Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

grazing Related Abstracts

4 Performance of Heifer Camels (Camelus dromedarius) on Native Range Supplemented with Different Energy Levels

Authors: Muhammad, Shehu, B. F., Madigawa, I. L., H. A. Alkali

Abstract:

The study was conducted to assess heifer camel behavior and live weight changes on native range supplemented with different energy levels. A total of nine camels aged between 2 and 3 years were randomly allotted into three groups and supplemented with 3400, 3600 and 3800 Kcal and designated A, B and C, respectively. The data obtained was analyzed for variance in a Completely Randomized Design. The heifers utilized average of 371.70 min/day (64% of daylight time) browsing on native pasture and 2.30 min/day (6%) sand bathing. A significantly higher mean time was spent by heifers on browsing Leptadenia hastata (P<0.001), Dichrostachys cinerea (P<0.01), Acacia nilotica (P<0.001) and Ziziphus spina-christi (P<0.05) in early dry season (January). No significant difference was recorded on browsing time on Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Piliostigma reticulatum, Parkia biglobosaand Azadirachta indica. No significant (P<0.05) liveweight change was recorded on she-camels due to the three energy levels. It was concluded that nutritive browse species in the study area could meet camel nutrient requirements including energy. Further research on effect of period on camel nutrients requirement in different physiological conditions is recommended.

Keywords: camel, heifer, grazing, pasture

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3 Nutritional Value and Forage Quality Indicators in Some Rangeland’s Species at Different Vegetation Forms

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli

Abstract:

Information on different rangeland plants’ nutritive values at various phonological stages is important in rangelands management. This information helps rangeland managers to choose proper grazing times to achieve higher animal performance without detrimental effects on the rangeland vegetations. Effects of various plant parts’ phonological stages and vegetation types on reserve carbohydrates and forage quality indicators were investigated during the 2009 and 2010. Plant samples were collected in a completely randomized block (CRB) design. The species included, grasses (Secale montanum and Festuco ovina), forbs (Lotus corniculatus and Sanguisorba minor), and shrubs (Kochia prosterata and Salsola rigida). Aerial plant parts’ samples were oven-dried at 80oC for 24 hours, then analyzed for soluble carbohydrates, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter digestible (DMD), and metabolizable energy (ME). Results showed that plants at the seedling stage had more reserve carbohydrates and from the three vegetation types (grass, forbs, and shrub), forbs contained more soluble carbohydrates compared to the other two (grasses and shrubs). Differences in soluble carbohydrate contents of different species at various phonological stages in 2 years were statistically significant. The forage quality indicators (CP, ADF, DMD, and ME) in different species, in different vegetation types, in the 2 years were statistically significant, except for the CP.

Keywords: Protein, Fiber, grazing, soluble carbohydrate, metabolizeable energy

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2 An Evaluation of Different Weed Management Techniques in Organic Arable Systems

Authors: Nicola D. Cannon

Abstract:

A range of field experiments have been conducted since 1991 to 2017 on organic land at the Royal Agricultural University’s Harnhill Manor Farm near Cirencester, UK to explore the impact of different management practices on weed infestation in organic winter and spring wheat. The experiments were designed using randomised complete block and some with split plot arrangements. Sowing date, variety choice, crop height and crop establishment technique have all shown a significant impact on weed infestations. Other techniques have also been investigated but with less clear, but, still often significant effects on weed control including grazing with sheep, undersowing with different legumes and mechanical weeding techniques. Tillage treatments included traditional plough based systems, minimum tillage and direct drilling. Direct drilling had significantly higher weed dry matter than the other two techniques. Taller wheat varieties which do not contain Rht1 or Rht2 had higher weed populations than the wheat without dwarfing genes. Early sown winter wheat had greater weed dry matter than later sown wheat. Grazing with sheep interacted strongly with sowing date, with shorter varieties and also late sowing dates providing much less forage but, grazing did reduce weed biomass in June. Undersowing had mixed impacts which were related to the success of establishment of the undersown legume crop. Weeds are most successfully controlled when a range of techniques are implemented to give the wheat crop the greatest chance of competing with weeds.

Keywords: Weeds, grazing, varieties, crop establishment, drilling date, undersowing

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1 Impact of Land Ownership on Rangeland Condition in the Gauteng Province, South Africa

Authors: N. L. Letsoalo, H. T. Pule, J. T. Tjelele, N. R. Mkhize, K. R. Mbatha

Abstract:

Rangelands are major feed resource for livestock farming in South Africa, despite being subjected to different forms of degradation. These forms of degradation are as a result of inappropriate veld and livestock management practices such as excessive stocking rates. While information on judicious veld management is available, adoption of appropriate practices is still unsatisfactory and seems to depend partly on the type of land ownership of farmers. The objectives of this study were to; (I) compare rangeland condition (species richness, basal cover, veld condition score, and herbaceous biomass) among three land ownership types (leased land, communal land and private land), and (II) determine the relationships between veld condition score (%) and herbaceous biomass (kg DM/ha) production. Vegetation was assessed at fifty farms under different land use types using nearest plant technique. Grass species composition and forage value were estimated using PROC FREQ procedure of SAS 9.3. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (P < 0.05) in species richness, basal cover, veld condition (%) large stock units, grazing capacity and herbaceous biomass production among the three grazing systems. A total of 28 grass species were identified, of which 95% and 5% were perennials and annuals, respectively. The most commonly distributed and highly palatable grass species, Digitaria eriantha had significantly higher frequency under private owned lands (32.3 %) compared to communal owned lands (12.3%). There were no significant difference on grass species richness and basal cover among land ownership types (P > 0.05). There were significant differences on veld condition score and biomass production (P < 0.05). Private lands had significantly higher (69.63%) veld condition score than leased (56.07%) and communal lands (52.55%). Biomass production was significantly higher (± S.E.) 2990.30 ± 214 kg DM/ha on private owned lands, compared to leased lands 2069.85 ± 196 kg DM/ha and communal lands 1331.04 ± 102 kg DM/ha. Biomass production was positively correlated with rangeland condition (r = 0.895; P < 0.005). These results suggest that rangeland conditions on communal and leased lands are in poor condition than those on private lands. More research efforts are needed to improve management of rangelands in communal and leased land in Gauteng province.

Keywords: Management Practices, grazing, species richness, herbaceous biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 32