillering was observed to be most critical growth stage in wheat, and water stress at this period should be avoided because it results to decrease in growth components in wheat. Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December in this area and other area with similar climate. Star II TR 77173/LM is recommended variety for the area.

Keywords: Growth, Wheat, Variety, water stress, Sudan savannah

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
72 Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth and Chemical Composition

Authors: Najafi S., Heidai R., Jamei R., Tofigh F.

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: Protein, Growth, Enzymes, Magnetic Field, Germination, Phaseolus vulgaris, flavonoid, DPPH, proline, phenol, carotenoid, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
71 Growth Response and Nutrient Utilization of African Mud Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Fed Processed Macroalgae and Macroalgae-Based Formulated Feeds

Authors: A. O Amosu, A. M Hammed, G. W. Maneveldt, D. V. Robertson-Andersson

Abstract:

In aquaculture, feed utilization is an important factor affecting growth of the target species, and thus the success of the aquaculture operation. Growth of C. gariepinus fingerlings (weight 1.60 ± 0.05 g; length 4.50 ± 0.07cm) was monitored in a closed door hatchery for a period of 21 days in an experiment consisting of 4 treatments stocked at 20 fish/10 litre tanks, fed in triplicate twice daily (08:30, 17:30) at 4% body weight with weight changes recorded every 3 days. Treatments were: 1) FeedX; 2) 35% crude protein diet + non enriched Ulva spp (11.18% crude protein) (CD + NEU); 3) 35% crude protein diet + enriched Ulva spp (11.98% crude protein)(CD +EU) and 4) control diet of 35% crude protein (CD). The production of Ulva spp. biomass was cultivated for a period of 3 months. The result shows that the fish fed macroalgal enriched diet had good growth, though no significant difference (p > 0.05) was recorded amongst the weight gain, %weight gain, specific growth rates and nitrogen metabolism of diets CD + NEU, CD + EU and CD. Significant differences (p < 0.05), were, however, found in the food conversion ratio (FCR) and gross food conversion ratio (gFCR) among the fingerlings across all the different experimental diets. The best FCRs were recorded for control diet (0.79 ± 2.39) and the Ulva enriched (1.75 ± 1.34) diets. The results suggest that the fingerlings were able to utilize Ulva supplemented with control diet better than the FeedX. We have shown that Ulva supplemented diets are good substitutes for formulated and commercial feeds, with potential to be successful fish feed in aquaculture systems.

Keywords: Aquaculture, nutrient, Growth, macroalgae, Clarias gariepinus, ulva

Procedia PDF Downloads 560
70 Entrepreneurship and the Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Kwara state, Nigeria

Authors: Salman Abdulrasaq

Abstract:

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) has been considered as indices for economic development in a country economy. The development of entrepreneurship skills is therefore necessary. This study, seeks to examine the impact of Entrepreneurship on the Growth of Small Businesses Kwara State, Nigeria. The data used were primarily obtained from the questionnaire administered to the randomly selected areas in the state. Regression statistical tool was employed with aid of SPSS to test the validity of the hypothesis formulated in the study. The study therefore concludes that; the qualities of entrepreneur have impact the growth of Small Businesses s in the selected areas of the state. In view of this, the study recommends that; entrepreneurship development would serve as a tool for the growth of small business enterprises.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Development, Growth, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
69 Growth of Nitella in Response to Cesium Exposure: Implication for Phytoremediation

Authors: Harun Rashid, Keerthi S. S. Atapaththu, Takashi Asaeda

Abstract:

Cesium (Cs) induced growth and stress response of Nitella were studied after exposure to four concentration of the metal; i.e. 0 (control), 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm Cs in growth media. Each treatment with three replicates were randomly allocated to 12 glass beakers in a complete randomize design and the experiment was continued for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, shoot length, cesium content, total chlorophyll, and plant stress response were compared. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities (peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbic peroxidase) and the concentration of H2O2 were measured to check plant stress. The longest shoot was found in control treatment (0 ppm Cs) and the shoot length of plants exposed to 0.001 ppm was statistically similar to that of control. Concentration of cesium in plants grown at 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm were significantly higher than those in control treatments. The antioxidant enzymes activities of plants exposed to cesium were significantly higher than those grown without any Cs (control). An elevated level of H2O2 concentration was also observed in former groups of plants. Further, the reduction in chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence in response to cesium exposure indicated the chronically damaged photosynthetic efficiency in cesium stressed Nitella.

Keywords: Growth, Oxidative Stress, antioxidant enzymes, cesium, Nitella

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
68 Influence of Season, Temperature, and Photoperiod on Growth of the Land Snail Helix aperta

Authors: S. Benbellil-Tafoughalt, J. M. Koene

Abstract:

Growth strategies are often plastic and influenced by environmental conditions. Terrestrial gastropods are particularly affected by seasonal and climatic variables, and growth rate and size at maturity are key traits in their life history. Therefore, we investigated juvenile growth of Helix aperta snails under four combinations of temperature and photoperiod using two sets of young snails, born in the laboratory from adults collected in either the autumn (aestivating snails) or spring (active snails). Parental snails were collected from Bakaro (Northeastern Algeria). Higher temperature increased adult size and reduced time to reproduction. Long day photoperiod also increased the final body weight, but had no effect on the length of the growth period. The season of birth had significant effects on length of the growth period and weight of hatchings, whereas this weight difference disappeared by adulthood. The spring snails took less time to develop and reached similar adult body weight as the autumn snails. These differences may be due to differences in egg size or quality between the snails from different seasons. More rapid growth in spring snails results in larger snails entering aestivation, a period with size-related mortality in this species.

Keywords: Growth, temperature, Hélix aperta, photoperiod

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
67 Deuterium Effect on the Growth of the Fungus Aspergillus Fumigatus and Candida Albicans

Authors: farzad doostishoar, Abdolreza Hasanzadeh, Seyed Amin Ayatolahi Mousavi

Abstract:

Introduction and Goals: Deuterium has different action from its isotopes hydrogen in chemical reactions and biochemical processes. It is not a significant difference in heavier atoms between the behavior of heavier isotope and the lighter One but for very lighter atoms it is significant . According to that most of the weight of all creatures body is water natural rate can be significant. In this article we want to study the effect of reduced deuterium on the fungus cell. If we saw the dependence of deuterium concentration of environment on the cells growth we can test this in invivo models too. Methods: First we measured deuterium concentration of the distillated water this analyze was operated by Arak’s heavy water company. Then the deuterium was diluted to ½ ¼ 1/8 1/16 by adding water free of deuterium for making media. In tree of samples the deuterium concentration was increased by adding D2O up to 10,50,100 times more concentrated. For candida albicans growth we used sabor medium and for aspergillus fomigatis growth we used sabor medium containing chloramphenicol. After culturing the funguses species we put the mediums for each species in the shaker incubator for 10 days in 25 centigrade. In different days and times the plates were studied morphologically and some microscopic characteristics were studied too. This experiments and cultures were repeated 3 times. Results: Statistical analyzes by paired-sample T test showed that aspergilus fomigatoos growth was decreased in concentration of 72 ppm( half deuterium concentration of negative control) significantly. In deuterium concentration reduction the growth reduce into the negative control significantly. The project results showed that candida albicans was sensitive to reduce and decrease of the deuterium in all concentrations.

Keywords: Growth, Cancer Cell, Candida albicans, deuterium

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
66 Growth Studies and Leaf Mineral Composition of Amaranthus hybridus L. in Soil Medium Supplemended with Palm Bunch Ash Extract from Elaeis Guineensis jacq. in Abak Agricultural Zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Authors: Etukudo, M. Mbosowo, Nyananyo, L. Bio, Negbenebor, A. Charles

Abstract:

An aqueous extract of palm bunch ash from Elaeis guineensis Jacq., equilibrated with water was used to assess the growth and minerals composition of Amaranthus hybridus L. in agricultural soil of Abak, Akwa Ibom State, nigeria. Various concentrations, 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% of palm bunch extract per 4kg of sandy-loam soil were used for the study. Chemical characteristics of the extract, Growth parameters (Plant height, root length, fresh weight, dry weight and moisture content), leaf minerals composition (Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) of the crop and soil chemical composition before and after harvest (pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) were examined. The results showed that palm bunch ash extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased the soil pH at all levels of treatments compared to the control. Similarly, the soil and leaf minerals component (N, P, K. Ca, and Mg) of the crop increased with increase in the concentration of palm bunch extract, except at 40 and 50% for leaf minerals composition, Soil organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus J(before and after harvest). In addition, The plant height, Root length, fresh weight, dry weight and moisture content of the crop increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increase in the concentration of the extract, Except at 30, 40 and 50% where these growth parameters decreased in relation to the control treatment. Therefore, this study suggests that palm bunch ash extract could be utilized at lower concentration as a nutrient supplement for both Amaranthus hubridus L. and soil medium, most especially in the tropical soils of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Keywords: Growth, Amaranthus hybridus L, leaf minerals composition, palm bunch ash extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
65 'Pink' Waxapple Response to Salinity: Growth and Nutrient Uptake

Authors: Chung-Ruey Yen, Shang-Han Tsai, Yong-Hong Lin

Abstract:

Wax apple is an important tropical fruit in Taiwan. The famous producing area is located on the coast in Pingtung county. Land subsidence and climate change will tend to soil alkalization more seriously. This study was to evaluate the effects of NaCl in wax apple seedlings. NaCl salinity reduced wax apple shoot growth, it may due to reducing relative water content in leaf and new shoot. Leaf Cl and Na concentration were increased but K, Ca, and Mg content had no significant difference after irrigated with NaCl for six weeks. In roots, Na and Cl content increase significantly with 90 mM NaCl treatment, but K, Ca, and Mg content was reduced. 30-90 mM Nacl treatment do not affect K/Na, Ca/Na, and Mg/Na ratio, but decrease significantly in 90 mM treatment in roots. The leaf and root electrolyte leakage were significantly affected by 90 mM NaCl treatment. Suggesting 90 mM was optimum concentration for sieve out other tolerance wax apple verities.

Keywords: nutrient, Growth, NaCl stress, wax apple

Procedia PDF Downloads 236