Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

grain size Related Abstracts

11 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi


This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.

Keywords: Hardness, austenite, ferrite, grain size, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

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10 Influence of Grain Shape, Size and Grain Boundary Diffusion on High Temperature Oxidation of Metal

Authors: Sneha Samal, Iva Petrikova, Bohdana Marvalova


Influence of grain size, shape and grain boundary diffusion at high temperature oxidation of pure metal is investigated as the function of microstructure evolution in this article. The oxidized scale depends on the geometrical parameter of the metal-scale system and grain shape, size, diffusion through boundary layers and influence of the contamination. The creation of the inner layer and the morphological structure develops from the internal stress generated during the growth of the scale. The oxidation rate depends on the cation and anion mobile transport of the metal in the inward and outward direction of the diffusion layer. Oxidation rate decreases with decreasing the grain size of the pure metal, whereas zinc deviates from this principle. A strong correlation between the surface roughness evolution, grain size, crystalline properties and oxidation mechanism of the oxidized metal was established.

Keywords: Pure Metals, grain size, high temperature oxidation, shape and grain boundary

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9 X-Ray Analysis and Grain Size of CuInx Ga1-X Se2 Solar Cells

Authors: A. I. Al-Bassam, A. M. El-Nggar


Polycrystalline Cu In I-x GaxSe2 thin films have been fabricated. Some physical properties such as lattice parameters, crystal structure and microstructure of Cu In I-x GaxSe2 were determined using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films with x ≥ 0.5 have a chalcopyrite structure and the films with x ≤ 0.5 have a zinc blende structure. The lattice parameters were found to vary linearly with composition over a wide range from x = 0 to x =1.0. The variation of lattice parameters with composition was found to obey Vegard's law. The variation of the c/a with composition was also linear. The quality of a wide range of Cu In I-xGaxSe2 thin film absorbers from CuInSe to CuGaSe was evaluated by Photoluminescence (PL) measurements.

Keywords: Solar Cells, grain size, polycrystalline, lattice parameters

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8 The Grain Size Distribution of Sandy Soils in Libya

Authors: Massoud Farag Abouklaish


The main aim of the present study is to investigate and classify the particle size distribution of sandy soils in Libya. More than fifty soil samples collected from many regions in North, West and South of Libya. Laboratory sieve analysis tests performed on disturbed soil samples to determine grain size distribution. As well as to provide an indicator of general engineering behavior and good understanding, test results are presented and analysed. In addition, conclusions, recommendations are made.

Keywords: Libya, grain size, sandy soils, sieve analysis tests

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7 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Cr Doped Ni-Zn Nanoferrites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method

Authors: E. Ateia, L. M. Salah, A. H. El-Bassuony


Physical properties of nanocrystalline Ni1-xZnxCryFe2-yO4, (x=0.3, 0.5 and y=0.0, 0.1) with estimated crystallite size of 16.4 nm have been studied. XRD pattern of all prepared systems shows that, the nanosamples without Cr3+ have a cubic spinel structure with the appearance of small peaks designated as a secondary phase. Magnetic constants such as saturation magnetization, (MS) remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) were obtained and reported. The obtained data shows that, the addition of Cr3+ (0.1mol) decreases the saturation magnetization. This is due to the decrease of magnetic moment of Cr3+ ion (3.0 μB) with respect to Fe3+ ion (5.85 μB). The electrical properties of the investigated samples were also investigated.

Keywords: sintering, Electrical Conductivity, grain size, ferrites

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6 Preparation and Characterization of Nanometric Ni-Zn Ferrite via Different Methods

Authors: L. M. Salah, A. H. El-Bassuony, Ebtesam. E. Ateia


The aim of the presented study was the possibility of developing a nanosized material with enhanced structural properties that was suitable for many applications. Nanostructure ferrite of composition Ni0.5 Zn0.5 Cr0.1 Fe1.9 O4 were prepared by sol–gel, co-precipitation, citrate-gel, flash and oxalate precursor methods. The Structural and micro structural analysis of the investigated samples were carried out. It was observed that the lattice parameter of cubic spinel was constant, and the positions of both tetrahedral and the octahedral bands had a fixed position. The values of the lattice parameter had a significant role in determining the stoichiometric cation distribution of the composition.The average crystalline sizes of the investigated samples were from 16.4 to 69 nm. Discussion was made on the basis of a comparison of average crystallite size of the investigated samples, indicating that the co-precipitation method was the the effective one in producing small crystallite sized samples.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Chemical Preparation, ferrite, grain size, sol-gel

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5 Effect of Grain Size and Stress Parameters on Ratcheting Behaviour of Two Different Single Phase FCC Metals

Authors: Jayanta Kumar Mahato, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti, Partha Sarathi De


Ratcheting is one of the most important phenomena to be considered for design and safety assessment of structural components subjected to stress controlled asymmetric cyclic loading in the elasto-plastic domain. In the present study uniaxial ratcheting behavior of commercially pure annealed OFHC copper and aluminium with two different grain sizes has been investigated. Stress-controlled tests have been conducted at various combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress. These stresses were selected in such a way that the ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) of the selected materials remains constant. It is found that irrespective of grain size the ratcheting fatigue lives decrease with the increase of both stress amplitude and mean stress following power relationships. However, the effect of stress amplitude on ratcheting lives is observed higher as compared to mean stress for both the FCC metals. It is also found that for both FCC metals ratcheting fatigue lives at a constant ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σ ₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) are more in case fine grain size. So far ratcheting strain rate is concerned, it decreases rapidly within first few cycles and then a steady state is reached. Finally, the ratcheting strain rate increases up to the complete failure of the specimens due to a very large increase of true stress for a substantial reduction in cross-sectional area. The steady state ratcheting strain rate increases with the increase in both stress amplitude and mean stress. Interestingly, a unique perfectly power relationship between steady state ratcheting strain rate and cycles to failure has been found irrespective of stress combination for both FCC metals. Similar to ratcheting strain rate, the strain energy density decreases rapidly within first few cycles followed by steady state and then increases up to a failure of the specimens irrespective of stress combinations for both FCC metals; but strain energy density at steady state decreases with increase in mean stress and increases with the increase of stress amplitude. From the fractography study, it is found that the void density increases with the increase of maximum stress, but the void size and void density are almost same for any combination of stress parameters considering constant maximum stress.

Keywords: grain size, ratcheting phenomena, stress parameter, ratcheting lives, ratcheting strain rate

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4 Effect of Austenitizing Temperature, Soaking Time and Grain Size on Charpy Impact Toughness of Quenched and Tempered Steel

Authors: R. Sarkar, S. Gupta, P. Talukdar, S. Pathak, D. H. Kela, A. Pramanick


Low alloy quenched and tempered steels are typically used in cast railway components such as knuckles, yokes, and couplers. Since these components experience extensive impact loading during their service life, adequate impact toughness of these grades need to be ensured to avoid catastrophic failure of parts in service. Because of the general availability of Charpy V Test equipment, Charpy test is the most common and economical means to evaluate the impact toughness of materials and is generally used in quality control applications. With this backdrop, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of austenitizing temperature, soaking time and resultant grain size on the Charpy impact toughness and the related fracture mechanisms in a quenched and tempered low alloy steel, with the aim of optimizing the heat treatment parameters (i.e. austenitizing temperature and soaking time) with respect to impact toughness. In the first phase, samples were austenitized at different temperatures viz. 760, 800, 840, 880, 920 and 960°C, followed by quenching and tempering at 600°C for 4 hours. In the next phase, samples were subjected to different soaking times (0, 2, 4 and 6 hours) at a fixed austenitizing temperature (980°C), followed by quenching and tempering at 600°C for 4 hours. The samples corresponding to different test conditions were then subjected to instrumented Charpy tests at -40°C and energy absorbed were recorded. Subsequently, microstructure and fracture surface of samples corresponding to different test conditions were observed under scanning electron microscope, and the corresponding grain sizes were measured. In the final stage, austenitizing temperature, soaking time and measured grain sizes were correlated with impact toughness and the fracture morphology and mechanism.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, grain size, retained austenite and impact toughness

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3 Texture Characteristics and Depositional Environment of the Lower Mahi River Sediment, Mainland Gujarat, India

Authors: Shazi Farooqui, Anupam Sharma


The Mahi River (~600km long) is an important west flowing the river of Central India. It originates in Madhya Pradesh and starts flowing in NW direction and enters into the state of Rajasthan. It flows across southern Rajasthan and then enters into Gujarat and finally debouches in the Gulf of Cambay. In Gujarat state, it flows through all four geomorphic zones i.e. eastern upland zone, shallow buried piedmont zone, alluvial zone and coastal zone. In lower reaches and particularly when it is flowing under the coastal regime, it provides an opportunity to study – 1. Land–Sea interaction and role of relative sea level changes, 2. Coastal/estuarine geological process, 3. Landscape evolution in marginal areas and so on. The Late Quaternary deposits of Mainland Gujarat is appreciably studied by Chamyal and his group of MS University of Baroda, and they have established that the 30-35m thick sediment package of the Mainland Gujarat is comprised of marine, fluvial and aeolian sediments. It is also established that in the estuarine zone, the upper few meter thick sediments package is of marine nature. However, its thickness, characters and the depositional environment including the role of climate and tectonics is still not clearly defined. To understand few aspects of the above mentioned, in the present study, a 17m subsurface sediment core has been retrieved from the estuarine zone of Mahi river basin. The Multiproxy studies which include the textural analysis (grain size), Loss on ignition (LOI), Bulk and clay mineralogy and geochemical studies have been carried out. In the entire sedimentary sequence, the grain size largely varies from coarse sand to clay; however, a solitary gravel bed is also noticed. The lower part (depth 9-17m), is mainly comprised of sub equal proportion of sand and silt. The sediments mainly have bimodal and leptokurtic distribution and deposited in alternate sand-silt package, probably indicating flood deposits. Relatively low moisture (1.8%) and organic carbon (2.4%) with increased carbonate values (12%) indicate that conditions must have to remain oxidizing. The middle part (depth 9–6m) has a 1m thick gravel bed at the bottom and overlain by coarse sand to very fine sand showing fining upward sequence. The presence of gravel bed suggests some kind of tectonic activity resulting into change in base level or enhanced precipitation in the catchment region. The upper part (depth 6–0m; top part of sequence) mainly comprised of fine sand to silt size grains (with appreciable clay content). The sediment of this part is Unimodal and very leptokurtic in nature suggesting wave and winnowing process and deposited in low energy suspension environment. This part has relatively high moisture (2.1%) and organic carbon (2.7%) with decreased carbonate content (4.2%) indicating change in the depositional environment probably under estuarine conditions. The presence of chlorite along with smectite clay mineral further supports the significant marine contribution in the formation of upper part of the sequence.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Clay Minerals, loi, grain size, late quaternary

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2 Evaluation of River Meander Geometry Using Uniform Excess Energy Theory and Effects of Climate Change on River Meandering

Authors: Youssef I. Hafez


Since ancient history rivers have been the fostering and favorite place for people and civilizations to live and exist along river banks. However, due to floods and droughts, especially sever conditions due to global warming and climate change, river channels are completely evolving and moving in the lateral direction changing their plan form either through straightening of curved reaches (meander cut-off) or increasing meandering curvature. The lateral shift or shrink of a river channel affects severely the river banks and the flood plain with tremendous impact on the surrounding environment. Therefore, understanding the formation and the continual processes of river channel meandering is of paramount importance. So far, in spite of the huge number of publications about river-meandering, there has not been a satisfactory theory or approach that provides a clear explanation of the formation of river meanders and the mechanics of their associated geometries. In particular two parameters are often needed to describe meander geometry. The first one is a scale parameter such as the meander arc length. The second is a shape parameter such as the maximum angle a meander path makes with the channel mean down path direction. These two parameters, if known, can determine the meander path and geometry as for example when they are incorporated in the well known sine-generated curve. In this study, a uniform excess energy theory is used to illustrate the origin and mechanics of formation of river meandering. This theory advocates that the longitudinal imbalance between the valley and channel slopes (with the former is greater than the second) leads to formation of curved meander channel in order to reduce the excess energy through its expenditure as transverse energy loss. Two relations are developed based on this theory; one for the determination of river channel radius of curvature at the bend apex (shape parameter) and the other for the determination of river channel sinuosity. The sinuosity equation tested very well when applied to existing available field data. In addition, existing model data were used to develop a relation between the meander arc length and the Darcy-Weisback friction factor. Then, the meander wave length was determined from the equations of the arc length and the sinuosity. The developed equation compared well with available field data. Effects of the transverse bed slope and grain size on river channel sinuosity are addressed. In addition, the concept of maximum channel sinuosity is introduced in order to explain the changes of river channel plan form due to changes in flow discharges and sediment loads induced by global warming and climate changes.

Keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, grain size, radius of curvature, river channel meandering, sinuosity, meander arc length, uniform excess energy theory, transverse energy loss, transverse bed slope, flow discharges, sediment loads

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1 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled V-Microalloyed and C-Mn Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee


The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: Nitrogen, steel, Aluminium, reheating, grain size, vanadium, sizing strain

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