Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Gravity Related Abstracts

13 Conformal Invariance and F(R,T) Gravity

Authors: P. Y. Tsyba, O. V. Razina, E. Güdekli, R. Myrzakulov


In this paper, we consider the equation of motion for the F(R,T) gravity on their property of conformal invariance. It is shown that in the general case such a theory is not conformally invariant. Special cases for the functions v and u, in which the properties of the theory can appear, were studied.

Keywords: Gravity, conformal invariance, space-time, metric

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12 Electro Magnetic Tractor (E. M. Tractor)

Authors: Sijo Varghese


A space craft (E. M. Tractor) which is intended to deflect or tug the asteroids which possesses threat towards the planets is the whole idea behind this paper. In this case "Electro Magnetic Induction" is used where it is known that when two separate circuits are connected to the electro magnet and on application of electric current through the one circuit in to the coil induces magnetic fields which repels the other circuit.( Faraday's law of Electromagnetic Induction). Basically a Spacecraft is used to attach a large sheet of aluminum on to the surface of the asteroid, the Spacecraft acts as an electro magnet and the induced magnetic field would eventually repel the aluminum intern repelling the asteroid. This method would take less time as compared to use of gravity( which requires a larger spacecraft and process will take a long time).

Keywords: asteroids, Gravity, electro magnetic induction, electro magnetic tractor

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11 Quality and Shelf life of UHT Milk Produced in Tripoli, Libya

Authors: Faozia A. S. Abuhtana, Yahia S. Abujnah, Said O. Gnann


Ultra High Temperature (UHT) processed milk is widely distributed and preferred in numerous countries all over the world due its relatively high quality and long shelf life. Because of the notable high consumption rate of UHT in Libya in addition to negligible studies related to such product on the local level, this study was designed to assess the shelf life of locally produced as well as imported reconstituted sterilized whole milk samples marketed in Tripoli, Libya . Four locally produced vs. three imported brands were used in this study. All samples were stored at room temperature (25± 2C ) for 8 month long period, and subjected to physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory tests. These tests included : measurement of pH, specific gravity, percent acidity, and determination of fat, protein and melamine content. Microbiological tests included total aerobic count, total psychotropic bacteria, total spore forming bacteria and total coliform counts. Results indicated no detection of microbial growth of any type during the study period, in addition to no detection of melamine in all samples. On the other hand, a gradual decline in pH accompanied with gradual increase in % acidity of both locally produced and imported samples was observed. Such changes in both pH and % acidity reached their lowest and highest values respectively during the 24th week of storage. For instance pH values were (6.40, 6.55, 6.55, 6.15) and (6.30, 6.50, 6.20) for local and imported brands respectively. On the other hand, % acidity reached (0.185, 0181, 0170, 0183) and (0180, 0.180, 0.171) at the 24th week for local and imported brands respectively. Similar pattern of decline was also observed in specific gravity, fat and protein content in some local and imported samples especially at later stages of the study. In both cases, some of the recorded pH values, % acidity, sp. gravity and fat content were in violation of the accepted limits set by Libyan standard no. 356 for sterilized milk. Such changes in pH, % acidity and other UHT sterilized milk constituents during storage were coincided with a gradual decrease in the degree of acceptance of the stored milk samples of both types as shown by sensory scores recorded by the panelists. In either case degree of acceptance was significantly low at late stages of storage and most milk samples became relatively unacceptable after the 18th and 20th week for both untrained and trained panelists respectively.

Keywords: Quality, Bacteria, Gravity, Shelf Life, UHT milk

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10 Determination of Hydrocarbon Path Migration from Gravity Data Analysis (Ghadames Basin, Southern Tunisia, North Africa)

Authors: Mohamed Dhaoui, Hakim Gabtni


The migration of hydrocarbons is a fairly complicated process that depends on several parameters, both structural and sedimentological. In this study, we will try to determine secondary migration paths which convey hydrocarbon from their main source rock to the largest reservoir of the Paleozoic petroleum system of the Tunisian part of Ghadames basin. In fact, The Silurian source rock is the main source rock of the Paleozoic petroleum system of the Ghadames basin. However, the most solicited reservoir in this area is the Triassic reservoir TAGI (Trias Argilo-Gréseux Inférieur). Several geochemical studies have confirmed that oil products TAGI come mainly from the Tannezuft Silurian source rock. That being said that secondary migration occurs through the fault system which affects the post-Silurian series. Our study is based on analysis and interpretation of gravity data. The gravity modeling was conducted in the northern part of Ghadames basin and the Telemzane uplift. We noted that there is a close relationship between the location of producing oil fields and gravity gradients which separate the positive and negative gravity anomalies. In fact, the analysis and transformation of the Bouguer anomaly map, and the residual gravity map allowed as understanding the architecture of the Precambrian in the study area, thereafter gravimetric models were established allowed to determine the probable migration path.

Keywords: Gravity, Hydrocarbon, basement, Ghadames, migration path

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9 Numerical Study on the Hazards of Gravitational Forces on Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem M. Alargha, Mohammad O. Hamdan, Waseem H. Aziz


Aerobatic and military pilots are subjected to high gravitational forces that could cause blackout, physical injuries or death. A CFD simulation using fluid-solid interactions scheme has been conducted to investigate the gravitational effects and hazards inside cerebral aneurysms. Medical data have been used to derive the size and geometry of a simple aneurysm on a T-shaped bifurcation. The results show that gravitational force has no effect on maximum Wall Shear Stress (WSS); hence, it will not cause aneurysm initiation/formation. However, gravitational force cause causes hypertension which could contribute to aneurysm rupture.

Keywords: Fluid Dynamics, CFD, Gravity, wall shear stress, aneurysm, bifurcation artery

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8 Tectogenesis Around Kalaat Es Senan, Northwest of Tunisia: Structural, Geophysical and Gravimetric Study

Authors: Amira Rjiba, Mohamed Ghanmi, Tahar Aifa, Achref Boulares


This study, involving the interpretation of geological outcrops data (structures, and lithostratigraphiec colones) and subsurface structures (seismic and gravimetric data) help us to identify and precise (i) the lithology of the sedimentary formations between the Aptian and the recent formations, (ii) to differentiate the sedimentary formations it from the salt-bearing Triassic (iii) and to specify the major structures though the tectonics effects having affected the region during its geological evolution. By placing our study area placed in the context of Tunisia, located on the southern margin of the Tethys show us through tectonic traces and structural analysis conducted, that this area was submitted during the Triassic perio at an active rifting triggered extensional tectonic events and extensive respectively in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Lithostratigraphic correlations between outcrops and seismic data sets on those of six oil wells conducted in the region have allowed us to better understand the structural complexity and the role of different tectonic faults having contributed to the current configuration, and marked by the current rifts. Indeed, three directions of NW-SE faults, NNW-SSE to NS and NE-SW to EW had a major role in the genesis of folds and open ditches collapse of NW-SE direction. These results were complemented by seismic reflection data to clarify the geometry of the southern and western areas of Kalaa Khasba ditch. The eight selected seismic lines for this study allowed to characterize the main structures, with isochronous maps, contour and isovitesse of Serdj horizon that presents the main reservoir in the region. The line L2, keyed by the well 6, helped highlight the NW-SE compression that has resulted in persistent discrepancies widely identifiable in its lithostratigraphic column. The gravity survey has confirmed the extension of most of the accidents deep subsurface whose activity seems to go far. Gravimetry also reinforced seismic interpretation confirming, at the L2 well, that both SW and NE flank of the moat are two opposite faults and trace the boundaries of NNW-SSE direction graben whose sedimentation of Mio-Pliocene age and Quaternary.

Keywords: Seismic, Gravity, graben, graben collapse, Kalat Es Senan, tectogenesis

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7 Quantitative Analysis of the Trade Potential of the United States with Members of the European Union: A Gravity Model Approach

Authors: Zahid Ahmad, Nauman Ali


This study has estimated the trade between USA and individual members of European Union using Gravity Model of Trade as The USA has a complex trade relationship with the European countries consist of a large number of consumers, which make USA dependent on EU for major of its total world trade. However, among the member of EU, the trade potential of USA with individual members of EU is not known. Panel data techniques e.g. Random Effect, Fixed Effect and Pooled Panel have been applied to secondary quantitative data to analyze the Trade between USA and EU. Trade Potential of USA with individual members of EU has been obtained using the ratio of Actual trade of USA with EU members and the trade as predicted by Gravity Model. The Study concluded that the USA has greater trade potential with 16 members of EU, including Croatia, Portugal and United Kingdom on top. On the other hand, Finland, Ireland, and France are the top countries with which the USA has exhaustive trade potential.

Keywords: International Trade, Economic, Gravity, significant, analytical technique

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6 Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits

Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara


Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. The area about 70 kilometers of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea, this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices.  The Wilfley heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size <0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains has been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was 60 and 20 respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.

Keywords: Mineral, Gravity, influence, anomaly

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5 Comparative Studies on Spontaneous Imbibition of Surfactant/Alkaline Solution in Carbonate Rocks

Authors: M. Asgari, N. Heydari, N. Shojai Kaveh, S. N. Ashrafizadeh


Chemical flooding methods are having importance in enhanced oil recovery to recover the trapped oil after conventional recovery, as conventional oil resources become scarce. The surfactant/alkaline process consists of injecting alkali and synthetic surfactant. The addition of surfactant to injected water reduces oil/water IFT and/or alters wettability. The alkali generates soap in situ by reaction between the alkali and naphthenic acids in the crude oil. Oil recovery in fractured reservoirs mostly depends on spontaneous imbibition (SI) of brine into matrix blocks. Thus far, few efforts have been made toward understanding the relative influence of capillary and gravity forces on the fluid flow. This paper studies the controlling mechanisms of spontaneous imbibition process in chalk formations by consideration of type and concentration of surfactants, CMC, pH and alkaline reagent concentration. Wetting properties of carbonate rock have been investigated by means of contact-angle measurements. Interfacial-tension measurements were conducted using spinning drop method. Ten imbibition experiments were conducted in atmospheric pressure and various temperatures from 30°C to 50°C. All experiments were conducted above the CMC of each surfactant. The experimental results were evaluated in terms of ultimate oil recovery and reveal that wettability alteration achieved by nonionic surfactant, which led to imbibition of brine sample containing the nonionic surfactant, while IFT value was not in range of ultra low. The displacement of oil was initially dominated by capillary forces. However, for cationic surfactant, gravity forces was the dominant force for oil production by surfactant solution to overcome the negative capillary pressure.

Keywords: Capillary, Gravity, Wettability, surfactant, alkaline, imbibition

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4 The Parliamentary Intention behind Schedule 21 to the Criminal Justice Act 2003

Authors: George R. Mawhinney


In 2003 Parliament passed statutory sentencing guidelines, the only of their kind, for the sentencing of murder in England and Wales, after the Home Secretary's role in determining sentences for the offence was effectively ended by the House of Lords' decision in Anderson applying Art.6 of the ECHR (European Convention on Human Rights). However, in the parliamentary debates during the passage of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 containing the guidelines, many views were expressed both by government ministers and backbench MPs of various parties concerning the gravity of the offence of murder, principally discussing the harm of death. This paper examines parliamentary debates as recorded in Hansard, to assess whether this was isolated or indeed there was a broader movement at the time to treat the harm of death more seriously by toughening sentencing regimes for other related homicide offences, or even creating new offences concerning the causing of death. Such evidence of valuing the harm of death more seriously than before would shine a new light on what previously has been deemed mere 'popular punitiveness' and offer a principled basis for lengthening the sentences of these kind of crimes.

Keywords: Gravity, murder, Death, desert, harm, parliamentary intention, Schedule 21, sentencing, seriousness

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3 The Gravitational Impact of the Sun and the Moon on Heavy Mineral Deposits and Dust Particles in Low Gravity Regions of the Earth

Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara


The Earth’s gravity is not uniform. The satellite imageries of the Earth’s surface from NASA reveal a number of different gravity anomaly regions all over the globe. When the moon rotates around the earth, its gravity has a major physical influence on a number of regions on the earth. This physical change can be seen by the tides. The tides make sea levels high and low in coastal regions. During high tide, the gravitational force of the Moon pulls the Earth’s gravity so that the total gravitational intensity of Earth is reduced; it is further reduced in the low gravity regions of Earth. This reduction in gravity helps keep the suspended particles such as dust in the atmosphere, sand grains in the sea water for longer. Dramatic differences can be seen from the floating dust in the low gravity regions when compared with other regions. The above phenomena can be demonstrated from experiments. The experiments have to be done in high and low gravity regions of the earth during high and low tide, which will assist in comparing the final results. One of the experiments that can be done is by using a water filled cylinder about 80 cm tall, a few particles, which have the same density and same diameter (about 1 mm) and a stop watch. The selected particles were dropped from the surface of the water in the cylinder and the time taken for the particles to reach the bottom of the cylinder was measured using the stop watch. The times of high and low tide charts can be obtained from the regional government authorities. This concept is demonstrated by the particle drop times taken at high and low tides. The result of the experiment shows that the particle settlement time is less in low tide and high in high tide. The experiment for dust particles in air can be collected on filters, which are cellulose ester membranes and using a vacuum pump. The dust on filters can be used to make slides according to the NOHSC method. Counting the dust particles on the slides can be done using a phase contrast microscope. The results show that the concentration of dust is high at high tide and low in low tide. As a result of the high tides, a high concentration of heavy minerals deposit on placer deposits and dust particles retain in the atmosphere for longer in low gravity regions. These conditions are remarkably exhibited in the lowest low gravity region of the earth, mainly in the regions of India, Sri Lanka and in the middle part of the Indian Ocean. The biggest heavy mineral placer deposits are found in coastal regions of India and Sri Lanka and heavy dust particles are found in the atmosphere of India, particularly in the Delhi region.

Keywords: Minerals, Atmosphere, Gravity, Tides, Moon, costal

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2 Effect of Gravity on the Controlled Cooling of a Steel Block by Impinging Water Jets

Authors: E.K.K. Agyeman, P. Mousseau, A. Sarda, D. Edelin


The uniform and controlled cooling of hot metals by the circulation of water in canals remains a challenge due to the phase change of the water and the high heat fluxes associated with the phase change. This is because, during the cooling process, the phases are not uniformly distributed along the canals with the liquid phase dominating at the entrances of the canals and the gaseous phase dominating towards the exits. The difference in thermal properties between both phases leads to a heterogeneous temperature distribution in the part being cooled. Slowing down the cooling process is also a challenge due to the high heat fluxes associated with the phase change of water. This study investigates the use of multiple water jets for the controlled and homogenous cooling of hot metal parts and the effect of gravity on the effectiveness of the cooling process with a potential application in the cooling of composite forming moulds. A hole is bored at the centre of a steel block along its length. The jets are generated from the holes of a perforated steel pipe which is placed along the centre of the hole bored in the steel block. The evolution of the temperature with respect to time on the external surface of the steel block is measured simultaneously by thermocouples and an infrared camera. Different jet positions are tested in order to identify the jet placement configuration that ensures the most homogenous cooling of the block while the cooling speed is controlled by an intermittent impingement of the jets. In order to study the effect of gravity on the cooling process, a scenario where the jets are oriented in the opposite direction to that of gravity is compared to one where the jets are aligned in the same direction as gravity. It’s observed that orienting the jets in the direction of gravity reduces the effectiveness of the cooling process on the face of the block facing the impinging jets. This is due to the formation of a deeper pool of water due to the effect gravity and of the curved surface of the canal. This deeper pool of water influences the boiling regime characterized by a slower bubble evacuation when compared to the scenario where the jets are opposed to gravity.

Keywords: Gravity, jet impingement, cooling speed, homogenous cooling

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1 Gravitational Energy Storage by Using Concrete Stacks

Authors: Anusit Punsirichaiyakul, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong


The paper aims to study the energy storage system in the form of gravity energy by the weight of concrete stacks. This technology has the potential to replace expensive battery storage. This paper is a trial plan in abandoned mines in Thailand. This is to start with construct concrete boxes to be stacked vertically or obliquely to form appropriate shapes and, therefore, to store the potential energy. The stored energy can be released or discharged back to the system by deploying the concrete stacks to the ground. This is to convert the potential energy stored in the concrete stacks to the kinetic energy of the concrete box movement. This design is incorporating mechanical transmission to reduce the height of the concrete stacks. This study also makes a comparison between the energy used to construct concrete stacks in various shapes and the energy to deploy all the concrete boxes to ground. This paper consists of 2 test systems. The first test is to stack the concrete in vertical shape. The concrete stack has a maximum height of 50 m with a gear ratio of 1:200. The concrete box weight is 115 tons/piece with a total stored energy of 1800 kWh. The oblique system has a height of 50 m with a similar gear ratio of 1:200. The weight of the concrete box is 90 tons/piece and has a total stored energy of 1440 kWh. Also, it has an overall efficiency of 65% and a lifetime of 50 years. This storage has higher storage densities compared to other systems.

Keywords: Gravity, vertical, concrete stacks, oblique

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