Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

grounding Related Abstracts

4 Flow Measurement Using Magnetic Meters in Large Underground Cooling Water Pipelines

Authors: Humanyun Zahir, Irtsam Ghazi

Abstract:

This report outlines the basic installation and operation of magnetic inductive flow velocity sensors on large underground cooling water pipelines. Research on the effects of cathodic protection as well as into other factors that might influence the overall performance of the meter are presented in this paper. The experiments were carried out on an immersion type magnetic meter specially used for flow measurement of cooling water pipeline. An attempt has been made in this paper to outline guidelines that can ensure accurate measurement related to immersion type magnetic meters on underground pipelines.

Keywords: Immersion, electrodes, anode, cathode, grounding, flange, magnetic induction, cathodic protection, flow meter, Faraday's law, plant information management system

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3 Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications

Authors: George Eduful, Kingsford J. A. Atanga

Abstract:

Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce the high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.

Keywords: grounding, Conductivity, copper clad steel wire, skin effect

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2 The Acquisition of Temporality in Italian Child Language: Case Study of Child Frog Story Narratives

Authors: Gabriella Notarianni Burk

Abstract:

The present study investigates the Aspect Hypothesis (AH) in Italian child language in the production of frog story narratives from the CHILDES database. The AH is based on the assumption that children initially encode aspectual and lexical distinctions rather than temporal relations. Children from a variety of first languages have been shown to mark past initially with achievements and accomplishments (telic predicates) and in later stages with states and activities (atelic predicates). Aspectual distinctions in Romance languages are obligatorily and overtly encoded in the inflectional morphology. In Italian the perfective viewpoint is realized by the passato prossimo, which expresses a temporal and aspectual meaning of pastness and perfectivity, whereas the imperfective viewpoint in the past tense is realized by the imperfetto. The aim of this study is to assess the role of lexical aspect in the acquisition of tense and aspect morphology and to understand if Italian children’s mapping of aspectual and temporal distinctions follows consistent developmental patterns across languages. The research methodology aligns with the cross-linguistic designs, tasks and coding procedures previously developed in the frog story literature. Results from two-factor ANOVA show that Italian children (age range: 4-6) exhibited a statistically significant distinction between foregrounded perfective and backgrounded imperfective marking. However, a closer examination of the sixty narratives reveals an idiosyncratic production pattern for Italian children, whereby the marking of imperfetto deviates from the tenets of AH and emerges as deictic tense to entail completed and bounded events in foreground clauses. Instances of ‘perfective’ uses of imperfetto were predominantly found in the four-year old narratives (25%). Furthermore, the analysis of the perfective marking suggests that morphological articulation and diatopic variation may influence the child production of formal linguistic devices in discourse.

Keywords: grounding, aspect, actionality, temporal reference

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1 Verification Protocols for the Lightning Protection of a Large Scale Scientific Instrument in Harsh Environments: A Case Study

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez, Jose Miguel Miranda

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to the study of the most suitable protocols to verify the lightning protection and ground resistance quality in a large-scale scientific facility located in a harsh environment. We illustrate this work by reviewing a case study: the largest telescopes of the Northern Hemisphere Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA-N. This array hosts sensitive and high-speed optoelectronics instrumentation and sits on a clear, free from obstacle terrain at around 2400 m above sea level. The site offers a top-quality sky but also features challenging conditions for a lightning protection system: the terrain is volcanic and has resistivities well above 1 kOhm·m. In addition, the environment often exhibits humidities well below 5%. On the other hand, the high complexity of a Cherenkov telescope structure does not allow a straightforward application of lightning protection standards. CTA-N has been conceived as an array of fourteen Cherenkov Telescopes of two different sizes, which will be constructed in La Palma Island, Spain. Cherenkov Telescopes can provide valuable information on different astrophysical sources from the gamma rays reaching the Earth’s atmosphere. The largest telescopes of CTA are called LST’s, and the construction of the first one was finished in October 2018. The LST has a shape which resembles a large parabolic antenna, with a 23-meter reflective surface supported by a tubular structure made of carbon fibers and steel tubes. The reflective surface has 400 square meters and is made of an array of segmented mirrors that can be controlled individually by a subsystem of actuators. This surface collects and focuses the Cherenkov photons into the camera, where 1855 photo-sensors convert the light in electrical signals that can be processed by dedicated electronics. We describe here how the risk assessment of direct strike impacts was made and how down conductors and ground system were both tested. The verification protocols which should be applied for the commissioning and operation phases are then explained. We stress our attention on the ground resistance quality assessment.

Keywords: grounding, large scale scientific instrument, lightning risk assessment, lightning standards and safety

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