Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Growth and Development Related Abstracts

3 First-Year Growth and Development of 445 Preterm Infants: A Clinical Study

Authors: Fan Yang, Ying Deng


Aim: To study the growth pattern of preterm infants during the first year of life and explore the association between head circumference (HC) and neurodevelopment sequences and to get a general knowledge of the incidence of anemia in preterm babies in Chengdu, Southwest China. Method: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study, neonates with gestational age < 37 weeks were enrolled this study from 2012.1.1 to 2014.7.9. Anthropometry (weight, height, HC) was obtained at birth, every month before 6 months-old and every 2 months in the next half year. All the infants’ age were corrected to 40 weeks. Growth data presented as Z-scores which was calculated by WHO Anthro software. Z-score defined as (the actual value minus the average value)/standard deviation. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 12 months-old [9-11 months corrected age (CA)] by using “Denver Development Screen Test (DDST)". The hemoglobin (Hb) was examined at 6 months for CA. Result: 445 preterm infants were followed-up 1 year, including 64 very low birth weight infants (VLBW), 246 low birth weight infants (LBW) and 135 normal birth weight infants(NBW). From full-term to 12 months after birth, catch-up growth was observed in most preterm infants. From VLBW to NBW, HCZ was -1.17 (95 % CI: -1.53,-0.80; P value < 0.0001) lower during the first12 months. WAZ was-1.12(95 % CI: -1.47,-0.76; p < 0.0001) lower. WHZ and HAZ were -1.04 (95%CI:-1.38, -0.69; P<0.0001) and -0.69 (95%CI:-1.06,-0.33; P < 0.0001) lower respectively. The peak of WAZ appeared during 0-3 months CA among preterm infants. For VLBW infants, the peak of HAZ and HCZ emerged at 8-11 months CA. However, the trend of HAZ and HCZ is the same as WAZ in LBW and NBW infants. Growth in the small for gestational age (SGA) infants was poorer than appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. The rate of DQ < 70 in VLBW and LBW were 29.6%, 7.7%, respectively (P < 0.0001). HCZ < -1SD at 3 months emerged as an independent predictor of DQ scores below 85 at 12 months after birth. The incidence of anemia in preterm infants was 11% at 6 months for CA. Moreover, 7 children (1.7%) diagnosed with Cerebral palsy (CP). Conclusions: The catch-up growth was observed in most preterm infants. VLBW and SGA showed poor growth. There was imbalance between WAZ and HAZ in VLBW infants. The VLBW babies had higher severe abnormal scores than LBW and NBW, especially in boys. Z score for HC at 3 months < -1SDwas a significant risk factor for abnormal DQ scores at the first year. The iron supplement reduced the morbidity of anemia in preterm infants.

Keywords: Growth and Development, preterm infant, DDST, Z-scores

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2 Effect of Lullabies on Babies Growth and Development, Vital Signs and Hospitalization Times in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units

Authors: Işın Alkan, Meltem Kürtüncü


Objective: This study was carried out with an experimental design in order to determine whether the lullaby, which was listened from mother’s voice and a stranger’s voice to the babies born at term and hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit, had an effect on saturation values (SpO2), peak heart rate (PHR), respiration, fever, growth and development and hospitalization times of the infants. Method: Data from the study were obtained from 90 newborn babies who were hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Zonguldak Maternity And Children Hospital between September 2015-January 2016 and who met the eligibility criteria. Lullaby concert was performed by choosing one of the suitable care hours. SpO2, PHR, respiration, fever, growth and development and hospitalization times of the infants were recorded by the researcher on “Newborn response follow-up form” at pre-care and post-care. Vital signs of babies every day, weight, height and head circumference measurements at admission, weakly rated at an output. Results: In the experimental and control groups, like weight, height and head circumference anthropometric measurements were not found statistically significant difference intensive care units admission and output times. Hospitalization times on babies who listen to lullaby mother’s voice revealed statistically significant difference according to babies who listen to lullaby stranger’s voice. Before care and after care were examined, SpO2 rates of babies who listen to lullaby mother’s voice revealed statistically significant higher difference according to babies who listen to lullaby stranger’s voice and control group babies. Before care on PHR of babies in three groups were not found the statistical difference, but aftercare, it was found that statistically lower (normal range) on babies who listen to lullaby mother’s voice according to babies who listen to lullaby stranger’s voice. Before care in three groups were not found the statistical difference on respiration values of babies, but aftercare, it was found that statistically lower (normal range) on babies who listen to lullaby stranger’s voice according to babies who listen to mother’s voice and control groups. Before care and after care were examined, fever signs did not reveal statistically significant difference in three groups. Conclusion: Lullaby concerts as being normal ranges of vital signs of infants and also helping to shorten hospitalization times should be preferred in the neonatal intensive care units.

Keywords: Growth and Development, vital signs, lullaby, mother voice

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1 Examination of the South African Fire Legislative Framework

Authors: Mokgadi Julia Ngoepe-Ntsoane


The article aims to make a case for a legislative framework for the fire sector in South Africa. Robust legislative framework is essential for empowering those with obligatory mandate within the sector. This article contributes to the body of knowledge in the field of policy reviews particularly with regards to the legal framework. It has been observed overtime that the scholarly contributions in this field are limited. Document analysis was the methodology selected for the investigation of the various legal frameworks existing in the country. It has been established that indeed the national legislation on the fire industry does not exist in South Africa. From the documents analysed, it was revealed that the sector is dominated by cartels who are exploiting the new entrants to the market particularly SMEs. It is evident that these cartels are monopolising the system as they have long been operating in the system turning it into self- owned entities. Commitment to addressing the challenges faced by fire services and creating a framework for the evolving role that fire brigade services are expected to execute in building safer and sustainable communities is vital. Legislation for the fire sector ought to be concluded with immediate effect. The outdated national fire legislation has necessitated the monopolisation and manipulation of the system by dominating organisations which cause a painful discrimination and exploitation of smaller service providers to enter the market for trading in that occupation. The barrier to entry bears long term negative effects on national priority areas such as employment creation, poverty, and others. This monopolisation and marginalisation practices by cartels in the sector calls for urgent attention by government because if left attended, it will leave a lot of people particularly women and youth being disadvantaged and frustrated. The downcast syndrome exercised within the fire sector has wreaked havoc and is devastating. This is caused by cartels that have been within the sector for some time, who know the strengths and weaknesses of processes, shortcuts, advantages and consequences of various actions. These people take advantage of new entrants to the sector who in turn find it difficult to manoeuvre, find the market dissonant and end up giving up their good ideas and intentions. There are many pieces of legislation which are industry specific such as housing, forestry, agriculture, health, security, environmental which are used to regulate systems within the institutions involved. Other regulations exist as bi-laws for guiding the management within the municipalities.

Keywords: Risk management, Transformation, Growth and Development, sustainable job creation

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