Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

granulation Related Abstracts

4 Recovery of Boron as Homogeneous Perborate Particles from Synthetic Wastewater by Integrating Chemical Oxo-Precipitation with Fluidized-Bed Homogeneous Granulation

Authors: Yao-Hui Huang, Chiung-Chin Huang, Jui-Yen Lin

Abstract:

Among current techniques of boron removal from wastewater with high boron concentration, chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) is one of the promising methods due to its milder condition. COP uses H2O2 to transform boric acid to perborates which can easily precipitate with barium ions at room temperature. However, the generation of the waste sludge that requires sludge/water separation and sludge dewatering is troublesome. This work presents an innovative technology which integrates chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) with fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation (FBHG) to reclaim boron as homogeneous perborate particles. By conducting COP in a fluidized-bed reactor, the barium perborate can be granulated to form homogeneous particles (>1.0 mm) with low water content (< 10%). Under the suitable condition, more than 70% of boron can be recovered from 600 ppm of boron solution and the residual boron is lower than 100 ppm.

Keywords: boron removal, barium, perborate, chemical oxo-precipitation, fluidized-bed, granulation

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3 Effects of Seed Culture and Attached Growth System on the Performance of Anammox Hybrid Reactor (AHR) Treating Nitrogenous Wastewater

Authors: Swati Tomar, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The start-up of anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in hybrid reactor delineated four distinct phases i.e. cell lysis, lag phase, activity elevation and stationary phase. Cell lysis phase was marked by death and decay of heterotrophic denitrifiers resulting in breakdown of organic nitrogen into ammonium. Lag phase showed initiation of anammox activity with turnover of heterotrophic denitrifiers, which is evident from appearance of NO3-N in the effluent. In activity elevation phase, anammox became the dominant reaction, which can be attributed to consequent reduction of NH4-N into N2 with increased NO3-N in the effluent. Proper selection of mixed seed culture at influent NO2-/NH4+ ratio (1:1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day led to early startup of anammox within 70 days. Pseudo steady state removal efficiencies of NH4+ and NO2- were found as 94.3% and 96.4% respectively, at nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.35 kg N/m3d at an HRT of 1 day. Analysis of the data indicated that attached growth system contributes an additional 11% increase in the ammonium removal and results in an average of 29% reduction in sludge washout rate. Mass balance study of nitrogen indicated that 74.1% of total input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2% being utilized in biomass development. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge clearly showed the presence of cocci and rod shaped microorganisms intermingled on the external surface of the granules. The average size of anammox granules (1.2-1.5 mm) with an average settling velocity of 45.6 m/h indicated a high degree of granulation resulting into formation of well compacted granules in the anammox process.

Keywords: startup, nitrogen removal, anammox, granulation, hybrid reactor, mixed seed culture

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2 A Survey on Intelligent Techniques Based Modelling of Size Enlargement Process for Fine Materials

Authors: Mohammad Nadeem, Haider Banka, R. Venugopal

Abstract:

Granulation or agglomeration is a size enlargement process to transform the fine particulates into larger aggregates since the fine size of available materials and minerals poses difficulty in their utilization. Though a long list of methods is available in the literature for the modeling of granulation process to facilitate the in-depth understanding and interpretation of the system, there is still scope of improvements using novel tools and techniques. Intelligent techniques, such as artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, self-organizing map, support vector machine and others, have emerged as compelling alternatives for dealing with imprecision and complex non-linearity of the systems. The present study tries to review the applications of intelligent techniques in the modeling of size enlargement process for fine materials.

Keywords: Modelling, granulation, fine material, intelligent technique

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1 Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying

Authors: Jong Kook Lee, Hyeongdo Jeong

Abstract:

Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.

Keywords: spray drying, zirconia, granulation, solid content

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