Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Greece Related Abstracts

18 Environmental Performance of Olive Oil Production in Greece

Authors: P. Tsarouhas, Ch. Achillas, D. Aidonis, D. Folinas, V. Maslis, N. Moussiopoulos


Agricultural production is a sector with high socioeconomic significance and key implications on employment and nutritional security. However, the impacts of agrifood production and consumption patterns on the environment are considerable, mainly due to the demand of large inputs of resources. This paper presents a case study of olive oil production in Greece, an important agri-product especially for countries in the Mediterranean basin. Life Cycle Analysis has been used to quantify the environmental performance of olive oil production. All key parameters that are associated with the life cycle of olive oil production are studied and environmental “hotspots” are diagnosed.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Greece, Case study, LCA, olive oil production

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17 The Vulnerability of a Small, Open Economy in a Situation of Global Fiscal Crisis: The Impact of the Greek Debt Crisis on the Foreign Direct Investments to Macedonia

Authors: Viktorija Mano


The objective of my research is to critique the International Monetary Fund (IMF) stance on foreign investment and the benefits for small, open economies of allowing the free movement of capital. In my research as a whole I will explore the extent to which this stance impacted upon and influenced the economic policies of Macedonia. This will involve providing a contextualized, critical account of the policy of the IMF focusing on a comparison of its policies during the early 2000s through policy documents, political discourse and enacted policies in Macedonia. The conditionality associated with these policies, such as the enforcement of austerity measures (including cutting public spending and reducing debt) and the privatization of public institutions has provoked strong reactions in countries which receive such loans. My main focus in my research is on exploring how the process of Financial Liberalization (FL) of the Macedonian economy affected capital flows in the form of foreign direct investments (FDI) in the private sector and how the recent Greek crisis of 2008 has impacted on this. In the case of Macedonia, the reality of FL was tested by the collapse of the Greek economy. However, this paper will highlight the main duties of the IMF and the goals of the FL process implemented in various countries.Additionally, I will undertake a rhetorical documentary analysis on the IMF reports regarding the process of FL in Macedonia since its independence until today.

Keywords: Greece, Macedonia, FDI, financial liberalization, IMF

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16 Cognitive Performance and Everyday Functionality in Healthy Greek Seniors

Authors: George Pavlidis, Ana Vivas


The demographic change into an aging population has stimulated the examination of seniors’ mental health and ability to live independently. The corresponding literature depicts the relation between cognitive decline and everyday functionality with aging, focusing largely in individuals that are reaching or have bridged the threshold of various forms of neuropathology and disability. In this context, recent meta-analysis depicts a moderate relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality in AD sufferers. However, there has not been an analogous effort for the examination of this relation in the healthy spectrum of aging (i.e, in samples that are not challenged from a neurodegenerative disease). There is a consensus that the assessment tools designed to detect neuropathology with those that assess cognitive performance in healthy adults are distinct, thus their universal use in cognitively challenged and in healthy adults is not always valid. The same accounts for the assessment of everyday functionality. In addition, it is argued that everyday functionality should be examined with cultural adjusted assessment tools, since many vital everyday tasks are heterotypical among distinct cultures. Therefore, this study was set out to examine the relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality a) in the healthy spectrum of aging and b) by adjusting the everyday functionality tools EPT and OTDL-R in the Greek cultural context. In Greece, 107 cognitively healthy seniors ( Mage = 62.24) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and everyday functionality tests. Both were carefully chosen to be sensitive in fluctuations of performance in the healthy spectrum of cognitive performance and everyday functionality. The everyday functionality assessment tools were modified to reflect the local cultural context (i.e., EPT-G and OTDL-G). The results depicted that performance in all everyday functionality measures decline with age (.197 < r > .509). Statistically significant correlations emerged between cognitive performance and everyday functionality assessments that range from r =0.202 to r=0.510. A series of independent regression analysis including the scores of cognitive assessments has yield statistical significant models that explained 20.9 < AR2 > 32.4 of the variance in everyday functionality scored indexes. All everyday functionality measures were independently predicted by the TMT B-A index, and indicator of executive function. Stepwise regression analyses depicted that TMT B-A and age were statistically significant independent predictors of EPT-G and OTDL-G. It was concluded that everyday functionality is declining with age and that cognitive performance and everyday functional may be related in the healthy spectrum of aging. Age seems not to be the sole contributing factor in everyday functionality decline, rather executive control as well. Moreover, it was concluded that the EPT-G and OTDL-G are valuable tools to assess everyday functionality in Greek seniors that are not cognitively challenged, especially for research purposes. Future research should examine the contributing factors of a better cognitive vitality especially in executive control, as vital for the maintenance of independent living capacity with aging.

Keywords: Cognition, Aging, Cognitive Decline, Greece, Healthy Aging, everyday functionality

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15 A Generation Outside: Afghan Refugees in Greece 2003-2016

Authors: Kristina Colovic, Mari Janikian, Nikolaos Takis, Fotini-Sonia Apergi


A considerable number of Afghan asylum seekers in Greece are still waiting for answers about their future and status for personal, social and societal advancement. Most have been trapped in a stalemate of continuously postponed or temporarily progressed levels of integration into the EU/Greek process of asylum. Limited quantitative research exists investigating the psychological effects of long-term displacement among Afghans refugees in Greece. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that are associated with and predict psychological distress symptoms among this population. Data from a sample of native Afghan nationals (N > 70) living in Greece for approximately the last ten years will be collected from May to July 2016. Criteria for participation include the following: being 18 years of age or older, and emigration from Afghanistan to Greece from 2003 onwards (i.e., long-term refugees or part of the 'old system of asylum'). Snowball sampling will be used to recruit participants, as this is considered the most effective option when attempting to study refugee populations. Participants will complete self-report questionnaires, consisting of the Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL), a culturally validated measure of psychological distress, the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF), an adapted version of the Comprehensive Trauma Inventory-104 (CTI-104), and a modified Psychological Acculturation Scale. All instruments will be translated in Greek, through the use of forward- and back-translations by bilingual speakers of English and Greek, following WHO guidelines. A pilot study with 5 Afghan participants will take place to check for discrepancies in understanding and for further adapting the instruments as needed. Demographic data, including age, gender, year of arrival to Greece and current asylum status will be explored. Three different types of analyses (descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression) will be used in this study. Descriptive findings for respondent demographics, psychological distress symptoms, traumatic life events and quality of life will be reported. Zero-order correlations will assess the interrelationships among demographic, traumatic life events, psychological distress, and quality of life variables. Lastly, a multivariate linear regression model will be estimated. The findings from the study will contribute to understanding the determinants of acculturation, distress and trauma on daily functioning for Afghans in Greece. The main implications of the current study will be to advocate for capacity building and empower communities through effective program evaluation and design for mental health services for all refugee populations in Greece.

Keywords: Mental Health, Evaluation, Quality of Life, Greece, Afghan refugees

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14 Housing Practices of the Young Southern Europeans in Connection with Family Strategies during the Crisis

Authors: Myrto Dagkouli-Kyriakoglou


Southern European countries tend to have a lot of connections in their culture, customs, ideals and attitude towards everyday aspects. On the contrary, all of them demonstrate a lot of differences in their history, political life and economic situation. Nevertheless, the state welfare and its insufficiency to deal with citizens’ needs, is common for the whole region. As the global financial crisis initiated, all of them gradually were affected and established austerity measures. Consequently, there were crucial budget cuts in state welfare and accordingly limited support to the citizens at a time that is most needed as the economic difficulties of the households are rising rapidly. Crisis in connection with austerity measures brought up a housing problem which was hidden for decades with the assistance of the institution of the Southern European family. New or old copying practices concerning housing are already developed and more will rise in order to survive this new era. Expressly, youth is one of the most vulnerable groups in this situation and therefore there is a special focus on the policies that affect their housing as well as their copying practices in connection with the family/kinship strategies.

Keywords: Housing, Greece, coping practices, familism

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13 From Economic Crisis to Environmental Sustainability: The Case of Greece

Authors: Marula Tsagkari


Greece finds itself in challenging times, facing a severe economic slowdown since 2009. Despite the fact that Greece is in the epicenter of the global interest, to the best of our knowledge there is no extend research on how the crisis has affected the Greek environment (directly and indirectly), the past years. Thus, the present study aims to fill the aforementioned research gap by examining a number of environmental indicators related with air emissions, waste, water and energy. Our results indicate that the crisis affected the Greek environment in both positive and negative ways. For Greece, the main challenge is to recover from the present economic recession as soon as possible, but not at any cost to the environment. In this context, this research unfolds the interrelation between the economic and the environmental crisis and suggests a sustainable restructuring of the Greek economy.

Keywords: Environmental policy, Environmental Indicators, Greece, Economic Crisis

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12 Comparative Study of Globalization and Homogenous Society: South Korea and Greek Society Reaction to Foreign Culture

Authors: Putri Mentari Racharjo


The development of current technology is simplifying globalization process. An easier globalization process and mobilization are increasing interactions among individuals and societies in different countries. It is also easier for foreign culture to enter a country and create changes to the society. Differences brought by foreign culture will most likely affect any society. It will be easier for heterogeneous society to accept new culture, considering that they have various cultures, and they are used to differences. So it will be easier for a heterogeneous society to accept new culture as long as the culture is not contrary to their essential values. However for a homogenous society, where they have only one language and culture, it will take a longer adjustment time to fully accept the new culture. There will be a tendency for homogenous societies to react in a more negative way to new culture. Greece and South Korea are the examples for homogeneous societies. Greece, a destination country for immigrants, is having a hard time adjusting themselves to accept many immigrants with many cultures. There are various discrimination cases of immigrants in Greece, when the Greek society cannot fully accept the new culture brought by immigrants. South Korea, a newly popular country with K-pop and K-dramas, is attracting people from all over the world to come to South Korea. However a homogenous South Korean society is also having a hard time to fully accept foreign cultures, resulting in many discrimination cases based on race and culture in South Korea. With a qualitative method through a case study and literature review, this article will discuss about Greek and South Korean societies reaction to new cultures as an effect of globalization.

Keywords: Globalization, Greece, South Korea, foreign culture, homogenous society

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11 Clothing Features of Greek Orthodox Woman Immigrants in Konya (Iconium)

Authors: Kenan Saatcioglu, Fatma Koc


When the immigration is considered, it has been found that communities were continuously influenced by the immigrations from the date of the emergence of mankind until the day. The political, social and economic reasons seen at the various periods caused the communities go to new places from where they have lived before. Immigrations have occurred as a result of unequal opportunities among communities, social exclusion and imposition, compulsory homeland emerging politically, exile and war. Immigration is a social tool that is defined as a geographical relocation of people from a housing unit (city, village etc.) to another to spend all or part of their future lives. Immigrations have an effect on the history of humanity directly or indirectly, revealing new dimensions for communities to evaluate the concept of homeland. With these immigrations, communities carried their cultural values to their new settlements leading to a new interaction process. With this interaction process both migrant and native community cultures were reshaped and richer cultural values emerged. The clothes of these communities are amongst the most important visual evidence of this rich cultural interaction. As a result of these immigrations, communities affected each other culture’s clothing mutually and they started adding features of other cultures to the garments of its own, resulting new clothing cultures in time. The cultural and historical differences between these communities are seem to be the most influential factors of keeping the clothing cultures of the people alive. The most important and tragic of these immigrations took place after the Turkish War of Independence that was fought against Greece in 1922. The concept of forced immigration was a result of Lausanne Peace Treaty, which was signed between Turkish and Greek governments on 30th January 1923. As a result Greek Orthodoxes, who lived in Turkey (Anatolia and Thrace) and Muslim Turks, who lived in Greece were forced to immigrate. In this study, clothing features of Greek Orthodox woman immigrants who emigrated from Turkey to Greece in the period of the ‘1923 Greek-Turkish Population Exchange’ are aimed to be examined. In the study using the descriptive research method, before the ‘1923 Greek-Turkish Population Exchange’, the clothings belong to Greek Orthodox woman immigrants who lived in ‘Konya (Iconium)’ region in the Ottoman Empire, are discussed. In the study that is based on two different clothings belonging to ‘Konya (Iconium)’ region in the clothing collection archive at the ‘National Historical Museum’ in Greece, clothings of the Greek Orthodox woman immigrants are discussed with cultural norms, beliefs, values as well as in terms of form, ornamentation and dressing styles. Technical drawings are provided demonstrating formal features of the clothing parts that formed clothing integrity and their properties are described with the use of related literature in this study. This study is of importance that that it contains Greek Orthodox refugees’ clothings that are found in the clothing collection archive at the ‘National Historical Museum’ in Greece reflecting the cultural identities, providing information and documentation on the clothing features of the ‘1923 Greek-Turkish Population Exchange’.

Keywords: Turkey, Clothing, Immigration, Greece, Greek Orthodoxes, national historical museum

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10 Investigating Suicide Cases in Attica, Greece: Insight from an Autopsy-Based Study

Authors: Ioannis N. Sergentanis, Stavroula Papadodima, Maria Tsellou, Dimitrios Vlachodimitropoulos, Sotirios Athanaselis, Chara Spiliopoulou


Introduction: The aim of this study is the investigation of characteristics of suicide, as documented in autopsies during a five-year interval in the greater area of Attica, including the city of Athens. This could reveal possible protective or aggravating factors for suicide risk during a period strongly associated with the Greek debt crisis. Materials and Methods: Data was obtained following registration of suicide cases among autopsies performed in the Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, during the time interval from January 2011 to December 2015. Anonymity and medical secret were respected. A series of demographic and social factors in addition to special characteristics of suicide were entered into a specially established pre-coded database. These factors include social data as well as psychiatric background and certain autopsy characteristics. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Fisher’s exact test. The software used was STATA/SE 13 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA). Results: A total of 162 cases were studied, 128 men and 34 women. Age ranged from 14 to 97 years old with an average of 53 years, presenting two peaks around 40 and 60 years. A 56% of cases were single/ divorced/ widowed. 25% of cases occurred during the weekend, and 66% of cases occurred in the house. A predominance of hanging as the leading method of suicide (41.4%) followed by jumping from a height (22.8%) and firearms (19.1%) was noted. Statistical analysis showed an association was found between suicide method and gender (P < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test); specifically, no woman used a firearm while only one man used medication overdose (against four women). Discussion: Greece has historically been one of the countries with the lowest suicide rates in Europe. Given a possible change in suicide trends during the financial crisis, further research seems necessary in order to establish risk factors. According to our study, suicide is more frequent in men who are not married, inside their house. Gender seems to be a factor affecting the method of suicide. These results seem in accordance with the international literature. Stronger than expected predominance in male suicide can be associated with failure to live up to social and family expectations for financial reasons.

Keywords: Suicide, Greece, Autopsy, Risk Factors

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9 The Development of Cultural Routes: The Case of Greece

Authors: Elissavet Kosta


Introduction: In this research, we will propose the methodology, which is required for the planning of the cultural route in order to prepare substantiated proposals for the development and planning of cultural routes in Greece in the near future. Our research has started at 2016. Methodology in our research: Α combination of primary and secondary research will be used as project methodology. Furthermore, this study aims to follow a multidisciplinary approach, using dimensions of qualitative and quantitative data analysis models. Regarding the documentation of the theoretical part of the project, the method of secondary research will be mainly used, yet in combination with bibliographic sources. However, the data collection regarding the research topic will be conducted exclusively through primary research (questionnaires and interviews). Cultural Routes: The cultural route is defined as a brand name touristic product, that is a product of cultural tourism, which is shaped according to a specific connecting element. Given its potential, the cultural route is an important ‘tool’ for the management and development of cultural heritage. Currently, a constant development concerning the cultural routes is observed in an international level during the last decades, as it is widely accepted that cultural tourism has an important role in the world touristic industry. Cultural Routes in Greece: Especially for Greece, we believe, actions have not been taken to the systematic development of the cultural routes yet. The cultural routes that include Greece and have been design in a world scale as well as the cultural routes, which have been design in Greek ground up to this moment are initiations of the Council of Europe, World Tourism Organization UNWTO and ‘Diazoma’ association. Regarding the study of cultural routes in Greece as a multidimensional concept, the following concerns have arisen: Firstly, we are concerned about the general impact of cultural routes at local and national level and specifically in the economic sector. Moreover, we deal with the concerns regarding the natural environment and we delve into the educational aspect of cultural routes in Greece. In addition, the audience we aim at is both specific and broad and we put forward the institutional framework of the study. Finally, we conduct the development and planning of new cultural routes, having in mind the museums as both the starting and ending point of a route. Conclusion: The contribution of our work is twofold and lies firstly on the fact that we attempt to create cultural routes in Greece and secondly on the fact that an interdisciplinary approach is engaged towards realizing our study objective. In particular, our aim is to take advantage of all the ways in which the promotion of a cultural route can have a positive influence on the way of life of society. As a result, we intend to analyze how a cultural route can turn into a well-organized activity that can be used as social intervention to develop tourism, strengthen the economy and improve access to cultural goods in Greece during the economic crisis.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Cultural tourism, Greece, cultural routes

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8 European Refugee Camps and the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living: Advancing Accountability under International Human Rights Law

Authors: Genevieve Zingg


Since the onset of the 2015 ‘refugee crisis’ in the European Union (EU), migrant deaths have overwhelmingly occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. However, far less attention has been paid to the startling number of injuries, deaths, and allegations of systematic human rights violations occurring within European refugee camps. Most troubling is the assertion that injuries and deaths in EU refugee camps have occurred as a result of negligent management and poor access to healthcare, food, water and sanitation, and other elements that comprise an adequate standard of living under international human rights law. Using available evidence and documentation, this paper will conduct a thorough examination of the causes of death and injury in EU refugee camps, with a specific focus on Greece, in order to identify instances of negligence or conditions that amount to potential breaches of human rights law. Based on its analysis, this paper will subsequently explore potential legal avenues to achieving justice and accountability under international human rights law in order to effectively address and remedy inadequate standards of living causing wrongful death or injury in European refugee camps.

Keywords: Migration, Human Rights, Refugees, European Union, International Human Rights Law, Greece

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7 The Effectiveness of First World Asylum Practices in Deterring Applications, Offering Bureaucratic Deniability, and Violating Human Rights: A Greek Case Study

Authors: Claudia Huerta, Pepijn Doornenbal, Walaa Elsiddig


Rising waves of nationalism around the world have led first-world migration receiving countries to exploit the ambiguity of international refugee law and establish asylum application processes that deter applications, allow for bureaucratic deniability, and violate human rights. This case study of Greek asylum application practices argues that the 'pre-application' asylum process in Greece violates the spirit of international law by making it incredibly difficult for potential asylum seekers to apply for asylum, in essence violating the human rights of thousands of asylum seekers. This study’s focus is on the Greek mainland’s asylum 'pre-application' process, which in 2016 began to require those wishing to apply for asylum to do so during extremely restricted hours via a basic Skype line. The average wait to simply begin the registration process to apply for asylum is 81 days, during which time applicants are forced to live illegally in Greece. This study’s methodology in analyzing the 'pre-application' process consists of hours of interviews with asylum seekers, NGOs, and the Asylum Service office on the ground in Athens, as well as an analysis of the Greek Asylum Service historical asylum registration statistics. This study presents three main findings: the delays associated with the Skype system in Greece are the result of system design, as proven by a statistical analysis of Greek asylum registrations, NGOs have been co-opted by the state to perform state functions during the process, and the government’s use of technology is both purposefully lazy and discriminatory. In conclusion, the study argues that such asylum practices are part of a pattern of first-world migration receiving countries policies’ which discourage asylum seekers from applying and fall short of the standards in international law.

Keywords: Migration, Governance, Policy, European Union, Greece, irregular, refugee, Skype, asylum

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6 Illicit Return Practices of Irregular Migrants from Greece to Turkey

Authors: Enkelejda Koka, Denard Veshi


Since 2011, in the name of ‘humanitarianism’ and deaths in the Mediterranean Sea, the legal and political justification delivered by Greece to manage the refugee crisis is pre-emptive interception. Although part of the EU, Greece adopted its own strategy. These practices have also created high risks for migrants generally resulting in non-rescue episodes and push-back practices having lethal consequences to the life of the irregular migrant. Thus, this article provides an analysis of the Greek ‘compassionate border work’ policy, a practice known as push-back. It is argued that these push-back practices violate international obligations, notably the ‘right to life’, the ‘duty to search and rescue’, the prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and the principle of non-refoulement.

Keywords: Greece, migrants, push-back policy, violation of international law

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5 Changes in Attitudes of State Towards Orthodox Church: Greek Case after Eurozone Crisis in Alexis Tsipras Era

Authors: Zeynep Selin Balci, Altug Gunal


Religion has always an effect on the policies of states. In the case of religion having a central role in defining identity, especially when becoming an independent state, the bond between religious authority and state cannot easily be broken. As independence of Greece from the Ottoman Empire was acquired at the same time with the creation of its own church under the name of the Church of Greece by declaring its independence from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Istanbul, the new church became an important part of Greek national identity. As the Church has the ability to influence Greeks, its rituals, public appearances, and practices are used to provide support to the state. Although there sometimes have been controversies between church and state, it has always been a fact that church is an integral part of the state, which is proved by that paying the salaries of priest by state payroll and them being naturally civil servants. European Union membership, on the other hand, has a changing impact on this relationship. This impact started to be more visible in 2000 when then government decided to exclude the religion section from identity cards. Church’s reaction was to gather people around recalling their religious identity and followed by redefining the content of nationality, which aspired nationalist fronts. After 2015 when leftist coalition Syriza and its self-described atheist leader came to power, the situation for nationalists and Church became more tangling in addition to the economic crisis started in 2010 and evolved into the Eurozone crisis by affecting not only Greece but also other members. Although the church did not have direct confrontations with the government, the fact that Tsipras refused to take the oath on Bible created tensions because it was not acceptable for a state whose Constitution starts ‘in the name of the Holy, Consubstantial and Indivisible Trinity’. Moreover, austerity measures to overcome the economic crisis, which affected the everyday life of citizens in terms of both prices and salaries, did not harm the church’s economic situation much. Considering church being the second biggest landowner after state and paying no taxes, the fact that church was exempt from austerity measures showed to the government the necessity to find a way to make church contribute to solution for the crisis. In 2018, when the government agreed with the head of the church on cutting off the priests from government payroll automatically meaning to end priests’ civil servant status, it created tensions both for church and in society. As a result of the elections held in July 2019, Tsipras could not have the chance to apply the decision as he left the office. In light of these, this study aims to analyze the position of the church in the economic crisis and its effects on Tsipras term. In order to sufficiently understand this, it is to look at the historical changing points of Church’s influence in Greek’s eyes.

Keywords: Greece, eurozone crisis, Orthodox Church, Tsipras

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4 Tourism Economics and Tourism Development in Greece, in the Period of the Economic Adjustment Programmes

Authors: Aimilia Vlami


This paper examines the tourist economic development of Greece on the basis of the analysis of the main characteristics of the financing and development processes and the spatial and temporal structure of supply and demand. Taking into consideration the evolution of the economic planning and the policy for the tourist development of Greece over time, we study at the same time: the composition, the changes and the dynamics of the hotel industry in the last 20 years and especially the period of the economic adjustment programmes, where tourism has become a key pillar of development. It is clearly evident that this paper is written in a specific economic situation, which directs as much the emphases as the flow of arguments around the central question of balance of interventions in the tourist space, between the need for planning and practice of policy for sustainable tourist growth and in the de facto adaptation of fragmentary and urgent interventions of shaping and transforming the tourist space, as they are shaped by the requirements of various institutions and interest groups.

Keywords: Development, hospitality, Economic Policy, Greece, tourism investments

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3 Intergenerational Class Mobility in Greece: A Cross-Cohort Analysis with Evidence from European Union-Statistics on Income and Living Conditions

Authors: G. Stamatopoulou, M. Symeonaki, C. Michalopoulou


In this work, we study the intergenerational social mobility in Greece, in order to provide up-to-date evidence on the changes in the mobility patterns throughout the years. An analysis for both men and women aged between 25-64 years old is carried out. Three main research objectives are addressed. First, we aim to examine the relationship between the socio-economic status of parents and their children. Secondly, we investigate the evolution of the mobility patterns between different birth cohorts. Finally, the role of education is explored in shaping the mobility patterns. For the analysis, we draw data on both parental and individuals' social outcomes from different national databases. The social class of origins and destination is measured according to the European Socio-Economic Classification (ESeC), while the respondents' educational attainment is coded into categories based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Applying the Markov transition probability theory, and a range of measures and models, this work focuses on the magnitude and the direction of the movements that take place in the Greek labour market, as well as the level of social fluidity. Three-way mobility tables are presented, where the transition probabilities between the classes of destination and origins are calculated for different cohorts. Additionally, a range of absolute and relative mobility rates, as well as distance measures, are presented. The study covers a large time span beginning in 1940 until 1995, shedding light on the effects of the national institutional processes on the social movements of individuals. Given the evidence on the mobility patterns of the most recent birth cohorts, we also investigate the possible effects of the 2008 economic crisis.

Keywords: Education, Greece, Social Class, cohort analysis, intergenerational mobility

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2 Preliminary Results on Marine Debris Classification in The Island of Mykonos (Greece) via Coastal and Underwater Clean up over 2016-20: A Successful Case of Recycling Plastics into Useful Daily Items

Authors: Eleni Akritopoulou, Katerina Topouzoglou


The last 20 years marine debris has been identified as one of the main marine pollution sources caused by anthropogenic activities. Plastics has reached the farthest marine areas of the planet affecting all marine trophic levels including the, recently discovered, amphipoda Eurythenes plasticus inhabiting Mariana Trench to large cetaceans, marine reptiles and sea birds causing immunodeficiency disorders, deteriorating health and death overtime. For the time period 2016-20, in the framework of the national initiative ‘Keep Aegean Blue”, All for Blue team has been collecting marine debris (coastline and underwater) following a modified in situ MEDSEALITTER monitoring protocol from eight Greek islands. After collection, marine debris was weighted, sorted and categorised according to material; plastic (PL), glass (G), metal (M), wood (W), rubber (R), cloth (CL), paper (P), mixed (MX). The goal of the project included the documentation of marine debris sources, human trends, waste management and public marine environmental awareness. Waste management was focused on plastics recycling and utilisation into daily useful products. This research is focused on the island of Mykonos due to its continuous touristic activity and lack of scientific information. In overall, a field work area of 1.832.856 m2 was cleaned up yielding 5092 kg of marine debris. The preliminary results indicated PL as main source of marine debris (62,8%) followed by M (15,5%), GL (13,2%) and MX (2,8%). Main items found were fishing tools (lines, nets), disposable cutlery, cups and straws, cigarette butts, flip flops and other items like plastic boat compartments. In collaboration with a local company for plastic management and the Circular Economy and Eco Innovation Institute (Sweden), all plastic debris was recycled. Granulation process was applied transforming plastic into building materials used for refugees’ houses, litter bins bought by municipalities and schools and, other items like shower components. In terms of volunteering and attendance in public awareness seminars, there was a raise of interest by 63% from different age ranges and professions. Regardless, the research being fairly new for Mykonos island and logistics issues potentially affected systemic sampling, it appeared that plastic debris is the main littering source attributed, possibly to the intense touristic activity of the island all year around. However, marine environmental awareness activities were pointed out to be an effective tool in forming public perception against marine debris and, alter the daily habits of local society. Since the beginning of this project, three new local environmental teams were formed against marine pollution supported by the local authorities and stakeholders. The continuous need and request for the production of items made by recycled marine debris appeared to be beneficial socio-economically to the local community and actions are taken to expand the project nationally. Finally, as an ongoing project and whilst, new scientific information is collected, further funding and research is needed.

Keywords: Waste Management, Tourism, Greece, Recycled Plastic, marine debris, marine environmental awareness, Mykonos island, plastics debris, plastic granulation

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1 A Study of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in the Manganese Mining in Drama, Greece

Authors: Apostolia Argiri, Aikaterini Molla, Nikolaos Danalatos


The release of heavy metals into the environment has increased over the last years. A lot of studies have shown that heavy metal pollution in the environment comes from anthropogenic sources such as agriculture, urbanization, industrialization, and mining. In this study, twenty-five soil samples (0-15cm) from the fields which are near the mining were selected. The locations of sample sites were determined using a portable GPS. The samples were analyzed for seven heavy metals, namely Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn. In the laboratory, soil samples were air-dried at room temperature, then pulverized and sieved. Then 5g of the soil samples were digested in aqua regia (HNO3 - HCl. The total metal concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Mn) in digests were determined by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. According to the results, the mean concentration of the listed heavy metals in 25 soil samples are Cd 1.1mg/kg, Cr 15mg/kg, Cu 21.7mg/kg, Ni 30.1mg/kg, Pd 50.8mg/kg, Zn 99.5mg/kg and Mn 815.3mg/kg. The results show that the heavy metals remain in the soil even if the mining closed many years ago.

Keywords: Pollution, Mining, Heavy Metals, Greece

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