Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

grain boundaries Related Abstracts

3 Towards the Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties by Controlling the Thermoelectrical Nature of Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline Materials

Authors: Angel Fabian Mijangos, Jaime Alvarez Quintana


Waste heat occurs in many areas of daily life because world’s energy consumption is inefficient. In general, generating 1 watt of power requires about 3 watt of energy input and involves dumping into the environment the equivalent of about 2 watts of power in the form of heat. Therefore, an attractive and sustainable solution to the energy problem would be the development of highly efficient thermoelectric devices which could help to recover this waste heat. This work presents the influence on the thermoelectric properties of metallic, semiconducting, and dielectric nanoparticles added into the grain boundaries of polycrystalline antimony (Sb) and bismuth (Bi) matrixes in order to obtain p- and n-type thermoelectric materials, respectively, by hot pressing methods. Results show that thermoelectric properties are significantly affected by the electrical and thermal nature as well as concentration of nanoparticles. Nevertheless, by optimizing the amount of the nanoparticles on the grain boundaries, an oscillatory behavior in ZT as function of the concentration of the nanoscale constituents is present. This effect is due to energy filtering mechanism which module the quantity of charge transport in the system and affects thermoelectric properties. Accordingly, a ZTmax can be accomplished through the addition of the appropriate amount of nanoparticles into the grain boundaries region. In this case, till three orders of amelioration on ZT is reached in both systems compared with the reference sample of each one. This approach paves the way to pursuit high performance thermoelectric materials in a simple way and opens a new route towards the enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit.

Keywords: Nanostructured Materials, thermoelectric, energy filtering, grain boundaries

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2 Overview of the Various Factors Affecting the Properties of Microwave and Millimeterwave Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Abdul Manan


Dielectric Resonators (DRs) have revolutionized the microwave wireless communication industry globally. There are three directions for research in ceramics for application in telecommunication industry Three key properties of ceramic dielectrics that determine their functionality at microwave and millimetrewave frequencies include relative permittivity (εr), unloaded quality factor Qu- the inverse of the dielectric loss (tanδ) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf). Each direction requires specific properties. These dielectric properties are affected by a number of factors. These includes tolerance factor, onset of structural phase transitions, dark core formation, processing conditions, raw materials and impurities, order/disorder behavior, compositional ordering, porosity, humidity, grain size, orientation of the crystallites, and grain boundaries. The data related to these factors is scattered. The main purpose of this review is to bring these together and present the effects of these factors on the microwave dielectric properties. Control of these factors is important for improvement in the microwave properties. This review would be very helpful to the novice researchers and technologists in the field.

Keywords: sintering, porosity, defect, grain boundaries, order disorder

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1 Structure of Grain Boundaries in α-Zirconium and Niobium

Authors: Divya Singh, Avinash Parashar


Due to superior mechanical, creep and nuclear cross section, zirconium and niobium (Zr-Nb) based alloys are commonly used as nuclear materials for the manufacturing of fuel cladding and pressure tubes in nuclear power plants. In this work, symmetrical tilt grain boundary (STGB) structures in α-Zr are studied for their structure and energies along two tilt axes- [0001] and [0-110] using MD based simulations. Tilt grain boundaries are obtained along [0001] tilt axis, and special twin structures are obtained along [0-110] tilt axis in α-Zr. For Nb, STGBs are constructed along [100] and [110] axis using atomistic simulations. The correlation between GB structures and their energies is subsequently examined. A close relationship is found to exist between individual GB structure and its energy in both α-Zr and Nb. It is also concluded that the energies of the more coherent twin grain boundaries are lower than the symmetrical tilt grain boundaries.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics, grain boundaries, grain boundary energy, hcp crystal

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