Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Ground Water Related Abstracts

8 Compromising of Vacuum Sewerage System in Developing Regions and the Impact on Environmet

Authors: Abdelsalam Elawwad, Mostafa Ragab, Hisham Abdel-Halim


Leakage in sewerage system can cause groundwater and soil contamination in urban areas, especially in area with a high groundwater table. This is a serious problem in small villages in developing countries that rely on ground water as a source for irrigation and drinking purposes. In the developed countries, the recent trend in areas with low population densities is vacuum sewerage system, which is environmentally safer than conventional gravity system, protecting public health, preventing exfiltration to the ground water, very easily applied in a relatively short time and can cope with a faster expansion of the urbanized areas. The aim of this work is to assess the feasibility of using vacuum sewerage in developing country, such as Egypt. Knowledge of local conditions can determine the most suitable sewer system for a specific region. Technical, environmental and financial comparisons between conventional sewerage system and vacuum sewerage system were held using statistical analysis. Different conditions, such as population densities, geometry of area, and ground water depths were evaluated. Sample comprising of 30 Egyptian villages was selected, where a complete design for conventional sewerage system and vacuum sewerage system was done. Based on this study, it is recommended from the environmental point of view to construct the vacuum sewerage system in such villages with low population densities; however, it is not economic for all cases. From financial point of view, vacuum sewerage system was a good competitor to conventional systems in flat areas and areas with high groundwater table. The local market supplying of the construction equipment especially collection chambers will greatly affect the investment cost. Capacity building and social mobilization will also play a great role in sustainability of this system. At the end, it is noteworthy that environmental sustainability and public health are more important than the financial aspects.

Keywords: Statistics, Terrain, Density, Cost, Ground Water, conventional system, vacuum system

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7 Physiochemical Analysis of Ground Water in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

Authors: E. D. Paul, F. G. Okibe, C. E. Gimba, S. Yakubu


Some physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations of water samples collected from ten boreholes in Samaru, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria were analysed in order to assess the drinking water quality. Physicochemical parameters were determined using classical methods while the heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Results of the analysis obtained were as follows: Temperature 29 – 310C, pH 5.74 – 6.19, Electrical conductivity 3.21 – 7.54 µs, DO 0.51 – 1.00 mg/L, BOD 0.0001 – 0.006 mg/L, COD 160 – 260 mg/L, TDS 2.08 – 4.55 mg/L, Total Hardness 97.44 – 401.36 mg/L CaCO3, and Chloride 0.97 – 59.12 mg/L. Concentrations of heavy metals were in the range; Zinc 0.000 – 0.7568 mg/L, Lead 0.000 – 0.070 mg/L and Cadmium 0.000 – 0.009 mg/L. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords: Water Quality, Heavy Metals, Ground Water, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)

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6 Assessment the Capacity of Retention of a Natural Material for the Protection of Ground Water

Authors: Hakim Aguedal, Abdelkader Iddou, Abdalla Aziz, Abdelhadi Bentouami, Ferhat Bensalah, Salah Bensadek


The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To prevent the migration of this pollution through this structure, many studies propose the installation of layers, which play a role of a barrier that inhibiting the contamination of groundwater by limiting or slowing the flow of rainwater carrying pollution through the layers of soil. However, it is practically impossible to build a barrier layer that let through only water, but it is possible to design a structure with low permeability, which reduces the infiltration of dangerous pollutant. In an environmental context of groundwater protection, the main objective of this study was to investigate the environmental and appropriate suitability method to preserve groundwater, by establishment of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) intermediate in soil. Followed the influence of several parameters allow us to find the most effective materials and the most appropriate way to incorporate this barrier in the soil.

Keywords: Soil pollution, Protection, Ground Water, permeable reactive Barrier

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5 Assessment of Ground Water Potential Zone: A Case Study of Paramakudi Taluk, Ramanathapuram, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: Shri Devi


This paper was conducted to see the ground water potential zones in Paramakudi taluk, Ramanathapuram,Tamilnadu India with a total areal extent of 745 sq. km. The various thematic map have been prepared for the study such as soil, geology, geomorphology, drainage, land use of the particular study area using the Toposheet of 1: 50000. The digital elevation model (DEM) has been generated from contour interval of 10m and also the slope was prepared. The ground water potential zone of the region was obtained using the weighted overlay analysis for which all the thematic maps were overlayed in arc gis 10.2. For the particular output the ranking has been given for all the parameters of each thematic layer with different weightage such as 25% was given to soil, 25% to geomorphology and land use land cover also 25%, slope 15%, lineament with 5% and drainage streams with 5 percentage. Using these entire potential zone maps was prepared which was overlayed with the village map to check the region which has good, moderate and low groundwater potential zone.

Keywords: GIS, Ground Water, Paramakudi, weighted overlay analysis

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4 Drinking Water Quality of Lahore Pakistan: A Comparison of Quality of Drinking Water from Source and Distribution System

Authors: Zainab Abbas Soharwardi, Chunli Su, Fazeelat Tahira, Syed Zahid Aziz


The study monitors the quality of drinking water consumed by urban population of Lahore. A total of 50 drinking water samples (16 from source and 34 from distribution system) were examined for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters. The parameters including pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, total alkalinity, carbonate, sulphate, chloride, nitrite, fluoride, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Sixteen out of fifty samples showed high values of alkalinity compared to EPA standards and WHO guidelines. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chromium, iron, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead. Trace amounts of heavy metals were detected in some samples, however for most of the samples values were within the permissible limits although high concentration of zinc was detected in one sample collected from Mughal Pura area. Fifteen samples were analyzed for arsenic. The results were unsatisfactory; around 73% samples showed exceeding values of As. WHO has suggested permissible limits of arsenic < 0.01 ppm, whereas 27 % of samples have shown 0.05 ppm arsenic, which is five times greater than WHO highest permissible limits. All the samples were examined for E. coli bacteria. On the basis of bacteriological analysis, 42 % samples did not meet WHO guidelines and were unsafe for drinking.

Keywords: Arsenic, Heavy Metals, Ground Water, Lahore

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3 Risk Prediction Based on Heavy Metal Distribution in Groundwater

Authors: Rama Bhattacharyya, S. N. Ojha, Umesh K. Singh


Anthropogenic control on groundwater chemistry has emerged as a critical concern now-a-days, especially in the industrial areas. In view of this, a comprehensive study on the distribution of the heavy metal in the groundwater was conducted to investigate the impact of urbanization in the aquatic media. Water samples either from well or borehole from Fourty different sites in and around, Durgapur, West Bengal were collected for this purpose. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for Calcium (Ca), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Sodium (Na), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) content and the levels were compared with WHO specified maximum contaminant level as well as permissible limits given by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The result obtained from the present study indicates a significant risk to the population of this important emerging ‘smart city’ of eastern India. Because of the toxicity of these metals and the fact that for many tube-wells, dug-wells and bore-wells are the only sources of the water supply for a major fraction of the population in this environment. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop metal contamination risk map.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Ground Water, ICP-MS, maximum contamination level

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2 A Case Study of Rainfall Derived Inflow/Infiltration in a Separate Sewer System in Gwangju, Korea

Authors: Bumjo Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Joon Ha Kim


The separate sewer system is that collects the wastewater as a sewer pipe and rainfall as a stormwater pipe separately, and then sewage is treated in the wastewater treatment plant, the stormwater is discharged to rivers or lakes through stormwater drainage pipes. Unfortunately, even for separate sewer systems, it is not possible to prevent Rainfall Driven Inflow/Infiltration(RDII) completely to the sewer pipe. Even if the sewerage line is renovated, there is an ineluctable RDII due to the combined sewer system in the house or the difficulty of sewage maintenance in private areas. The basic statistical analysis was performed using environmental data including rainfall, sewage, water qualities and groundwater level in the strict of Gwangju in ​South Korea. During rainfall in the target area, RDII showed an increased rate of 13.4 ~ 53.0% compared to that of a clear day and showed a rapid hydrograph response of 0.3 ~ 3.0 hr. As a result of water quality analysis, BOD5 concentration decreased by 17.3 % and salinity concentration decreased by 8.8 % at the representative spot in the project area compared to the sunny day during rainfall. In contrast to the seasonal fluctuation range of 0.38 m ~ 0.55 m in groundwater in Gwangju area and 0.58 m ~ 0.78 m in monthly fluctuation range, while the difference between groundwater level and the depth of sewer pipe laying was 2.70 m on average, which is larger than the range of fluctuation. Comprehensively, it can be concluded that the increasing of flowrate at sewer line is due to not infiltration water caused by groundwater level rise, construction failure, cracking due to joint failure or conduit deterioration, rainfall was directly inflowed into the sewer line rapidly. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the 'Climate Technology Development and Application' research project (#K07731) through a grant provided by GIST in 2017.

Keywords: Ground Water, Rainfall, rainfall driven inflow/infiltration, separate sewer system

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1 Investigation of Produced and Ground Water Contamination of Al Wahat Area South-Eastern Part of Sirt Basin, Libya

Authors: Khalifa Abdunaser, Salem Eljawashi


Study area is threatened by numerous petroleum activities. The most important risk is associated with dramatic dangers of misuse and oil and gas pollutions, such as significant volumes of produced water, which refers to waste water generated during the production of oil and natural gas and disposed on the surface surrounded oil and gas fields. This work concerns the impact of oil exploration and production activities on the physical and environment fate of the area, focusing on the investigation and observation of crude oil migration as toxic fluid. Its penetration in groundwater resulted from the produced water impacted by oilfield operations disposed to the earth surface in Al Wahat area. Describing the areal distribution of the dominant groundwater quality constituents has been conducted to identify the major hydro-geochemical processes that affect the quality of water and to evaluate the relations between rock types and groundwater flow to the quality and geochemistry of water in Post-Eocene aquifer. The chemical and physical characteristics of produced water, where it is produced, and its potential impacts on the environment and on oil and gas operations have been discussed. Field work survey was conducted to identify and locate a large number of monitoring wells previously drilled throughout the study area. Groundwater samples were systematically collected in order to detect the fate of spills resulting from the various activities at the oil fields in the study area. Spatial distribution maps of the water quality parameters were built using Kriging methods of interpolation in ArcMap software. Thematic maps were generated using GIS and remote sensing techniques, which were applied to include all these data layers as an active database for the area for the purpose of identifying hot spots and prioritizing locations based on their environmental conditions as well as for monitoring plans.

Keywords: Ground Water, produced water, Sirt basin, Al Wahat area

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