Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Green Infrastructure Related Abstracts

17 Sustainable Urban Waterfronts Using Sustainability Assessment Rating System

Authors: R. M. R. Hussein

Abstract:

Sustainable urban waterfront development is one of the most interesting phenomena of urban renewal in the last decades. However, there are still many cities whose visual image is compromised due to the lack of a sustainable urban waterfront development, which consequently affects the place of those cities globally. This paper aims to reimagine the role of waterfront areas in city design, with a particular focus on Egypt, so that they provide attractive, sustainable urban environments while promoting the continued aesthetic development of the city overall. This aim will be achieved by determining the main principles of a sustainable urban waterfront and its applications. This paper concentrates on sustainability assessment rating systems. A number of international case-studies, wherein a city has applied the basic principles for a sustainable urban waterfront and have made use of sustainability assessment rating systems, have been selected as examples which can be applied to the urban waterfronts in Egypt. This paper establishes the importance of developing the design of urban environments in Egypt, as well as identifying the methods of sustainability application for urban waterfronts.

Keywords: Energy Efficient, Green Infrastructure, sustainable urban waterfront, Cairo

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16 Adaptation Nature-Based Solutions: CBA of Woodlands for Flood Risk Management in the Aire Catchment, UK

Authors: Olivia R. Rendon

Abstract:

More than half of the world population lives in cities, in the UK, for example, 82% of the population was urban by 2013. Cities concentrate valuable and numerous infrastructure and sectors of the national economies. Cities are particularly vulnerable to climate change which will lead to higher damage costs in the future. There is thus a need to develop and invest in adaptation measures for cities to reduce the impact of flooding and other extreme weather events. Recent flood episodes present a significant and growing challenge to the UK and the estimated cost of urban flood damage is 270 million a year for England and Wales. This study aims to carry out cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of a nature-based approach for flood risk management in cities, focusing on the city of Leeds and the wider Aire catchment as a case study. Leeds was chosen as a case study due to its being one of the most flood vulnerable cities in the UK. In Leeds, over 4,500 properties are currently vulnerable to flooding and approximately £450 million of direct damage is estimated for a potential major flood from the River Aire. Leeds is also the second largest Metropolitan District in England with a projected population of 770,000 for 2014. So far the city council has mainly focused its flood risk management efforts on hard infrastructure solutions for the city centre. However, the wider Leeds district is at significant flood risk which could benefit from greener adaptation measures. This study presents estimates of a nature-based adaptation approach for flood risk management in Leeds. This land use management estimate is based on generating costings utilising primary and secondary data. This research contributes findings on the costs of different adaptation measures to flood risk management in a UK city, including the trade-offs and challenges of utilising nature-based solutions. Results also explore the potential implementation of the adaptation measures in the case study and the challenges of data collection and analysis for adaptation in flood risk management.

Keywords: flood risk, ecosystem services, Adaptation, Green Infrastructure, woodland

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15 Using a GIS-Based Method for Green Infrastructure Accessibility of Different Socio-Economic Groups in Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Xindong An, Jing Ma

Abstract:

Green infrastructure, the most important aspect of improving the quality of life, has been a crucial element of the liveability measurement. With demanding of more liveable urban environment from increasing population in city area, access to green infrastructure in walking distance should be taken into consideration. This article exemplifies the study on accessibility measurement of green infrastructure in central Auckland (New Zealand), using network analysis tool on the basis of GIS, to verify the accessibility levels of green infrastructure. It analyses the overall situation of green infrastructure and draws some conclusions on the city’s different levels of accessibility according to the categories and facilities distribution, which provides valuable references and guidance for the future facility improvement in planning strategies.

Keywords: Accessibility, Quality of Life, GIS, Green Infrastructure

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14 The Influences of Green Infrastructure Develop on Urban Renewals for Real Essence and Non-Real Essence Economic Value

Authors: Chao Jen-Chih, Hsu Kuo-Wei

Abstract:

Climate change and natural disasters take effect on urban development. It has been discussed urban renewals can prevent natural disasters. Integrating green infrastructure and urban renewals may have great effect on adapting the impact of climate change. To highlight the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals, some strategies need to be carry on to reduce environmental impact. A number of urban renewals studies has been conducted on right transfer, financial risk, urban renewal policy, and public participation. Little research has been devoted on the subject of the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the affecting factors on the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. This study will present the benefits of green infrastructure development and summarize the critical factors of green infrastructure develop on urban renewals for real essence and non-real essence on economic value from literature. Our results indicate that factors of housing price, land value, floor area incentive, and facilitation of the construction industry affect the outcome of real essence economic value. Factors of enhancement of urban disaster prevention, improvement of urban environment and landscape, crime reduction, climate control, pollution reduction, biological diversity, health impacts, and leisure space affects the outcome of non-real essence economic value.

Keywords: Urban development, economic value, Green Infrastructure, urban renewals

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13 The Use of Sustainability Criteria on Infrastructure Design to Encourage Sustainable Engineering Solutions on Infrastructure Projects

Authors: Dhiren Allopi, Shian Saroop

Abstract:

In order to stay competitive and to meet upcoming stricter environmental regulations and customer requirements, designers have a key role in designing civil infrastructure so that it is environmentally sustainable. There is an urgent need for engineers to apply technologies and methods that deliver better and more sustainable performance of civil infrastructure as well as a need to establish a standard of measurement for greener infrastructure, rather than merely use tradition solutions. However, there are no systems in place at the design stage that assesses the environmental impact of design decisions on township infrastructure projects. This paper identifies alternative eco-efficient civil infrastructure design solutions and developed sustainability criteria and a toolkit to analyse the eco efficiency of infrastructure projects. The proposed toolkit is aimed at promoting high-performance, eco-efficient, economical and environmentally friendly design decisions on stormwater, roads, water and sanitation related to township infrastructure projects. These green solutions would bring a whole new class of eco-friendly solutions to current infrastructure problems, while at the same time adding a fresh perspective to the traditional infrastructure design process. A variety of projects were evaluated using the green infrastructure toolkit and their results are compared to each other, to assess the results of using greener infrastructure verses the traditional method of designing infrastructure. The application of ‘green technology’ would ensure a sustainable design of township infrastructure services assisting the design to consider alternative resources, the environmental impacts of design decisions, ecological sensitivity issues, innovation, maintenance and materials, at the design stage of a project.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Green Infrastructure, Eco-Efficiency, Infrastructure Design

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12 A Comprehensive Planning Model for Amalgamation of Intensification and Green Infrastructure

Authors: Sara Saboonian, Pierre Filion

Abstract:

The dispersed-suburban model has been the dominant one across North America for the past seventy years, characterized by automobile reliance, low density, and land-use specialization. Two planning models have emerged as possible alternatives to address the ills inflicted by this development pattern. First, there is intensification, which promotes efficient infrastructure by connecting high-density, multi-functional, and walkable nodes with public transit services within the suburban landscape. Second is green infrastructure, which provides environmental health and human well-being by preserving and restoring ecosystem services. This research studies incompatibilities and the possibility of amalgamating the two alternatives in an attempt to develop a comprehensive alternative to suburban model that advocates density, multi-functionality and transit- and pedestrian-conduciveness, with measures capable of mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of compactness. The research investigates three Canadian urban growth centers, where intensification is the current planning practice, and the awareness of green infrastructure benefits is on the rise. However, these three centers are contrasted by their development stage, the presence or absence of protected natural land, their environmental approach, and their adverse environmental consequences according to the planning cannons of different periods. The methods include reviewing the literature on green infrastructure planning, criticizing the Ontario provincial plans for intensification, surveying residents’ preferences for alternative models, and interviewing officials who deal with the local planning for the centers. Moreover, the research draws on recalling debates between New Urbanism and Landscape/Ecological Urbanism. The case studies expose the difficulties in creating urban growth centres that accommodate green infrastructure while adhering to intensification principles. First, the dominant status of intensification and the obstacles confronting intensification have monopolized the planners’ concerns. Second, the tension between green infrastructure and intensification explains the absence of the green infrastructure typologies that correspond to intensification-compatible forms and dynamics. Finally, the lack of highlighted social-economic benefits of green infrastructure reduces residents’ participation. Moreover, the results from the research provide insight into predominating urbanization theories, New Urbanism and Landscape/Ecological Urbanism. In order to understand political, planning, and ecological dynamics of such blending, dexterous context-specific planning is required. Findings suggest the influence of the following factors on amalgamating intensification and green infrastructure. Initially, producing ecosystem services-based justifications for green infrastructure development in the intensification context provides an expert-driven backbone for the implementation programs. This knowledge-base should be translated to effectively imbue different urban stakeholders. Moreover, due to the limited greenfields in intensified areas, spatial distribution and development of multi-level corridors such as pedestrian-hospitable settings and transportation networks along green infrastructure measures are required. Finally, to ensure the long-term integrity of implemented green infrastructure measures, significant investment in public engagement and education, as well as clarification of management responsibilities is essential.

Keywords: Planning, ecosystem services, Green Infrastructure, intensification

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11 Towards Green(er) Cities: The Role of Spatial Planning in Realising the Green Agenda

Authors: Elizelle Juanee Cilliers

Abstract:

The green hype is becoming stronger within various disciplines, modern practices and academic thinking, enforced by concepts such as eco-health, eco-tourism, eco-cities, and eco-engineering. There is currently also an expanded scientific understanding regarding the value and benefits relating to green infrastructure, for both communities and their host cities, linked to broader sustainability and resilience thinking. The integration and implementation of green infrastructure as part of spatial planning approaches and municipal planning, are, however, more complex, especially in South Africa, inflated by limitations of budgets and human resources, development pressures, inequities in terms of green space availability and political legacies of the past. The prevailing approach to spatial planning is further contributing to complexity, linked to misguided perceptions of the function and value of green infrastructure. As such, green spaces are often considered a luxury, and green infrastructure a costly alternative, resulting in green networks being susceptible to land-use changes and under-prioritized in local authority decision-making. Spatial planning, in this sense, may well be a valuable tool to realise the green agenda, encapsulating various initiatives of sustainability as provided by a range of disciplines. This paper aims to clarify the importance and value of green infrastructure planning as a component of spatial planning approaches, in order to inform and encourage local authorities to embed sustainability thinking into city planning and decision-making approaches. It reflects on the decisive role of land-use management to guide the green agenda and refers to some recent planning initiatives. Lastly, it calls for trans-disciplinary planning approaches to build a case towards green(er) cities.

Keywords: Spatial planning, Integrative, transdisciplinary, Green Infrastructure

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10 Restoring Urban South Africa through a Sustainable Green Infrastructure Approach

Authors: E. J. Cilliers, Z. Goosen

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Referring to the entire green network within urban environments, at all spatial scales, green infrastructure is considered as an important constituent of sustainable development within urban areas through planning for a healthy environment and simultaneously improving quality of life for the people. Green infrastructure has made its appearance internationally in terms of the infrastructural urban environment focussing on ecological systems and sustaining society while building with nature. Within South Africa, the terminology of green infrastructure has, however, not continuously been entertained, mainly due to more pressing realities and challenges faced within urban areas of South Africa that include but are not limited to basic service provision, financial constraints and a lack of guiding policies and frameworks. But the notion of green infrastructure planning has changes, creating a newfound movement within urban areas of South Africa encouraging green infrastructure for urban resilience. Although green infrastructure is not an entirely new concept within the local context of South Africa, the benefits thereof constantly needs to be identified in order to measure the value of green infrastructure. Consequently challenges faces within urban areas of South Africa, in terms of human and nature, could be restored through focussing on a sustainable green infrastructure approach. This study does not focus on the pressing challenges and realities faced within urban areas of South Africa but rather aims solely on improving a green infrastructure approach within urban areas of South Africa. At the outset, the study will commence by introducing the concept of a green infrastructure approach by means of a local and international comparison. This will ensure an improved conceptual understanding of green infrastructure within a local South African context. The green infrastructure concept will be elaborated on through the inclusion of South African case study evaluations. The selected case studies will illustrate existing green infrastructure implementation within South Africa along with the benefits provided through the implementation thereof in terms of human (the people) and nature (the natural environment). As green infrastructure within South Africa continues to remain a fairly new concept with moderate levels of implementation thereof, room for improving on the approach in terms of implementation and maintenance exist. For this reason, the study will conclude with alternative green infrastructure suggestions and approaches to possibly be enforced within South Africa, led by international best practices.

Keywords: Sustainability, Green Infrastructure, international best practices, urban South Africa

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9 A Case Study Approach to the Rate the Eco Sensitivity of Green Infrastructure Solutions

Authors: D. Allopi, S. Saroop

Abstract:

In the area of civil infrastructure, there is an urgent need to apply technologies that deliver infrastructure sustainably in a way that is cost-effective. Civil engineering projects can have a significant impact on ecological and social systems if not correctly planned, designed and implemented. It can impact climate change by addressing the issue of flooding and sustainability. Poor design choices now can result in future generations to live in a climate with depleted resources and without green spaces. The objectives of the research study were to rate the sensitivity of various greener infrastructure technologies that can be used in township infrastructure, at the various stages of the project. This paper discusses the Green Township Infrastructure Design Toolkit, that is used to rate the sustainability of infrastructure service projects. Various case studies were undertaken on a range of infrastructure projects to test the sensitivity of various design solution against sustainability criteria. The Green reporting tools ensure efficient, economical and sustainable provision of infrastructure services.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Green Technology, Green Infrastructure, Eco-Efficiency, Infrastructure Design

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8 Grassroots Innovation for Greening Bangladesh's Urban Slums: The Role of Local Agencies

Authors: Razia Sultana

Abstract:

The chapter investigates the roles of local Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) in climate change adaptation through grassroots innovation in urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The section highlights green infrastructure as an innovative process to mitigate the challenges emanating from climate change at the bottom of the pyramid. The research draws on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 11 NGOs and 2 CBOs working in various slums in Dhaka. The study explores the activities of local agencies relating to urban green infrastructure (UGI) and its possible mitigation of a range of climate change impacts: thermal discomfort, heat stress, flooding and the urban heat island. The main argument of the chapter is unlike the Global North stakeholders’ activities relating to UGI in cities of the Global South have not been expanded on a large scale. Moreover, UGI as a risk management strategy is underutilised in the developing countries. The study finds that, in the context of Bangladesh, climate change adaptation through green infrastructure in cities is still nascent for local NGOs and CBOs. Mostly their activities are limited to addressing the basic needs of slum communities such as water and sanitation. Hence urban slum dwellers have been one of the most vulnerable groups in that they are deprived of the city’s basic ecological services. NGOs are utilizing UGI in an innovative way despite various problems in slums. For instance, land scarcity and land insecurity in slums are two key areas where UGI faces resistance. There are limited instances of NGOs using local and indigenous techniques to encourage slum dwellers to adopt UGI for creating sustainable environments. It is in this context that the paper is an attempt to showcase some of the grassroots innovation that NGOs are currently adopting in slums. Also, some challenges and opportunities are discussed to address UGI as a strategy for climate change adaptation in slums.

Keywords: Green Infrastructure, Climate Change Adaptation, slums, Dhaka, NGOs

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7 Sustainable Mitigation of Urban Stormwater Runoff: The Applicability of Green Infrastructure Approach in Finnish Climate

Authors: Rima Almalla

Abstract:

The purpose of the research project in Geography is to evaluate the applicability of urban green infrastructure approach in Finnish climate. The key focus will be on the operation and efficiency of green infrastructure on urban stormwater management. Green infrastructure approach refers to the employment of sufficient green covers as a modern and smart environmental solution to improve the quality of urban environments. Green infrastructure provides a wide variety of micro-scale ecosystem services, such as stormwater runoff management, regulation of extreme air temperatures, reduction of energy consumption, plus a variety of social benefits and human health and wellbeing. However, the cold climate of Finland with seasonal ground frost, snow cover and relatively short growing season bring about questions of whether green infrastructure works as efficiently as expected. To tackle this question, green infrastructure solutions will be studied and analyzed with manifold methods: stakeholder perspectives regarding existing and planned GI solutions will be collected by web based questionnaires, semi structured interviews and group discussions, and analyzed in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Targeted empirical field campaigns will be conducted on selected sites. A systematic literature review with global perspective will support the analyses. The findings will be collected, compiled and analyzed using geographic information systems (GIS). The findings of the research will improve our understanding of the functioning of green infrastructure in the Finnish environment in urban stormwater management, as a landscape element for citizens’ wellbeing, and in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The acquired information will be shared with stakeholders in interactive co-design workshops. As green covers have great demand and potential globally, the conclusions will have relevance in other cool climate regions and may support Finnish business in green infrastructure sector.

Keywords: Climate Change, Stormwater, Green Infrastructure, Climate Change Adaptation

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6 Informal Green Infrastructure as Mobility Enabler in Informal Settlements of Quito

Authors: Ignacio W. Loor

Abstract:

In the context of informal settlements in Quito, this paper provides evidence that slopes and deep ravines typical of Andean cities, around which marginalized urban communities sit, constitute a platform for green infrastructure that supports mobility for pedestrians in an incremental fashion. This is informally shaped green infrastructure that provides connectivity to other mobility infrastructures such as roads and public transport, which permits relegated dwellers reach their daily destinations and reclaim their rights to the city. This is relevant in that walking has been increasingly neglected as a viable mean of transport in Latin American cities, in favor of rather motorized means, for which the mobility benefits of green infrastructure have remained invisible to policymakers, contributing to the progressive isolation of informal settlements. This research leverages greatly on an ecological rejuvenation programme led by the municipality of Quito and the Andean Corporation for Development (CAN) intended for rehabilitating the ecological functionalities of ravines. Accordingly, four ravines in different stages of rejuvenation were chosen, in order to through ethnographic methods, capture the practices they support to dwellers of informal settlements across different stages, particularly in terms of issues of mobility. Then, by presenting fragments of interviews, description of observed phenomena, photographs and narratives published in institutional reports and media, the production process of mobility infrastructure over unoccupied slopes and ravines, and the roles that this infrastructure plays in the mobility of dwellers and their quotidian practices are explained. For informal settlements, which normally feature scant urban infrastructure, mobility embodies an unfavourable driver for the possibilities of dwellers to actively participate in the social, economic and political dimensions of the city, for which their rights to the city are widely neglected. Nevertheless, informal green infrastructure for mobility provides some alleviation. This infrastructure is incremental, since its features and usability gradually evolves as users put into it knowledge, labour, devices, and connectivity to other infrastructures in different dimensions which increment its dependability. This is evidenced in the diffusion of knowledge of trails and routes of footpaths among users, the implementation of linking stairs and bridges, the improved access by producing public spaces adjacent to the ravines, the illuminating of surrounding roads, and ultimately, the restoring of ecological functions of ravines. However, the perpetuity of this type of infrastructure is also fragile and vulnerable to the course of urbanisation, densification, and expansion of gated privatised spaces.

Keywords: Urban Mobility, Green Infrastructure, Walkability, informal settlements

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5 A Future Urban Street Design in Baltimore, Maryland Based on a Hierarchy of Functional Needs and the Context of Autonomous Vehicles, Green Infrastructure, and Evolving Street Typologies

Authors: Samuel Quick

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The purpose of this paper is to examine future urban street design in the context of developing technologies, evolving street typologies, and projected transportation trends. The goal was to envision a future urban street in the year 2060 that addresses the advent and implementation of autonomous vehicles, the promotion of new street typologies, and the projection of current transportation trends. Using a hierarchy of functional needs for urban streets, the future street was designed and evaluated based on the functions the street provides to the surrounding community. The site chosen for the future street design is an eight-block section of West North Avenue in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Three different conceptual designs were initially completed and evaluated leading to a master plan for West North Avenue as well as street designs for connecting streets that represent different existing street types. Final designs were compared with the existing street design and evaluated with the adapted ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ theory. The review of the literature and the results from this paper indicate that urban streets will have to become increasingly multi-functional to meet the competing needs of the environment and community. Future streets will have to accommodate multimodal transit which will include mass transit, walking, and biking. Furthermore, a comprehensive implementation of green infrastructure within the urban street will provide access to nature for urban communities and essential stormwater management. With these developments, the future of an urban street will move closer to a greenway typology. Findings from this study indicate that urban street design will have to be policy-driven to promote and implement autonomous bus-rapid-transit in order to conserve street space for other functions. With this conservation of space, urban streets can then provide more functions to the surrounding community, taking a holistic approach to urban street design.

Keywords: Green Infrastructure, Autonomous Vehicle, greenway, multi-modality, street typology

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4 Building Green Infrastructure Networks Based on Cadastral Parcels Using Network Analysis

Authors: Gon Park

Abstract:

Seoul in South Korea established the 2030 Seoul City Master Plan that contains green-link projects to connect critical green areas within the city. However, the plan does not have detailed analyses for green infrastructure to incorporate land-cover information to many structural classes. This study maps green infrastructure networks of Seoul for complementing their green plans with identifying and raking green areas. Hubs and links of main elements of green infrastructure have been identified from incorporating cadastral data of 967,502 parcels to 135 of land use maps using geographic information system. Network analyses were used to rank hubs and links of a green infrastructure map with applying a force-directed algorithm, weighted values, and binary relationships that has metrics of density, distance, and centrality. The results indicate that network analyses using cadastral parcel data can be used as the framework to identify and rank hubs, links, and networks for the green infrastructure planning under a variable scenarios of green areas in cities.

Keywords: Network Analysis, Green Infrastructure, Cadastral Data, parcel data

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3 Seeking Compatibility between Green Infrastructure and Recentralization: The Case of Greater Toronto Area

Authors: Sara Saboonian, Pierre Filion

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There are two distinct planning approaches attempting to transform the North American suburb so as to reduce its adverse environmental impacts. The first one, the recentralization approach, proposes intensification, multi-functionality and more reliance on public transit and walking. It thus offers an alternative to the prevailing low-density, spatial specialization and automobile dependence of the North American suburb. The second approach concentrates instead on the provision of green infrastructure, which rely on natural systems rather than on highly engineered solutions to deal with the infrastructure needs of suburban areas. There are tensions between these two approaches as recentralization generally overlooks green infrastructure, which can be space consuming (as in the case of water retention systems), and thus conflicts with the intensification goals of recentralization. The research investigates three Canadian planned suburban centres in the Greater Toronto Area, where recentralization is the current planning practice, despite rising awareness of the benefits of green infrastructure. Methods include reviewing the literature on green infrastructure planning, a critical analysis of the Ontario provincial plans for recentralization, surveying residents’ preferences regarding alternative suburban development models, and interviewing officials who deal with the local planning of the three centres. The case studies expose the difficulties in creating planned suburban centres that accommodate green infrastructure while adhering to recentralization principles. Until now, planners have been mostly focussed on recentralization at the expense of green infrastructure. In this context, the frequent lack of compatibility between recentralization and the space requirements of green infrastructure explains the limited presence of such infrastructures in planned suburban centres. Finally, while much attention has been given in the planning discourse to the economic and lifestyle benefits of recentralization, much less has been made of the wide range of advantages of green infrastructure, which explains limited public mobilization over the development of green infrastructure networks. The paper will concentrate on ways of combining recentralization with green infrastructure strategies and identify the aspects of the two approaches that are most compatible with each other. The outcome of such blending will marry high density, public-transit oriented developments, which generate walkability and street-level animation, with the presence of green space, naturalized settings and reliance on renewable energy. The paper will advance a planning framework that will fuse green infrastructure with recentralization, thus ensuring the achievement of higher density and reduced reliance on the car along with the provision of critical ecosystem services throughout cities. This will support and enhance the objectives of both green infrastructure and recentralization.

Keywords: Green Infrastructure, environmental-based planning, multi-functionality, recentralization

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2 Residents’ Awareness of Green Infrastructure Types in the Neighbourhood: Panacea for Biodiversity Conservation

Authors: Adedotun Ayodele Dipeolu, Olusegun Ayotunde Oriola

Abstract:

Rapid urban growth has led to the loss of contact with nature for most urban residents. While Green Infrastructure (GI) is promoted as a strategy to manage ecosystems’ functionality, the extent to which residents are aware of GI types which serve as alternatives to conventional landscapes to be conserved remains unclear. This paper examines the awareness level of GI types among residents of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria and the association of their demographic characteristics with the level of awareness. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 1560 residents who completed semi-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to explore data distributions while t-test assessed the differences in the awareness level of the male and female participants. From the 23 different types of GI facilities identified in the study area, residents reported a high level of awareness on just five of them. These include green gardens, green parks, grasses, street trees, and sports fields but a low level of awareness of the remaining 18 GI types. Awareness of GI types is presently low in the study area. Increased awareness will encourage care and protection of green infrastructure by residents which will consequently enhance availability and conservation of more biodiversity in Lagos, Nigeria, and other nations.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, Environmental Sustainability, awareness, Green Infrastructure, urban centres

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1 Enhancing Green Infrastructure as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in Addis Ababa: Unlocking Institutional, Socio-Cultural and Cognitive Barriers for Application

Authors: Eyasu Markos Woldesemayat, Paolo Vincenzo Genovese

Abstract:

In recent years with an increase in the concentration of Green House Gases (GHG), Climate Change (CC) externalities are mounting, regardless of governments, are scrambling to implement mitigation and adaptation measures. With multiple social, economic and environmental benefits, Green Infrastructure (GI) has evolved as a highly valuable policy tool to promote sustainable development and smart growth by meeting multiple objectives towards quality of life. However, despite the wide range of benefits, it's uptake in African cities such as Addis Ababa is very low due to several constraining factors. This study, through content analysis and key informant interviews, examined barriers for the uptake of GI among spatial planners in Addis Ababa. Added to this, the study has revealed that the spatial planners had insufficient knowledge about GI planning principles such as multi-functionality, integration, and connectivity, and multiscale. The practice of implementing these holistic principles in urban spatial planning is phenomenally nonexistent. The findings also revealed 20 barriers categorized under four themes, i.e., institutional, socio-cultural, resource, and cognitive barriers. Similarly, it was identified that institutional barriers (0.756), socio-cultural barriers (0.730), cognitive barriers (0.700) and resource barriers (0.642), respectively, are the foremost impending factors for the promotion of GI in Addis Ababa. It was realized that resource barriers were the least constraining factor for enshrining the GI uptake in the city. Strategies to hasten the adoption of GI in the city mainly focus on improving political will, harmonization sectorial plans, improve spatial planning and implementation practice, prioritization of GI in all planning activities, enforcement of environmental laws, introducing collaborative GI governance, creating strong and stable institutions and raising awareness on the need to conserve environment and CC externalities through education and outreach mechanisms.

Keywords: Climate Change, Spatial planning, Green Infrastructure, Addis Ababa, spatial planners

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