Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Greenhouse gas Related Abstracts

10 Magnitude of Green Computing in Trending IT World

Authors: Raghul Vignesh Kumar, M. Vadivel

Abstract:

With the recent years many industries and companies have turned their attention in realizing how going 'green' can benefit public relations, lower cost, and reduce global emissions from industrial manufacturing. Green Computing has become an originative way on how technology and ecology converge together. It is a growing import subject that creates an urgent need to train next generation computer scientists or practitioners to think ‘green’. However, green computing has not yet been well taught in computer science or computer engineering courses as a subject. In this modern IT world it’s impossible for an organization or common man to work without hardware like servers, desktop, IT devices, smartphones etc. But it is also important to consider the harmful impact of those devices and steps to achieve energy saving and environmental protection. This paper presents the magnitude of green computing and steps to be followed to go green.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Green Computing, Greenhouse gas, carbon-dioxide, environmental protection agency

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9 Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Potential by Deploying the Green Cars in Korean Road Transport Sector

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Yanghon Chung, Nyunbae Park, Sangyong Park

Abstract:

South Korea, as the 7th largest greenhouse gas emitting country in 2011, announced that the national reduction target of greenhouse gas emissions was 30% based on BAU (Business As Usual) by 2020. And the reduction rate of the transport sector is 34.3% which is the highest figure among all sectors. This paper attempts to analyze the environmental effect on deploying the green cars in Korean road transport sector. In order to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions, the LEAP model is applied in this study.

Keywords: Greenhouse gas, green car, LEAP model, road transport sector

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8 Carbon Capture and Storage in Geological Formation, its Legal, Regulatory Imperatives and Opportunities in India

Authors: Kalbende Krunal Ramesh

Abstract:

The Carbon Capture and Storage Technology (CCS) provides a veritable platform to bridge the gap between the seemingly irreconcilable twin global challenges of ensuring a secure, reliable and diversified energy supply and mitigating climate change by reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide. Making its proper regulatory policy and making it flexible for the government and private company by law to regulate, also exploring the opportunity in this sector is the main aim of this paper. India's total annual emissions was 1725 Mt CO2 in 2011, which comprises of 6% of total global emission. It is very important to control the greenhouse gas emission for the environment protection. This paper discusses the various regulatory policy and technology adopted by some of the countries for successful using CCS technology. The brief geology of sedimentary basins in India is studied, ranging from the category I to category IV and deep water and potential for mature technology in CCS is reviewed. Areas not suitable for CO2 storage using presently mature technologies were over viewed. CSS and Clean development mechanism was developed for India, considering the various aspects from research and development, project appraisal, approval and validation, implementation, monitoring and verification, carbon credit issued, cap and trade system and its storage potential. The opportunities in oil and gas operations, power sector, transport sector is discussed briefly.

Keywords: Greenhouse gas, carbon credit issued, cap and trade system, carbon capture and storage technology

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7 A Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Traditional and Climate-smart Farming: A Case of Dhanusha District, Nepal

Authors: Arun Dhakal, Geoff Cockfield

Abstract:

This paper examines the emission potential of different farming practices that the farmers have adopted in Dhanusha District of Nepal and scope of these practices in climate change mitigation. Which practice is more climate-smarter is the question that this aims to address through a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The LCA was performed to assess if there is difference in emission potential of broadly two farming systems (agroforestry–based and traditional agriculture) but specifically four farming systems. The required data for this was collected through household survey of randomly selected households of 200. The sources of emissions across the farming systems were paddy cultivation, livestock, chemical fertilizer, fossil fuels and biomass (fuel-wood and crop residue) burning. However, the amount of emission from these sources varied with farming system adopted. Emissions from biomass burning appeared to be the highest while the source ‘fossil fuel’ caused the lowest emission in all systems. The emissions decreased gradually from agriculture towards the highly integrated agroforestry-based farming system (HIS), indicating that integrating trees into farming system not only sequester more carbon but also help in reducing emissions from the system. The annual emissions for HIS, Medium integrated agroforestry-based farming system (MIS), LIS (less integrated agroforestry-based farming system and subsistence agricultural system (SAS) were 6.67 t ha-1, 8.62 t ha-1, 10.75 t ha-1 and 17.85 t ha-1 respectively. In one agroforestry cycle, the HIS, MIS and LIS released 64%, 52% and 40% less GHG emission than that of SAS. Within agroforestry-based farming systems, the HIS produced 25% and 50% less emissions than those of MIS and LIS respectively. Our finding suggests that a tree-based farming system is more climate-smarter than a traditional farming. If other two benefits (carbon sequestered within the farm and in the natural forest because of agroforestry) are to be considered, a considerable amount of emissions is reduced from a climate-smart farming. Some policy intervention is required to motivate farmers towards adopting such climate-friendly farming practices in developing countries.

Keywords: Climate Change, Greenhouse gas, Farming systems, Life Cycle Assessment, Nepal

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6 Biodiesel Is an Alternative Fuel for CI Engines

Authors: Sanat Kumar, Rahul Kumar Tiwari

Abstract:

At this time when society is becoming increasingly aware of the declining reserves of fossil, it has become apparent that biodiesel is destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. In this regard, the significance of biodiesel is technically and commercially viable alternative to fossil-diesel. There are different potential feed stocks for biodiesel production. This paper analyses the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel from different feed stocks. Biodiesel fuel is considered as offering many benefits like reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and many harmful pollutants (PM, HC, CO etc.). This paper critically reviews the effect of injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics. An attempt has been carried out to discuss the effect of biodiesel in terms of combustion, emission and performance based up on composition and properties. The results of the study show that different chemical composition leads to variation in its combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesel produced from different aspired feed stocks reduces the pollutant emission and resistive to oxidation but exhibit poor atomization. As a conclusion many research needs to be carried out to understand the relationship between the types of biodiesel feed stock, performance conclusion and emission.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Greenhouse gas, Oxidation, atomization

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5 Sustainable Development of HV Substation in Urban Areas Considering Environmental Aspects

Authors: Mahdi Naeemi Nooghabi, Mohammad Tofiqu Arif

Abstract:

Gas Insulated Switchgears by using an insulation material named SF6 (Sulphur Hexafluoride) and its significant dielectric properties have been the only choice in urban areas and other polluted industries. However, the initial investment of GIS is more than conventional AIS substation, its total life cycle costs caused to reach huge amounts of electrical market share. SF6 environmental impacts on global warming, atmosphere depletion, and decomposing to toxic gases in high temperature situation, and highest rate in Global Warming Potential (GWP) with 23900 times of CO2e and a 3200-year period lifetime was the only undeniable concern of GIS substation. Efforts of international environmental institute and their politic supports have been able to lead SF6 emission reduction legislation. This research targeted to find an appropriate alternative for GIS substations to meet all advantages in land occupation area and to improve SF6 environmental impacts due to its leakage and emission. An innovative new conceptual design named Multi-Storey prepared a new AIS design similar in land occupation, extremely low Sf6 emission, and maximum greenhouse gas emission reduction. Surprisingly, by considering economic benefits due to carbon price saving, it can earn more than $675 million during the 30-year life cycle by replacing of just 25% of total annual worldly additional GIS switchgears.

Keywords: Greenhouse gas, Emission, global warming potential, AIS substation, GIS substation, SF6, carbon price

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4 Simulation Approach for Analyzing Transportation Energy System in South Korea

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Jongwook Kim, Youah Lee

Abstract:

In the last COP21 held in Paris on 2015, Korean government announced that Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) was 37% based on BAU by 2030. The GHG reduction rate of the transportation sector is the strongest among all sectors by 2020. In order to cope with Korean INDC, Korean government established that 3rd eco-friendly car deployment national plans at the end of 2015. In this study, we make the energy system model for estimating GHG emissions using LEAP model.

Keywords: Transportation, Greenhouse gas, LEAP, INDC

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3 Sustainable Crop Production: Greenhouse Gas Management in Farm Value Chain

Authors: Aswathaman Vijayan, Manish Jha, Ullas Theertha

Abstract:

Climate change and Global warming have become an issue for both developed and developing countries and perhaps the biggest threat to the environment. We at ITC Limited believe that a company’s performance must be measured by its Triple Bottom Line contribution to building economic, social and environmental capital. This Triple Bottom Line strategy focuses on - Embedding sustainability in business practices, Investing in social development and Adopting a low carbon growth path with a cleaner environment approach. The Agri Business Division - ILTD operates in the tobacco crop growing regions of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka province of India. The Agri value chain of the company comprises of two distinct phases: First phase is Agricultural operations undertaken by ITC trained farmers and the second phase is Industrial operations which include marketing and processing of the agricultural produce. This research work covers the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) management strategy of ITC in the Agricultural operations undertaken by the farmers. The agriculture sector adds considerably to global GHG emissions through the use of carbon-based energies, use of fertilizers and other farming operations such as ploughing. In order to minimize the impact of farming operations on the environment, ITC has a taken a big leap in implementing system and process in reducing the GHG impact in farm value chain by partnering with the farming community. The company has undertaken a unique three-pronged approach for GHG management at the farm value chain: 1) GHG inventory at farm value chain: Different sources of GHG emission in the farm value chain were identified and quantified for the baseline year, as per the IPCC guidelines for greenhouse gas inventories. The major sources of emission identified are - emission due to nitrogenous fertilizer application during seedling production and main-field; emission due to diesel usage for farm machinery; emission due to fuel consumption and due to burning of crop residues. 2) Identification and implementation of technologies to reduce GHG emission: Various methodologies and technologies were identified for each GHG emission source and implemented at farm level. The identified methodologies are – reducing the consumption of chemical fertilizer usage at the farm through site-specific nutrient recommendation; Usage of sharp shovel for land preparation to reduce diesel consumption; implementation of energy conservation technologies to reduce fuel requirement and avoiding burning of crop residue by incorporation in the main field. These identified methodologies were implemented at farm level, and the GHG emission was quantified to understand the reduction in GHG emission. 3) Social and farm forestry for CO2 sequestration: In addition, the company encouraged social and farm forestry in the waste lands to convert it into green cover. The plantations are carried out with fast growing trees viz., Eucalyptus, Casuarina, and Subabul at the rate of 10,000 Ha of land per year. The above approach minimized considerable amount of GHG emission at the farm value chain benefiting farmers, community, and environment at a whole. In addition, the CO₂ stock created by social and farm forestry program has made the farm value chain to become environment-friendly.

Keywords: Greenhouse gas, CO2 sequestration, farm value chain, ITC limited

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2 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: Microwave, Greenhouse gas, Catalyst, gas reforming, microwave receptor

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1 Fabrication and Characterization Analysis of La-Sr-Co-Fe-O Perovskite Hollow Fiber Catalyst for Oxygen Removal in Landfill Gas

Authors: Jung Hoon Park, Seong Woon Lee, Soo Min Lim, Sung Sik Jeong

Abstract:

The atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gas (GHG, Green House Gas) is increasing continuously as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels and industrial development. In response to this trend, many researches have been conducted on the reduction of GHG. Landfill gas (LFG, Land Fill Gas) is one of largest sources of GHG emissions containing the methane (CH₄) as a major constituent and can be considered renewable energy sources as well. In order to use LFG by connecting to the city pipe network, it required a process for removing impurities. In particular, oxygen must be removed because it can cause corrosion of pipes and engines. In this study, methane oxidation was used to eliminate oxygen from LFG and perovskite-type ceramic catalysts of La-Sr-Co-Fe-O composition was selected as a catalyst. Hollow fiber catalysts (HFC, Hollow Fiber Catalysts) have attracted attention as a new concept alternative because they have high specific surface area and mechanical strength compared to other types of catalysts. HFC was prepared by a phase-inversion/sintering technique using commercial La-Sr-Co-Fe-O powder. In order to measure the catalysts' activity, simulated LFG was used for feed gas and complete oxidation reaction of methane was confirmed. Pore structure of the HFC was confirmed by SEM image and perovskite structure of single phase was analyzed by XRD. In addition, TPR analysis was performed to verify the oxygen adsorption mechanism of the HFC. Acknowledgement—The project is supported by the ‘Global Top Environment R&D Program’ in the ‘R&D Center for reduction of Non-CO₂ Greenhouse gases’ (Development and demonstration of oxygen removal technology of landfill gas) funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (ME).

Keywords: Greenhouse gas, complete oxidation, hollow fiber catalyst, land fill gas, oxygen removal, perovskite catalyst

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