Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

GPR Related Abstracts

7 A Proper Design of Wind Turbine Grounding Systems under Lightning

Authors: M. A. Abd-Allah, A. Said, Mahmoud N. Ali


Lightning Protection Systems (LPS) for wind power generation is becoming an important public issue. A serious damage of blades, accidents where low-voltage and control circuit breakdowns frequently occur in many wind farms. A grounding system is one of the most important components required for appropriate LPSs in wind turbines WTs. Proper design of a wind turbine grounding system is demanding and several factors for the proper and effective implementation must be taken into account. This paper proposed procedure of proper design of grounding systems for a wind turbine was introduced. This procedure depends on measuring of ground current of simulated wind farm under lightning taking into consideration the soil ionization. The procedure also includes the Ground Potential Rise (GPR) and the voltage distributions at ground surface level and Touch potential. In particular, the contribution of mitigating techniques, such as rings, rods and the proposed design were investigated.

Keywords: grounding system, WTs, Lightning Protection Systems (LPS), GPR, mitigating techniques

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6 Reliability Analysis of Dam under Quicksand Condition

Authors: Manthan Patel, Vinit Ahlawat, Anshh Singh Claire, Pijush Samui


This paper focuses on the analysis of quicksand condition for a dam foundation. The quicksand condition occurs in cohesion less soil when effective stress of soil becomes zero. In a dam, the saturated sediment may appear quite solid until a sudden change in pressure or shock initiates liquefaction. This causes the sand to form a suspension and lose strength hence resulting in failure of dam. A soil profile shows different properties at different points and the values obtained are uncertain thus reliability analysis is performed. The reliability is defined as probability of safety of a system in a given environment and loading condition and it is assessed as Reliability Index. The reliability analysis of dams under quicksand condition is carried by Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). Reliability index and factor of safety relating to liquefaction of soil is analysed using GPR. The results of reliability analysis by GPR is compared to that of conventional method and it is demonstrated that on applying GPR the probabilistic analysis reduces the computational time and efforts.

Keywords: Quicksand, factor of safety, reliability index, GPR

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5 Imaging of Underground Targets with an Improved Back-Projection Algorithm

Authors: Alireza Akbari, Gelareh Babaee Khou


Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an important nondestructive remote sensing tool that has been used in both military and civilian fields. Recently, GPR imaging has attracted lots of attention in detection of subsurface shallow small targets such as landmines and unexploded ordnance and also imaging behind the wall for security applications. For the monostatic arrangement in the space-time GPR image, a single point target appears as a hyperbolic curve because of the different trip times of the EM wave when the radar moves along a synthetic aperture and collects reflectivity of the subsurface targets. With this hyperbolic curve, the resolution along the synthetic aperture direction shows undesired low resolution features owing to the tails of hyperbola. However, highly accurate information about the size, electromagnetic (EM) reflectivity, and depth of the buried objects is essential in most GPR applications. Therefore hyperbolic curve behavior in the space-time GPR image is often willing to be transformed to a focused pattern showing the object's true location and size together with its EM scattering. The common goal in a typical GPR image is to display the information of the spatial location and the reflectivity of an underground object. Therefore, the main challenge of GPR imaging technique is to devise an image reconstruction algorithm that provides high resolution and good suppression of strong artifacts and noise. In this paper, at first, the standard back-projection (BP) algorithm that was adapted to GPR imaging applications used for the image reconstruction. The standard BP algorithm was limited with against strong noise and a lot of artifacts, which have adverse effects on the following work like detection targets. Thus, an improved BP is based on cross-correlation between the receiving signals proposed for decreasing noises and suppression artifacts. To improve the quality of the results of proposed BP imaging algorithm, a weight factor was designed for each point in region imaging. Compared to a standard BP algorithm scheme, the improved algorithm produces images of higher quality and resolution. This proposed improved BP algorithm was applied on the simulation and the real GPR data and the results showed that the proposed improved BP imaging algorithm has a superior suppression artifacts and produces images with high quality and resolution. In order to quantitatively describe the imaging results on the effect of artifact suppression, focusing parameter was evaluated.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Algorithm, GPR, back-projection

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
4 Numerical Simulation and Laboratory Tests for Rebar Detection in Reinforced Concrete Structures using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Maha Al-Soudani, Gilles Klysz, Jean-Paul Balayssac


The aim of this paper is to use Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive testing (NDT) method to increase its accuracy in recognizing the geometric reinforced concrete structures and in particular, the position of steel bars. This definition will help the managers to assess the state of their structures on the one hand vis-a-vis security constraints and secondly to quantify the need for maintenance and repair. Several configurations of acquisition and processing of the simulated signal were tested to propose and develop an appropriate imaging algorithm in the propagation medium to locate accurately the rebar. A subsequent experimental validation was used by testing the imaging algorithm on real reinforced concrete structures. The results indicate that, this algorithm is capable of estimating the reinforcing steel bar position to within (0-1) mm.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Structures, ndt, rebar location, GPR

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
3 An Integrated Geophysical Investigation for Earthen Dam Inspection: A Case Study of Huai Phueng Dam, Udon Thani, Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Anchalee Kongsuk, Noppadol Poomvises, Prateep Pakdeerod


In the middle of September 2017, a tropical storm named ‘DOKSURI’ swept through Udon Thani, Northeastern Thailand. The storm dumped heavy rain for many hours and caused large amount of water flowing into Huai Phueng reservoir. Level of impounding water increased rapidly, and the extra water flowed over a service spillway, morning-glory type constructed by concrete material for about 50 years ago. Subsequently, a sinkhole was formed on the dam crest and five points of water piping were found on downstream slope closely to spillway. Three techniques of geophysical investigation were carried out to inspect cause of failures; Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), respectively. Result of ERI clearly shows evidence of overtop event and heterogeneity around spillway that implied possibility of previous shape of sinkhole around the pipe. The shear wave velocity of subsurface soil measured by MASW can numerically convert to undrained shear strength of impervious clay core. Result of GPR clearly reveals partial settlements of freeboard zone at top part of the dam and also shaping new refilled material to plug the sinkhole back to the condition it should be. In addition, the GPR image is a main answer to confirm that there are not any sinkholes in the survey lines, only that found on top of the spillway. Integrity interpretation of the three results together with several evidences observed during a field walk-through and data from drilled holes can be interpreted that there are four main causes in this account. The first cause is too much water flowing over the spillway. Second, the water attacking morning glory spillway creates cracks upon concrete contact where the spillway is cross-cut to the center of the dam. Third, high velocity of water inside the concrete pipe sucking fine particle of embankment material down via those cracks and flushing out to the river channel. Lastly, loss of clay material of the dam into the concrete pipe creates the sinkhole at the crest. However, in case of failure by piping, it is possible that they can be formed both by backward erosion (internal erosion along or into embedded structure of spillway walls) and also by excess saturated water of downstream material.

Keywords: resistivity, GPR, MASW, dam inspection

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
2 Application of Ground Penetrating Radar and Light Falling Weight Deflectometer in Ballast Quality Assessment

Authors: S. Cafiso, B. Capace, A. Di Graziano, C. D’Agostino


Systematic monitoring of the trackbed is necessary to assure safety and quality of service in the railway system. Moreover, to produce effective management of the maintenance treatments, the assessment of bearing capacity of the railway trackbed must include ballast, sub-ballast and subgrade layers at different depths. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in obtaining a consistent measure of ballast bearing capacity with no destructive tests (NDTs) able to work in the physical and time restrictions of railway tracks in operation. Moreover, in the case of the local railway with reduced gauge, the use of the traditional high-speed track monitoring systems is not feasible. In that framework, this paper presents results from in site investigation carried out on ballast and sleepers with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Light Falling Weight Deflectometer (LWD). These equipment are currently used in road pavement maintenance where they have shown their reliability and effectiveness. Application of such Non-Destructive Tests in railway maintenance is promising but in the early stage of the investigation. More specifically, LWD was used to estimate the stiffness of ballast and sleeper support, as well. LWD, despite the limited load (6 kN in the trial test) applied directly on the sleeper, was able to detect defects in the bearing capacity at the Sleeper/Ballast interface. A dual frequency GPR was applied to detect the presence of layers’ discontinuities at different depths due to fouling phenomena that are the main causes of changing in the layer dielectric proprieties within the ballast thickness. The frequency of 2000Mhz provided high-resolution data to approximately 0.4m depth, while frequency of 600Mhz showed greater depth penetration up to 1.5 m. In the paper literature review and trial in site experience are used to identify Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis) of the application of GPR and LWD for the assessment of bearing capacity of railway track-bed.

Keywords: bearing capacity, GPR, railway track, LWD, no destructive test

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1 Condition Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Azin Shakibabarough, Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi


Catastrophic bridge failure happens due to the lack of inspection, lack of design and extreme events like flooding, an earthquake. Bridge Management System (BMS) is utilized to diminish such an accident with proper design and frequent inspection. Visual inspection cannot detect any subsurface defects, so using Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques remove these barriers as far as possible. Among all NDE techniques, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been proved as a highly effective device for detecting internal defects in a reinforced concrete bridge deck. GPR is used for detecting rebar location and rebar corrosion in the reinforced concrete deck. GPR profile is composed of hyperbola series in which sound hyperbola denotes sound rebar and blur hyperbola or signal attenuation shows corroded rebar. Interpretation of GPR images is implemented by numerical analysis or visualization. Researchers recently found that interpretation through visualization is more precise than interpretation through numerical analysis, but visualization is time-consuming and a highly subjective process. Automating the interpretation of GPR image through visualization can solve these problems. After interpretation of all scans of a bridge, condition assessment is conducted based on the generated corrosion map. However, this such a condition assessment is not objective and precise. Condition assessment based on structural integrity and strength parameters can make it more objective and precise. The main purpose of this study is to present an automated interpretation method of a reinforced concrete bridge deck through a visualization technique. In the end, the combined analysis of the structural condition in a bridge is implemented.

Keywords: Visualization, GPR, ground penetrating radar, bridge condition assessment, NDE techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 8