Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Greenhouse gases Related Abstracts

16 Climate Change and Poverty Nexus

Authors: O. Babalola Oladapo, A. Igbatayo Samuel

Abstract:

Climate change and poverty are global issues which cannot be waved aside in welfare of the ever increasing population. The causes / consequences are far more elaborate in developing countries, including Nigeria, which poses threats to the existence of man and his environment. The dominant role of agriculture makes it obvious that even minor climate deteriorations can cause devastating socio-economic consequences. Policies to curb the climate change by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels like oil, gas or carbon compounds have significant economical impacts on the producers/suppliers of these fuels. Thus a unified political narrative that advances both agendas is needed, because their components of an environmental coin that needs to be addressed. The developed world should maintain a low-carbon growth & real commitment of 0.7% of gross national income, as aid to developing countries & renewable energy approach should be emphasized, hence global poverty combated.

Keywords: Climate Change, Poverty, Greenhouse gases, Nigeria

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15 Reducing Greenhouse Gass Emissions by Recyclable Material Bank Project of Universities in Central Region of Thailand

Authors: Ronbanchob Apiratikul

Abstract:

This research studied recycled waste by the Recyclable Material Bank Project of 4 universities in the central region of Thailand for the evaluation of reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared with landfilling activity during July 2012 to June 2013. The results showed that the projects collected total amount of recyclable wastes of about 911,984.80 kilograms. Office paper had the largest amount among these recycled wastes (50.68% of total recycled waste). Groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low according to their amount as paper, plastic, glass, mixed recyclables, and metal, respectively. The project reduced greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to about 2814.969 metric tons of carbon dioxide. The most significant recycled waste that affects the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is office paper which is 70.16% of total reduced greenhouse gasses emission. According to amount of reduced greenhouse gasses emission, groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low significances as paper, plastic, metals, mixed recyclables, and glass, respectively.

Keywords: Waste Management, Recycling, Greenhouse gases, garbage bank, recyclable wastes

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14 Corporate Voluntary Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting in United Kingdom: Insights from Institutional and Upper Echelons Theories

Authors: Lyton Chithambo

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This paper reports the results of an investigation into the extent to which various stakeholder pressures influence voluntary disclosure of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in the United Kingdom (UK). The study, which is grounded on institutional theory, also borrows from the insights of upper echelons theory and examines whether specific managerial (chief executive officer) characteristics explain and moderates various stakeholder pressures in explaining GHG voluntary disclosure. Data were obtained from the 2011 annual and sustainability reports of a sample of 216 UK companies on the FTSE350 index listed on the London Stock Exchange. Generally the results suggest that there is no substantial shareholder and employee pressure on a firm to disclose GHG information but there is significant positive pressure from the market status of a firm with those firms with more market share disclosing more GHG information. Consistent with the predictions of institutional theory, we found evidence that coercive pressure i.e. regulatory pressure and mimetic pressures emanating in some industries notably industrials and consumer services have a significant positive influence on firms’ GHG disclosure decisions. Besides, creditor pressure also had a significant negative relationship with GHG disclosure. While CEO age had a direct negative effect on GHG voluntary disclosure, its moderation effect on stakeholder pressure influence on GHG disclosure was only significant on regulatory pressure. The results have important implications for both policy makers and company boards strategizing to reign in their GHG emissions.

Keywords: Greenhouse gases, voluntary disclosure, upper echelons theory, institution theory

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13 Governance of Clean Energy in Rural Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Inayatullah Jan, Sidra Pervez

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Effective institutional arrangements at local and national levels are quintessential for promotion of renewable energy in a country. This study attempts to examine the institutional arrangements for development of domestic renewable energy in rural northwest Pakistan. The study describes that very limited number of public and private organizations were working on clean development in the area. Surprisingly, no institutional arrangements exclusively meant for domestic clean energy promotion were observed in the area. The study concludes that the objectives of Kyoto Protocol in Pakistan can be achieved only if the government and non-governmental organizations work together to launch cost-effective renewable energy interventions, particularly in rural areas. The need is to have a coordinated, consistent, and focused cooperation of all stakeholders involved in promotion of domestic renewable energy at all levels. This will not only improve the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the local context, but will play a key role in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals(MDGs).

Keywords: Governance, clean energy, Greenhouse gases, CDM, Northwest Pakistan

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12 Towards Achieving Energy Efficiency in Kazakhstan

Authors: Aigerim Uyzbayeva, Valeriya Tyo, Nurlan Ibrayev

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Kazakhstan is currently one of the dynamically developing states in its region. The stable growth in all sectors of the economy leads to a corresponding increase in energy consumption. Thus, country consumes a significant amount of energy due to the high level of industralisation and the presence of energy-intensive manufacturing such as mining and metallurgy which in turn leads to low energy efficiency. With allowance for this the Government has set several priorities to adopt a transition of Republic of Kazakhstan to a “green economy”. This article provides an overview of Kazakhstan’s energy efficiency situation in for the period of 1991-2014. First, the dynamics of production and consumption of conventional energy resources are given. Second, the potential of renewable energy sources is summarised, followed by the description of GHG emissions trends in the country. Third, Kazakhstan’ national initiatives, policies and locally implemented projects in the field of energy efficiency are described.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Sustainable Development, Greenhouse gases, energy efficiency in Kazakhstan

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11 Rising Levels of Greenhouse Gases: Implication for Global Warming in Anambra State South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chikwelu Edward Emenike, Ogbuagu Uchenna Fredrick

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About 34% of the solar radiant energy reaching the earth is immediately reflected back to space as incoming radiation by clouds, chemicals, dust in the atmosphere and by the earth’s surface. Most of the remaining 66% warms the atmosphere and land. Most of the incoming solar radiation not reflect away is degraded into low-quality heat and flows into space. The rate at which this energy returns to space as low-quality heat is affected by the presence of molecules of greenhouse gases. Gaseous emission was measured with the aid of Growen gas Analyzer with a digital readout. Total measurements of eight parameters of twelve selected sample locations taken at two different seasons within two months were made. The ambient air quality investigation in Anambra State has shown the overall mean concentrations of gaseous emission at twelve (12) locations. The mean gaseous emissions showed (NO2=0.66ppm, SO2=0.30ppm, CO=43.93ppm, H2S=2.17ppm, CH4=1.27ppm, CFC=1.59ppb, CO2=316.33ppm, N2O=302.67ppb and O3=0.37ppm). These values do not conform to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and thus contribute significantly to the global warming. Because some of these gaseous emissions (SO2, NO2) are oxidizing agents, they act as irritants that damage delicate tissues in the eyes and respiratory passages. These can impair lung function and trigger cardiovascular problems as the heart tries to compensate for lack of Oxygen by pumping faster and harder. The major sources of air pollution are transportation, industrial processes, stationary fuel combustion and solid waste disposal, thus much is yet to be done in a developing country like Nigeria. Air pollution control using pollution-control equipment to reduce the major conventional pollutants, relocating people who live very close to dumpsites, processing and treatment of gases to produce electricity, heat, fuel and various chemical components should be encouraged.

Keywords: Atmosphere, Greenhouse gases, ambient air, anambra state

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10 Analysis of the Relationship between Micro-Regional Human Development and Brazil's Greenhouse Gases Emission

Authors: Dênis Antônio Da Cunha, Geanderson Eduardo Ambrósio, Marcel Viana Pires

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Historically, human development has been based on economic gains associated with intensive energy activities, which often are exhaustive in the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). It requires the establishment of targets for mitigation of GHGs in order to disassociate the human development from emissions and prevent further climate change. Brazil presents itself as one of the most GHGs emitters and it is of critical importance to discuss such reductions in intra-national framework with the objective of distributional equity to explore its full mitigation potential without compromising the development of less developed societies. This research displays some incipient considerations about which Brazil’s micro-regions should reduce, when the reductions should be initiated and what its magnitude should be. We started with the methodological assumption that human development and GHGs emissions arise in the future as their behavior was observed in the past. Furthermore, we assume that once a micro-region became developed, it is able to maintain gains in human development without the need of keep growing GHGs emissions rates. The human development index and the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2e) were extrapolated to the year 2050, which allowed us to calculate when the micro-regions will become developed and the mass of GHG’s emitted. The results indicate that Brazil must throw 300 GT CO2e in the atmosphere between 2011 and 2050, of which only 50 GT will be issued by micro-regions before it’s develop and 250 GT will be released after development. We also determined national mitigation targets and structured reduction schemes where only the developed micro-regions would be required to reduce. The micro-region of São Paulo, the most developed of the country, should be also the one that reduces emissions at most, emitting, in 2050, 90% less than the value observed in 2010. On the other hand, less developed micro-regions will be responsible for less impactful reductions, i.e. Vale do Ipanema will issue in 2050 only 10% below the value observed in 2010. Such methodological assumption would lead the country to issue, in 2050, 56.5% lower than that observed in 2010, so that the cumulative emissions between 2011 and 2050 would reduce by 130 GT CO2e over the initial projection. The fact of associating the magnitude of the reductions to the level of human development of the micro-regions encourages the adoption of policies that favor both variables as the governmental planner will have to deal with both the increasing demand for higher standards of living and with the increasing magnitude of reducing emissions. However, if economic agents do not act proactively in local and national level, the country is closer to the scenario in which emits more than the one in which mitigates emissions. The research highlighted the importance of considering the heterogeneity in determining individual mitigation targets and also ratified the theoretical and methodological feasibility to allocate larger share of contribution for those who historically emitted more. It is understood that the proposals and discussions presented should be considered in mitigation policy formulation in Brazil regardless of the adopted reduction target.

Keywords: Mitigation, Human Development, Greenhouse gases, intensive energy activities

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9 Achieving Sustainable Agriculture with Treated Municipal Wastewater

Authors: Himanshu Joshi, Reshu Yadav, S. K. Tripathi

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Fresh water is a scarce resource which is essential for humans and ecosystems, but its distribution is uneven. Agricultural production accounts for 70% of all surface water supplies. It is projected that against the expansion in the area equipped for irrigation by 0.6% per year, the global potential irrigation water demand would rise by 9.5% during 2021-25. This would, on one hand, have to compete against the sharply rising urban water demand. On the other, it would also have to face the fear of climate change, as temperatures rise and crop yields could drop from 10-30% in many large areas. The huge demand for irrigation combined with fresh water scarcity encourages to explore the reuse of wastewater as a resource. However, the use of such wastewater is often linked to the safety issues when used non judiciously or with poor safeguards while irrigating food crops. Paddy is one of the major crops globally and amongst the most important in South Asia and Africa. In many parts of the world, use of municipal wastewater has been promoted as a viable option in this regard. In developing and fast growing countries like India, regularly increasing wastewater generation rates may allow this option to be considered quite seriously. In view of this, a pilot field study was conducted at the Jagjeetpur Municipal Sewage treatment plant situated in the Haridwar town of Uttarakhand state, India. The objectives of the present study were to study the effect of treated wastewater on the production of various paddy varieties (Sharbati, PR-114, PB-1, Menaka, PB1121 and PB 1509) and emission of GHG gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) as compared to the same varieties grown in the control plots irrigated with fresh water. Of late, the concept of water footprint assessment has emerged, which explains enumeration of various types of water footprints of an agricultural entity from its production to processing stages. Paddy, the most water demanding staple crop of Uttarakhand state, displayed a high green water footprint value of 2966.538 m3/ton. Most of the wastewater irrigated varieties displayed upto 6% increase in production, except Menaka and PB-1121, which showed a reduction in production (6% and 3% respectively), due to pest and insect infestation. The treated wastewater was observed to be rich in Nitrogen (55.94 mg/ml Nitrate), Phosphorus (54.24 mg/ml) and Potassium (9.78 mg/ml), thus rejuvenating the soil quality and not requiring any external nutritional supplements. Percentage increase of GHG gases on irrigation with treated municipal waste water as compared to control plots was observed as 0.4% - 8.6% (CH4), 1.1% - 9.2% (CO2), and 0.07% - 5.8% (N2O). The variety, Sharbati, displayed maximum production (5.5 ton/ha) and emerged as the most resistant variety against pests and insects. The emission values of CH4 ,CO2 and N2O were 729.31 mg/m2/d, 322.10 mg/m2/d and 400.21 mg/m2/d in water stagnant condition. This study highlighted a successful possibility of reuse of wastewater for non-potable purposes offering the potential for exploiting this resource that can replace or reduce existing use of fresh water sources in agricultural sector.

Keywords: Greenhouse gases, Nutrients, Water Footprint, wastewater irrigation

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8 Alternative Systems of Drinking Water Supply Using Rainwater Harvesting for Small Rural Communities with Zero Greenhouse Emissions

Authors: Martin Mundo-Molina

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In Mexico, there are many small rural communities with serious water supply deficiencies. In Chiapas, Mexico, there are 19,972 poor rural communities, 15,712 of which have fewer than 100 inhabitants. The lack of a constant water supply is most severe in the highlands of Chiapas where the population is made up mainly of indigenous groups. The communities are on mountainous terrain with a widely dispersed population. These characteristics combine to make the provision of public utilities, such as water, electricity and sewerage, difficult with conventional means. The introduction of alternative, low-cost technologies represents means of supplying water such as through fog and rain catchment with zero greenhouse emissions. In this paper is presented the rainwater harvesting system (RWS) constructed in Yalentay, Chiapas Mexico. The RWS is able to store 1.2 M liters of water to provide drinking water to small rural indigenous communities of 500 people in the drought stage. Inside the system of rainwater harvesting there isn't photosynthesis in order to conserve water for long periods. The natural filters of the system of rainwater harvesting guarantee the drinking water for using to the community. The combination of potability and low cost makes rain collection a viable alternative for rural areas, weather permitting. The Mexican Institute of Water Technology and Chiapas University constructed a rainwater harvesting system in Yalentay Chiapas, it consists of four parts: 1. Roof of aluminum, for collecting rainwater, 2. Underground-cistern, divided in two tanks, 3. Filters, to improve the water quality and 4. The system of rainwater harvesting dignified the lives of people in Yalentay, saves energy, prevents the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, conserves natural resources such as water and air.

Keywords: Climate Change, Greenhouse gases, Appropriate technologies, Rainwater Harvesting

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7 Carbon Footprint of Blowmoulded Plastic Parts-Case Study on Automotive Industry

Authors: Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Mădălina Elena Mavrodin, Gabriela Andreea Despescu

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Long term trend of global warming has brought a very deep interest in climate change, which is due most likely to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 0f these, particular attention is paid to carbon dioxide, which has led in desire for obtaining carbon footprint products. Automotive industry is one of the world’s most important economic sectors with a great impact over the environment through all range of activities. Its impact over the environment has been studied, researcher trying as much as possible to reduce it and to offer environmental friendly solution for the using, but also manufacturing cars. In the global endeavour to meet the international commitments in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, many companies integrate environmental issues into their management systems, with potential effects in their entire production chains. Several tools and calculators have been developed to measure the environmental impact of a product in the life cycle perspective of the whole product chain. There were a lot of ways to obtain the carbon footprint of driving a car, but the total carbon footprint of a car includes also the carbon footprint of all the components and accessories. In the automotive industry, one of the challenges is to calculate the carbon footprint of a car from ‘cradle to grave’; this meaning not only for driving the car, but also manufacturing it, so there can be an overview over the entire process of production.

Keywords: Manufacture, Greenhouse gases, Carbon Footprint, global warming potential, plastic air ducts

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6 Greenhouse Gas Mitigation by Promoting Renewable Energy in Algeria

Authors: F. Sahnoune

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The study focuses on the analysis of the Algerian greenhouse gase emissions. In Algeria, as in other countries, the issue of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change is the subject of great concern. As climate change is a global problem and taking into consideration the principle of 'common but differentiated responsibilities' as mentioned in the Rio Declaration in 1992, Algeria has initiated a broad program of voluntary reduction of GHG emissions and climate change adaptation. Thus although the contribution of Algeria on global warming is minimal (less than 0.5% of global GHG emissions), the country is, because its geographical position and climatic characteristics, very vulnerable and should integrate mitigation and adaptation into its development policy. Even a small rise in temperature would lead to various socio-economic problems that hinder the development of the country. The models predict that rainfall events are less frequent but more intense, while droughts are more common and longer. The decrease of water resources, declining agricultural yields, encroaching desert, the challenge of planning and the energy consumption for air conditioning are only the initial impacts to which Algeria must find answers supportable economically and socially. The study examines to what extent, Algeria can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We present an analysis of the current situation, trends in CO2 emissions, footprint of Algeria, national climate plan and especially what will be the impact on GHG emissions of the new strategy for promoting renewable energy adopted in 2011 and expects to produce 40% of electricity needs from solar energy. The results show that in 2012 the GHG emissions totaled 153 MT CO2 eq and growing at a rate of over 3%. The Introduction of solar energy in electricity production and implementation of energy efficiency allow to reduce by 2030 more than 300 MT CO2 eq. Avenues of consideration relating to a combination of policies and improved technologies that are able to reduce CO2 emissions and mitigate the impacts caused by climate change in the medium term will also be presented.

Keywords: Climate Change, Renewable Energy, Sustainable Development, Greenhouse gases, CO2 mitigation

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5 The Climate Impact Due to Clouds and Selected Greenhouse Gases by Short Wave Upwelling Radiative Flux within Spectral Range of Space-Orbiting Argus1000 Micro-Spectrometer

Authors: Rehan Siddiqui, Brendan Quine

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The Radiance Enhancement (RE) and integrated absorption technique is applied to develop a synthetic model to determine the enhancement in radiance due to cloud scene and Shortwave upwelling Radiances (SHupR) by O2, H2O, CO2 and CH4. This new model is used to estimate the magnitude variation for RE and SHupR over spectral range of 900 nm to 1700 nm by varying surface altitude, mixing ratios and surface reflectivity. In this work, we employ satellite real observation of space orbiting Argus 1000 especially for O2, H2O, CO2 and CH4 together with synthetic model by using line by line GENSPECT radiative transfer model. All the radiative transfer simulations have been performed by varying over a different range of percentages of water vapor contents and carbon dioxide with the fixed concentration oxygen and methane. We calculate and compare both the synthetic and real measured observed data set of different week per pass of Argus flight. Results are found to be comparable for both approaches, after allowing for the differences with the real and synthetic technique. The methodology based on RE and SHupR of the space spectral data can be promising for the instant and reliable classification of the cloud scenes.

Keywords: Greenhouse gases, Radiative Transfer, radiance enhancement, shortwave upwelling radiative flux, cloud reflectivity

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4 Renewable Energy and Hydrogen On-Site Generation for Drip Irrigation and Agricultural Machinery

Authors: Pilar Gargallo, Javier Carroquino, Nieves García-Casarejos, F. Javier García-Ramos

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The energy used in agriculture is a source of global emissions of greenhouse gases. The two main types of this energy are electricity for pumping and diesel for agricultural machinery. In order to reduce these emissions, the European project LIFE REWIND addresses the supply of this demand from renewable sources. First of all, comprehensive data on energy demand and available renewable resources have been obtained in several case studies. Secondly, a set of simulations and optimizations have been performed, in search of the best configuration and sizing, both from an economic and emission reduction point of view. For this purpose, it was used software based on genetic algorithms. Thirdly, a prototype has been designed and installed, that it is being used for the validation in a real case. Finally, throughout a year of operation, various technical and economic parameters are being measured for further analysis. The prototype is not connected to the utility grid, avoiding the cost and environmental impact of a grid extension. The system includes three kinds of photovoltaic fields. One is located on a fixed structure on the terrain. Another one is floating on an irrigation raft. The last one is mounted on a two axis solar tracker. Each has its own solar inverter. The total amount of nominal power is 44 kW. A lead acid battery with 120 kWh of capacity carries out the energy storage. Three isolated inverters support a three phase, 400 V 50 Hz micro-grid, the same characteristics of the utility grid. An advanced control subsystem has been constructed, using free hardware and software. The electricity produced feeds a set of seven pumps used for purification, elevation and pressurization of water in a drip irrigation system located in a vineyard. Since the irrigation season does not include the whole year, as well as a small oversize of the generator, there is an amount of surplus energy. With this surplus, a hydrolyser produces on site hydrogen by electrolysis of water. An off-road vehicle with fuel cell feeds on that hydrogen and carries people in the vineyard. The only emission of the process is high purity water. On the one hand, the results show the technical and economic feasibility of stand-alone renewable energy systems to feed seasonal pumping. In this way, the economic costs, the environmental impacts and the landscape impacts of grid extensions are avoided. The use of diesel gensets and their associated emissions are also avoided. On the other hand, it is shown that it is possible to replace diesel in agricultural machinery, substituting it for electricity or hydrogen of 100% renewable origin and produced on the farm itself, without any external energy input. In addition, it is expected to obtain positive effects on the rural economy and employment, which will be quantified through interviews.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Hydrogen, Greenhouse gases, Drip Irrigation, vineyard

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3 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of the Economical, Ecological and Self-Consumption Impact of the Energy Production of a Single Building

Authors: Ludovic Favre, Thibaut M. Schafer, Jean-Luc Robyr, Elena-Lavinia Niederhäuser

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This paper presents an optimization method based on genetic algorithm for the energy management inside buildings developed in the frame of the project Smart Living Lab (SLL) in Fribourg (Switzerland). This algorithm optimizes the interaction between renewable energy production, storage systems and energy consumers. In comparison with standard algorithms, the innovative aspect of this project is the extension of the smart regulation over three simultaneous criteria: the energy self-consumption, the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and operating costs. The genetic algorithm approach was chosen due to the large quantity of optimization variables and the non-linearity of the optimization function. The optimization process includes also real time data of the building as well as weather forecast and users habits. This information is used by a physical model of the building energy resources to predict the future energy production and needs, to select the best energetic strategy, to combine production or storage of energy in order to guarantee the demand of electrical and thermal energy. The principle of operation of the algorithm as well as typical output example of the algorithm is presented.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Modelling, energy storage, Energy Management, Control System, Greenhouse gases, building's energy, genetic optimization algorithm

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2 Trend Analysis of Rainfall: A Climate Change Paradigm

Authors: Vinod K. Sharma, Shyamli Singh, Ishupinder Kaur

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Climate Change refers to the change in climate for extended period of time. Climate is changing from the past history of earth but anthropogenic activities accelerate this rate of change and which is now being a global issue. Increase in greenhouse gas emissions is causing global warming and climate change related issues at an alarming rate. Increasing temperature results in climate variability across the globe. Changes in rainfall patterns, intensity and extreme events are some of the impacts of climate change. Rainfall variability refers to the degree to which rainfall patterns varies over a region (spatial) or through time period (temporal). Temporal rainfall variability can be directly or indirectly linked to climate change. Such variability in rainfall increases the vulnerability of communities towards climate change. Increasing urbanization and unplanned developmental activities, the air quality is deteriorating. This paper mainly focuses on the rainfall variability due to increasing level of greenhouse gases. Rainfall data of 65 years (1951-2015) of Safdarjung station of Delhi was collected from Indian Meteorological Department and analyzed using Mann-Kendall test for time-series data analysis. Mann-Kendall test is a statistical tool helps in analysis of trend in the given data sets. The slope of the trend can be measured through Sen’s slope estimator. Data was analyzed monthly, seasonally and yearly across the period of 65 years. The monthly rainfall data for the said period do not follow any increasing or decreasing trend. Monsoon season shows no increasing trend but here was an increasing trend in the pre-monsoon season. Hence, the actual rainfall differs from the normal trend of the rainfall. Through this analysis, it can be projected that there will be an increase in pre-monsoon rainfall than the actual monsoon season. Pre-monsoon rainfall causes cooling effect and results in drier monsoon season. This will increase the vulnerability of communities towards climate change and also effect related developmental activities.

Keywords: Greenhouse gases, Mann-Kendall test, rainfall variability, Sen's slope

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1 The Usage of Nitrogen Gas and Alum for Sludge Dewatering

Authors: Mamdouh Yousef Saleh, Medhat Hosny El-Zahar, Shymaa El-Dosoky

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In most cases, the associated processing cost of dewatering sludge increase with the solid particles concentration. All experiments in this study were conducted on biological sludge type. All experiments help to reduce the greenhouse gases in addition, the technology used was faster in time and less in cost compared to other methods. First, the bubbling pressure was used to dissolve N₂ gas into the sludge, second alum was added to accelerate the process of coagulation of the sludge particles and facilitate their flotation, and third nitrogen gas was used to help floating the sludge particles and reduce the processing time because of the nitrogen gas from the inert gases. The conclusions of this experiment were as follows: first, the best conditions were obtained when the bubbling pressure was 0.6 bar. Second, the best alum dose was determined to help the sludge agglomerate and float. During the experiment, the best alum dose was 80 mg/L. It increased concentration of the sludge by 7-8 times. Third, the economic dose of nitrogen gas was 60 mg/L with separation efficiency of 85%. The sludge concentration was about 8-9 times. That happened due to the gas released tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing them to float to the surface of the water where it could be then removed.

Keywords: Greenhouse gases, Biological treatment, alum, nitrogen gas, dewatering sludge

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