Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Green Synthesis Related Abstracts

24 Synthesis of Biostabilized Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia indica Extract and Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties

Authors: Rebecca Thombre, Aishwarya Borate


Chemical synthesis of nanoparticles produces toxic by-products, as a result of which eco-friendly methods of synthesis are gaining importance. The synthesis of nanoparticles using plant derived extracts is economical, safe and eco-friendly. Biostabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized using extracts of Garcinia indica. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and demonstrated a peak at 527 nm. The presence of plant derived peptides and phytoconstituents was confirmed using the FTIR spectra. TEM analysis revealed formation of gold nanopyramids and nanorods. The SAED analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Pichia pastoris. The cytotoxic activity of gold nanoparticles was studied using HEK, Hela and L929 cancerous cell lines and the apoptosis of cancerous cells were observed using propidium iodide staining. Thus, a simple and eco-friendly method for synthesis of biostabilized gold nanoparticles using fruit extracts of Garcinia indica was developed and the nanoparticles had potent antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, gold nanoparticles, cytotoxic, Garcinia indica, anticancer

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23 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Daucus carota Extract

Authors: M. R. Bindhu, M. Umadevi


Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by Daucus carota extract as reducing agent was reported here. The involvement of phytochemicals in the Daucus carota extract in the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles has been established using XRD and UV-vis studies. The UV-vis spectrum of the prepared silver nanoparticles showed surface plasmon absorbance peak at 450 nm. The obtained silver nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with the average size of 15 nm. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was evident from bright spots in the SAED pattern and peaks in the XRD pattern. This new, simple and natural method for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Daucus carota

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22 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat


Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, basil leaves, plant extract

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21 Synthesis of Plant-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Using Erythrina indica Extract and Evaluation of Their Anti-Microbial Activities

Authors: Chandra Sekhar Singh, P. Chakrapani, B. Arun Jyothi, A. Roja Rani


The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) involves biocompatible ingredients under physiological conditions of temperature and pressure. Moreover, the biologically active molecules involved in the green synthesis of NPs act as functionalizing ligands, making these NPs more suitable for biomedical applications. Among the most important bioreductants are plant extracts, which are relatively easy to handle, readily available, low cost, and have been well explored for the green synthesis of other nanomaterials. Various types of metallic NPs have already been synthesized using plant extracts. They have wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In our study, we were described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through the aqueous extract of Erythrina indica as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM analysis showed the average particle size of 30 nm as well as revealed their spherical structure. Further these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against different human pathogens viz. two Gram positive namely Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis bacteria and two were Gram negative bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). This is for the first time reporting that Erythrina indica plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, antibacterial activity, SEM, FTIR, TEM

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20 Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano Particles Using Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Extract and Its Application for Solar Cell

Authors: Prasanta Sutradhar, Mitali Saha


With an increasing awareness of green and clean energy, zinc oxide based solar cells were found to be suitable candidates for cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. In this work, we have reported the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) by thermal method and under microwave irradiation using the aqueous extract of tomatoes as non-toxic and ecofriendly reducing material. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), particle size analyser (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X- ray diffraction study (XRD). A series of ZnO nanocomposites with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) were prepared for photovoltaic application. Structural and morphological studies of these nanocomposites were carried out using UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and AFM. The current-voltage measurements of the nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.18% in case of ZnO/GO/TiO2 nanocomposite.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Microwave, Green Synthesis, ZnO, I-V characteristics

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19 Rapid Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Eclipta prostrata Leaf Extract

Authors: Siva Prasad Peddi


Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from silver nitrate through a rapid green synthesis method using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract as a reducing cum stabilizing agent. The experimental procedure was readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and could be easily scaled up. The silver nanoparticles thus obtained were characterized using UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-VIS) which yielded an absorption peak at 416 nm. The biomolecules responsible for capping of the bio-reduced silver nanoparticles synthesized using plant extract were successfully identified through FTIR analysis. It was evinced through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the silver nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and spherical in shape. The average size of the particles obtained using Scherrer’s formula was 27.4 nm. The adopted technique for silver nanoparticle synthesis is suitable for large-scale production.

Keywords: Characterization, Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, Eclipta prostrata

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18 Green Approach towards Synthesis of Chitosan Nanoparticles for in vitro Release of Quercetin

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai


Chitosan, a carbohydrate polymer at nanoscale level has gained considerable momentum in drug delivery applications due to its inherent biocompatibility and non-toxicity. However, conventional synthetic strategies for chitosan nanoparticles mainly rely upon physicochemical techniques, which often yield chitosan microparticles. Hence, there is an emergent need for development of controlled synthetic protocols for chitosan nanoparticles within the nanometer range. In this context, we report the green synthesis of size controlled chitosan nanoparticles by using Pongamia pinnata (L.) leaf extract. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed formation of nanoparticles with mean particle size of 85 nm. The stability of chitosan nanoparticles was investigated by zetasizer analysis, which revealed positive surface charged nanoparticles with zeta potential 20.1 mV. The green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles were further explored for encapsulation and controlled release of antioxidant biomolecule, quercetin. The resulting drug loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed drug entrapment efficiency of 93.50% with drug-loading capacity of 42.44%. The cumulative in vitro drug release up to 15 hrs was achieved suggesting towards efficacy of green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, quercetin, chitosan nanoparticles, Pongamia pinnata

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17 Bioconversion of Capsaicin Using the Optimized Culture Broth of Lipase Producing Bacterium of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Authors: Doostishoar Farzad, Forootanfar Hamid, Hasan-Bikdashti Morvarid, Faramarzi Mohammad Ali, Ameri Atefe


Introduction: Chili peppers and related plants in the family of capsaicum produce a mixture of capsaicins represent anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, and chemopreventive properties. Vanillylamine, the main product of capsaicin hydrolysis is applied as a precursor for manufacturing of natural vanillin (a famous flavor). It is also used in the production of synthetic capsaicins harboring a wide variety of physiological and biological activities such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects as well as enhancing of adrenal catecholamine secretion, analgesic, and antioxidative activities. The ability of some lipases, such as Novozym 677 BG and Novozym 435 and also some proteases e.g. trypsine and penicillin acylase, in capsaicin hydrolysis and green synthesis of vanillylamine has been investigated. In the present study the optimized culture broth of a newly isolated lipase-producing bacterial strain (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) applied for the hydrolysis of capsaicin. Materials and methods: In order to compare hydrolytic activity of optimized and basal culture broth through capsaicin 2 mL of each culture broth (as sources of lipase) was introduced to capsaicin solution (500 mg/L) and then the reaction mixture (total volume of 3 mL) was incubated at 40 °C and 120 rpm. Samples were taken every 2 h and analyzed for vanillylamine formation using HPLC. Same reaction mixture containing boiled supernatant (to inactivate lipase) designed as blank and each experiment was done in triplicate. Results: 215 mg/L of vanillylamine was produced after the treatment of capsaicin using the optimized medium for 18 h, while only 61 mg/L of vanillylamine was detected in presence of the basal medium under the same conditions. No capsaicin conversion was observed in the blank sample, in which lipase activity was suppressed by boiling of the sample for 10 min. Conclusion: The application of optimized broth culture for the hydrolysis of capsaicin led to a 43% conversion of that pungent compound to vanillylamine.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, lipase, Capsaicin, stenotrophomonas maltophilia

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16 An Efficient Aptamer-Based Biosensor Developed via Irreversible Pi-Pi Functionalisation of Graphene/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite

Authors: Sze Shin Low, Michelle T. T. Tan, Poi Sim Khiew, Hwei-San Loh


An efficient graphene/zinc oxide (PSE-G/ZnO) platform based on pi-pi stacking, non-covalent interactions for the development of aptamer-based biosensor was presented in this study. As a proof of concept, the DNA recognition capability of the as-developed PSE-G/ZnO enhanced aptamer-based biosensor was evaluated using Coconut Cadang-cadang viroid disease (CCCVd). The G/ZnO nanocomposite was synthesised via a simple, green and efficient approach. The pristine graphene was produced through a single step exfoliation of graphite in sonochemical alcohol-water treatment while the zinc nitrate hexahydrate was mixed with the graphene and subjected to low temperature hydrothermal growth. The developed facile, environmental friendly method provided safer synthesis procedure by eliminating the need of harsh reducing chemicals and high temperature. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterised by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to evaluate its crystallinity, morphology and purity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed for the detection of CCCVd sequence with the use of potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]). Recognition of the RNA analytes was achieved via the significant increase in resistivity for the double stranded DNA, as compared to single-stranded DNA. The PSE-G/ZnO enhanced aptamer-based biosensor exhibited higher sensitivity than the bare biosensor, attributing to the synergistic effect of high electrical conductivity of graphene and good electroactive property of ZnO.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, aptamer-based biosensor, graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite, screen printed carbon electrode

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15 Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Benzylamino Coumarin Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani


A green and efficient one-pot synthesis of benzylamino coumarin derivatives by a three-component condensation of 4-hydroxycoumarin, cyclic secondary amine, and aromatic aldehyde in the presence of ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a heterogeneous catalyst in water at room temperature has been reported.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs), multicomponent reaction

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14 Facile, Cost Effective and Green Synthesis of Graphene in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

Authors: Illyas Isa, Siti Nur Akmar Mohd Yazid, Norhayati Hashim


We report a simple, green and cost effective synthesis of graphene via chemical reduction of graphene oxide in alkaline aqueous solution. Extensive characterizations have been studied to confirm the formation of graphene in sodium carbonate solution. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical properties of the prepared graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode using potassium ferricyanide as a redox probe. Based on the result, with the addition of graphene to the glassy carbon electrode the current flow increases and the peak also broadens as compared to graphite and graphene oxide. This method is fast, cost effective, and green as nontoxic solvents are used which will not result in contamination of the products. Thus, this method can serve for the preparation of graphene which can be effectively used in sensors, electronic devices and supercapacitors.

Keywords: Graphene, Green Synthesis, electrochemical, chemical reduction

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13 Green Synthesis and Photo Catalytic Activity of Monoclinic α-Bi2O3 Nanocrystals

Authors: R. Yuvakkumar, S. I. Hong


Visible light driven monoclinic α-Bi2O3 photocatalyst was synthesized employing green synthesis method using rambutan peel wastes. 10 ml rambutan extract was added to 50 ml of 0.1M Bi(NO3)3 under stirring at about 80°C for 2 hours. The centrifuged and dried product was calcinated in a muffle furnace at 450°C to get pure α-Bi2O3. The characterized product photocatalytic activity was evaluated employing methyl orange (MeO) as model pollutant with 10 mg l-1 concentration at pH 7. The obtained product optical absorption edges located at 484 nm clearly revealed the photocatalyst excitation by visible light irradiation. The obtained yellow color photocatalyst accord with its strong absorption spectrum revealed the visible light absorption due to the band gap transition. The band gap energy of α-Bi2O3 was estimated to be 2.81 eV indicating the absorption of α-Bi2O3 in visible light region. The photocatalytic results of MeO degradation revealed that green synthesized Bi2O3 can effectively degrade 92% MeO within 240 min under visible light (>400 nm), which is slightly increased to that of chemically synthesized Bi2O3 (90%).

Keywords: Nano, Green Synthesis, Photocatalytic Activity, bismuth oxide

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12 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Citrus aurantium Aqueous Pollen Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Mohammad Ali Karimi, Hossein Tavallali, Abdolhamid Hatefi-Mehrjardi


Pollen extract of in vitro plants raised of Citrus aurantium as reducer and stabilizer was assessed for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The synthesis of AgNPs was performed at room temperature assisting in solutions by reduction takes place rapidly for 10 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks in UV–Vis spectra indicated the formation of polydispersive AgNPs. Silver ions concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time were optimized in the synthesis of AgNPs. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized AgNPs were mostly spherical in shape with an average size of 15 nm. XRD study shows that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry. It shows the significant antibacterial efficacy against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) by disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, antibacterial activity, citrus aurantium

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11 Facile Synthetic Process for Lamivudine and Emtricitabine

Authors: Devender Mandala, Paul Watts


Cis-Nucleosides mainly lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) are an important tool in the treatment of Human immune deficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human T-Lymotropoic virus (HTLV). Lamivudine and emtricitabine are potent nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTI). These two drugs are synthesized by a four-stage process from the starting materials: menthyl glyoxylate hydrate and 1,4-dithane-2,5-diol to produce the 5-hydroxy oxathiolane which upon acetylation with acetic anhydride to yield 5-acetoxy oxathiolane. Then glycosylation of this acetyl product with silyl protected nucleoside to produce the intermediate. The reduction of this intermediates can provide the final targets. Although there are several different methods reported for the synthesis of lamivudine and emtricitabine as a single enantiomer, we required an efficient route, which was suitable for large-scale synthesis to support the development of these compounds. In this process, we successfully prepared the intermediates of lamivudine and emtricitabine without using any solvents and catalyst, thus promoting the green synthesis. All the synthesized compound were confirmed by TLC, GC, Mass, NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, nucleoside, emtricitabine, lamivudine

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10 Green Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc and Ferrous Nanoparticles for Their Potent Therapeutic Approach

Authors: Mukesh Saran, Ashima Bagaria


Green nanotechnology is the most researched field in the current scenario. Herein we study the synthesis of Zinc and Ferrous nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. Our protocol using established protocols heat treatment of plant extracts along with the solution of copper sulphate in the ratio of 1:1. The leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera were prepared in deionized water. Copper sulfate solution (1mM) was added to this, and the change in color of the solution was observed indicating the formation of Cu nanoparticles. The as biosynthesized Cu nanoparticles were characterized with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). It was observed that the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera can reduce copper ions into copper nanoparticles within 8 to 10 min of reaction time. The method thus can be used for rapid and eco-friendly biosynthesis of stable copper nanoparticles. Further, we checked their antimicrobial and antioxidant potential, and it was observed that maximum antioxidant activity was observed for the particles prepared using the heating method. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in Streptomyces grisveus particles and in Triochoderma Reesei for the maximum antifungal activity. At present, we are engaged in studying the anti-inflammatory activities of these as prepared nanoparticles.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Green Synthesis, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, antioxidant

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9 Green-Synthesized β-Cyclodextrin Membranes for Humidity Sensors

Authors: Zeineb Baatout, Safa Teka, Nejmeddine Jaballah, Nawfel Sakly, Xiaonan Sun, Mustapha Majdoub


Currently, the economic interests linked to the development of bio-based materials make biomass one of the most interesting areas for science development. We are interested in the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), one of the popular bio-sourced macromolecule, produced from the starch via enzymatic conversion. It is a cyclic oligosaccharide formed by the association of seven glucose units. It presents a rigid conical and amphiphilic structure with hydrophilic exterior, allowing it to be water-soluble. It has also a hydrophobic interior enabling the formation of inclusion complexes, which support its application for the elaboration of electrochemical and optical sensors. Nevertheless, the solubility of β-CD in water makes its use as sensitive layer limit and difficult due to their instability in aqueous media. To overcome this limitation, we chose to precede by modification of the hydroxyl groups to obtain hydrophobic derivatives which lead to water-stable sensing layers. Hence, a series of benzylated β-CDs were synthesized in basic aqueous media in one pot. This work reports the synthesis of a new family of substituted amphiphilic β-CDs using a green methodology. The obtained β-CDs showed different degree of substitution (DS) between 0.85 and 2.03. These organic macromolecular materials were soluble in common organic volatile solvents, and their structures were investigated by NMR, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF spectroscopies. Thermal analysis showed a correlation between the thermal properties of these derivatives and the benzylation degree. The surface properties of the thin films based on the benzylated β-CDs were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These organic materials were investigated as sensitive layers, deposited on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gravimetric transducer, for humidity sensor at room temperature. The results showed that the performances of the prepared sensors are greatly influenced by the benzylation degree of β-CD. The partially modified β-CD (DS=1) shows linear response with best sensitivity, good reproducibility, low hysteresis, fast response time (15s) and recovery time (17s) at higher relative humidity levels (RH) between 11% and 98% in room temperature.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, humidity sensor, β-cyclodextrin, quartz crystal microbalance

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8 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Echinacea Flower Extract and Characterization

Authors: Masood Hussain, Erol Pehlivan, Ahmet Avci, Ecem Guder


Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out by using echinacea flower extract as reducing/protecting agent. The effects of various operating parameters and additives on the dimensions such as stirring rate, temperature, pH of the solution, the amount of extract and concentration of silver nitrate were optimized in order to achieve monodispersed spherical and small size echinacea protected silver nanoparticles (echinacea-AgNPs) through biosynthetic method. The surface roughness and topography of synthesized metal nanoparticles were confirmed by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic (HRTEM) results elaborated the formation of uniformly distributed Echinacea protected AgNPs (Echinacea-AgNPs) having an average size of 30.2±2nm.

Keywords: Morphology, Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, Echinacea flower extract

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7 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Different Types of Plants

Authors: Khamael Abualnaja, Hala M. Abo-Dief


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the subject of important recent interest, present in a large range of applications such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, we describe an effective and environmental-friendly technique of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using silver nitrate solution and the extract of mint, basil, orange peel and Tangerines peel which used as reducing agents. Silver Nanoparticles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed the average particle size of mint, basil, orange peel, Tangerines peel are 30, 20, 12, 10 nm respectively. This is for the first time that any plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: Plants, Green Synthesis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Silver Nanoparticles

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6 Green Synthesis of Magnetic, Silica Nanocomposite and Its Adsorptive Performance against Organochlorine Pesticides

Authors: Waleed A. El-Said, Dina M. Fouad, Mohamed H. Aly, Mohamed A. El-Gahami


Green synthesis of nanomaterials has received increasing attention as an eco-friendly technology in materials science. Here, we have used two types of extractions from green tea leaf (i.e. total extraction and tannin extraction) as reducing agents for a rapid, simple and one step synthesis method of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs)/iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocomposite based on deposition of Fe3O4 onto MSNPs. MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, vibrating sample magnetometer, N2 adsorption, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The average mesoporous silica particle diameter was found to be around 30 nm with high surface area (818 m2/gm). MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was used for removing lindane pesticide (an environmental hazard material) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared, UV-vis, High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography techniques were used to confirm the high ability of MSNPs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite for sensing and capture of lindane molecules with high sorption capacity (more than 89%) that could develop a new eco-friendly strategy for detection and removing of pesticide and as a promising material for water treatment application.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, mesoporous silica, magnetic iron oxide NPs, adsorption Lindane

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5 Hafnium Doped Zno Nanostructures: An Eco-Friendly Synthesis for Optoelectronic Applications

Authors: Mohamed Achehboune, Mohammed Khenfouch, Issam Boukhoubza, Bakang Mothudi, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio


Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been attracting growing interest in recent years; their optical and electrical properties make them useful as attractive and promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this study, pure and Hafnium doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized using a green processing method. The structural, optical and electrical properties of samples were investigated structural and optical spectroscopies and electrical measurements. The synthesis and chemical composition of pure and Hafnium doped ZnO were confirmed by SEM observation. The XRD studies of Hafnium doped ZnO demonstrate the formation of wurtzite structure with preferred c-axis orientation. Moreover, the optical and electrical properties of doped material have improved after the doping process. The experimental results obtained for our material show that Hf doped ZnO nanostructures could be a promising material in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaic cell and light emitting diode devices.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Optoelectronic, Green Synthesis, hafnium-doped-zinc oxide

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4 Characterisation, Extraction of Secondary Metabolite from Perilla frutescens for Therapeutic Additives: A Phytogenic Approach

Authors: B. M. Vishal, Monamie Basu, Gopinath M., Rose Havilah Pulla


Though there are several methods of synthesizing silver nano particles, Green synthesis always has its own dignity. Ranging from the cost-effectiveness to the ease of synthesis, the process is simplified in the best possible way and is one of the most explored topics. This study of extracting secondary metabolites from Perilla frutescens and using them for therapeutic additives has its own significance. Unlike the other researches that have been done so far, this study aims to synthesize Silver nano particles from Perilla frutescens using three available forms of the plant: leaves, seed, and commercial leaf extract powder. Perilla frutescens, commonly known as 'Beefsteak Plant', is a perennial plant and belongs to the mint family. The plant has two varieties classed within itself. They are frutescens crispa and frutescens frutescens. The species, frutescens crispa (commonly known as 'Shisho' in Japanese), is generally used for edible purposes. Its leaves occur in two forms, varying on the colors. It is found in two different colors of red with purple streaks and green with crinkly pattern on it. This species is aromatic due to the presence of two major compounds: polyphenols and perillaldehyde. The red (purple streak) variety of this plant is due to the presence of a pigment, Perilla anthocyanin. The species, frutescens frutescens (commonly known as 'Egoma' in Japanese), is the main source for perilla oil. This species is also aromatic, but in this case, the major compound which gives the aroma is Perilla ketone or egoma ketone. Shisho grows short as compared with Wild Sesame and both produce seeds. The seeds of Wild Sesame are large and soft whereas that of Shisho is small and hard. The seeds have a large proportion of lipids, ranging about 38-45 percent. Excluding those, the seeds have a large quantity of Omega-3 fatty acids, linoleic acid, and an Omega-6 fatty acid. Other than these, Perilla leaf extract has gold and silver nano particles in it. The yield comparison in all the cases have been done, and the process’ optimal conditions were modified, keeping in mind the efficiencies. The characterization of secondary metabolites includes GC-MS and FTIR which can be used to identify the components of purpose that actually helps in synthesizing silver nano particles. The analysis of silver was done through a series of characterization tests that include XRD, UV-Vis, EDAX, and SEM. After the synthesis, for being used as therapeutic additives, the toxin analysis was done, and the results were tabulated. The synthesis of silver nano particles was done in a series of multiple cycles of extraction from leaves, seeds and commercially purchased leaf extract. The yield and efficiency comparison were done to bring out the best and the cheapest possible way of synthesizing silver nano particles using Perilla frutescens. The synthesized nano particles can be used in therapeutic drugs, which has a wide range of application from burn treatment to cancer treatment. This will, in turn, replace the traditional processes of synthesizing nano particles, as this method will prove effective in terms of cost and the environmental implications.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Characterisation, Green Synthesis, Toxin Analysis, Perilla frutescens

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3 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia and Its Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Babatunde Oluwole Ogunsile, Omosola Monisola Fasoranti


High costs and toxicological hazards associated with the physicochemical methods of producing nanoparticles have limited their widespread use in clinical and biomedical applications. An ethically sound alternative is the utilization of plant bioresources as a low cost and eco–friendly biological approach. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia plant. The UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of the AgNPs at different time intervals and different ratios of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against ten human pathogens using agar well diffusion method. The AgNPs yields were modeled using a second-order factorial design. The result showed that the rate of formation of the AgNPs increased with respect to time while the optimum ratio of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution was 1:1. The hydroxyl group was strongly involved in the bioreduction of the silver salt as indicated by the FTIR spectra. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature, with a uniformly distributed network of the web-like structure. The factorial model predicted the nanoparticles yields with minimal errors. The nanoparticles were active against all the tested pathogens and thus have great potentials as antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, antimicrobial activities, Tithonia diversifolia

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2 H₆P₂W₁₈O₆₂.14H₂O Catalyzed Synthesis and X-Ray Study of α-Aminophosphonates

Authors: Sarra Boughaba


The α-aminophosphonates have received considerable attention in organic and medicinal chemistry because of their structural resemblance with α-amino acids. They are used as antitumor agents, anti-inflammatory and antibiotics. As a result, a number of procedures have been developed for their synthesis. However, many of these methods suffer from some disadvantages such as long reaction times, environmental pollution caused by utilization of organic solvents, and expensive catalyst. On the other hand, thiazole components, particularly 2-aminothiazole is an important class of heterocyclic compounds. They appear in the structure of natural products and biologically actives compounds, thiamine (vitamin-B), and some antibiotics drugs (penicillin, micrococcin). In the past few years, heteropolyacids have received great attention as environmentally benign catalysts for organic synthetic processes, they possess unique physicochemical properties, such as super-acidity, high thermal and chemical stability, ability to accept and release electrons and high proton mobility, and the possibility of varying their acidity and oxidizing potential. In this study, an efficient and eco-friendly process has been developed for the synthesis of α-aminophosphonates containing aminothiazole moiety via Kabachnik-Field reaction catalyzed by H₆P₂W₁₈O₆₂.14H₂O as reusable catalyst, by condensation of aromatic aldehydes, 2-aminothiazole and triethylphosphite under free conditions. The X-ray crystallographic data of obtained compounds were provided. The main advantages of our protocol include the absence of solvent in the reaction, easy work-up, short reaction time, atom-economy and reusability of catalyst without significant loss of its activity.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, aminophosphonates, H₆P₂W₁₈O₆₂.14H₂O catalyst, x-ray study

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1 Bioinspired Green Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles Using Room-Temperature Co-Precipitation: A Study of the Effect of Amine Additives on Particle Morphology in Fluidic Systems

Authors: Laura Norfolk, Georgina Zimbitas, Jan Sefcik, Sarah Staniland


Magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) have been an area of increasing research interest due to their extensive applications in industry, such as in carbon capture, water purification, and crucially, the biomedical industry. The use of MNP in the biomedical industry is rising, with studies on their effect as Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, drug delivery systems, and as hyperthermic cancer treatments becoming prevalent in the nanomaterial research community. Particles used for biomedical purposes must meet stringent criteria; the particles must have consistent shape and size between particles. Variation between particle morphology can drastically alter the effective surface area of the material, making it difficult to correctly dose particles that are not homogeneous. Particles of defined shape such as octahedral and cubic have been shown to outperform irregular shaped particles in some applications, leading to the need to synthesize particles of defined shape. In nature, highly homogeneous MNP are found within magnetotactic bacteria, a unique bacteria capable of producing magnetite nanoparticles internally under ambient conditions. Biomineralisation proteins control the properties of the MNPs, enhancing their homogeneity. One of these proteins, Mms6, has been successfully isolated and used in vitro as an additive in room-temperature co-precipitation reactions (RTCP) to produce particles of defined mono-dispersed size & morphology. When considering future industrial scale-up it is crucial to consider the costs and feasibility of an additive, as an additive that is not readily available or easily synthesized at a competitive price will not be sustainable. As such, additives selected for this research are inspired by the functional groups of biomineralisation proteins, but cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and compatible with scale-up. Diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), and pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) have been successfully used in RTCP to modulate the properties of particles synthesized, leading to the formation of octahedral nanoparticles with no use of organic solvents, heating, or toxic precursors. By extending this principle to a fluidic system, ongoing research will reveal whether the amine additives can also exert morphological control in an environment which is suited toward higher particle yield. Two fluidic systems have been employed; a peristaltic turbulent flow mixing system suitable for the rapid production of MNP, and a macrofluidic system for the synthesis of tailored nanomaterials under a laminar flow regime. The presence of the amine additives in the turbulent flow system in initial results appears to offer similar morphological control as observed under RTCP conditions, with higher proportions of octahedral particles formed. This is a proof of concept which may pave the way to green synthesis of tailored MNP on an industrial scale. Mms6 and amine additives have been used in the macrofluidic system, with Mms6 allowing magnetite to be synthesized at unfavourable ferric ratios, but no longer influencing particle size. This suggests this synthetic technique while still benefiting from the addition of additives, may not allow additives to fully influence the particles formed due to the faster timescale of reaction. The amine additives have been tested at various concentrations, the results of which will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, bioinspired, Scale-up, magnetite, fluidic, morphological control

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