Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Groundwater Flow Related Abstracts

2 Dynamic Characterization of Shallow Aquifer Groundwater: A Lab-Scale Approach

Authors: Anthony Credoz, Nathalie Nief, Remy Hedacq, Salvador Jordana, Laurent Cazes

Abstract:

Groundwater monitoring is classically performed in a network of piezometers in industrial sites. Groundwater flow parameters, such as direction, sense and velocity, are deduced from indirect measurements between two or more piezometers. Groundwater sampling is generally done on the whole column of water inside each borehole to provide concentration values for each piezometer location. These flow and concentration values give a global ‘static’ image of potential plume of contaminants evolution in the shallow aquifer with huge uncertainties in time and space scales and mass discharge dynamic. TOTAL R&D Subsurface Environmental team is challenging this classical approach with an innovative dynamic way of characterization of shallow aquifer groundwater. The current study aims at optimizing the tools and methodologies for (i) a direct and multilevel measurement of groundwater velocities in each piezometer and, (ii) a calculation of potential flux of dissolved contaminant in the shallow aquifer. Lab-scale experiments have been designed to test commercial and R&D tools in a controlled sandbox. Multiphysics modeling were performed and took into account Darcy equation in porous media and Navier-Stockes equation in the borehole. The first step of the current study focused on groundwater flow at porous media/piezometer interface. Huge uncertainties from direct flow rate measurements in the borehole versus Darcy flow rate in the porous media were characterized during experiments and modeling. The structure and location of the tools in the borehole also impacted the results and uncertainties of velocity measurement. In parallel, direct-push tool was tested and presented more accurate results. The second step of the study focused on mass flux of dissolved contaminant in groundwater. Several active and passive commercial and R&D tools have been tested in sandbox and reactive transport modeling has been performed to validate the experiments at the lab-scale. Some tools will be selected and deployed in field assays to better assess the mass discharge of dissolved contaminants in an industrial site. The long-term subsurface environmental strategy is targeting an in-situ, real-time, remote and cost-effective monitoring of groundwater.

Keywords: Groundwater Flow, mass flux, dynamic characterization, lab-scale

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1 Groundwater Flow Dynamics in Shallow Coastal Plain Sands Aquifer, Abesan Area, Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Anne Joseph, Yinusa Asiwaju-Bello, Oluwaseun Olabode

Abstract:

Sustainable administration of groundwater resources tapped in Coastal Plain Sands aquifer in Abesan area, Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria necessitates the knowledge of the pattern of groundwater flow in meeting a suitable environmental need for habitation. Thirty hand-dug wells were identified and evaluated to study the groundwater flow dynamics and anionic species distribution in the study area. Topography and water table levels method with the aid of Surfer were adopted in the identification of recharge and discharge zones where six recharge and discharge zones were delineated correspondingly. Dissolved anionic species of HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3- were determined using titrimetric and spectrophotometric method. The trend of significant anionic concentrations of groundwater samples are in the order Cl- > HCO3-> SO42- > NO3-. The prominent anions in the discharge and recharge area are Cl- and HCO3- ranging from 0.22ppm to 3.67ppm and 2.59ppm to 0.72ppm respectively. Analysis of groundwater head distribution and the groundwater flow vector in Abesan area confirmed that Cl- concentration is higher than HCO3- concentration in recharge zones. Conversely, there is a high concentration of HCO3- than Cl- inland towards the continent; therefore, HCO3-concentration in the discharge zones is higher than the Cl- concentration. The anions were to be closely related to the recharge and discharge areas which were confirmed by comparison of activities such as rainfall regime and anthropogenic activities in Abesan area. A large percentage of the samples showed that HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3- falls within the permissible limit of the W.H.O standard. Most of the samples revealed Cl- / (CO3- + HCO3-) ratio higher than 0.5 indicating that there is saltwater intrusion imprints in the groundwater of the study area. Gibbs plot shown that most of the samples is from rock dominance, some from evaporation dominance and few from precipitation dominance. Potential salinity and SO42/ Cl- ratios signifies that most of the groundwater in Abesan is saline and falls in a water class found to be insuitable for irrigation. Continuous dissolution of these anionic species may pose a significant threat to the inhabitants of Abesan area in the nearest future.

Keywords: Groundwater Flow, discharge, recharge, Abessan, Anionic species

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