Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Government Related Abstracts

36 Comparative Public Administration: A Case Study of ASEAN Member States

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert

Abstract:

This research is to study qualitative research having two objectives: 1. to study comparison of private sector of government to compare with ASEAN Member States, 2. to study trend of private enterprise administration of ASEAN Member States. The results are: (1) Thai people focus on personal resource administrative system, (2) Indonesia focuses on official system by good administrative principles, (3) Malaysia focuses on technology development to service people, (4) Philippines focuses on operation system development, (5) Singapore focuses on public service development, (6) Brunei Darussalam focuses on equality in government service of people, (7) Vietnam focuses on creating government labor base and develop testing and administration of operation test, (8) Myanmar focuses on human resources development, (9) Laos focuses on form of local administration, (10) Cambodia focuses on policy revolution in personal resources. The result of the second part of the study are: (1) Thailand created government personnel to be power under qualitative official structural event, (2) Indonesia has Bureaucracy Reform Roadmap of Bureaucracy Reform and National Development Plan Medium Term, (3) Malaysia has database for people service, (4) Philippines follows up control of units operation by government policy, (5) Singapore created reliability, participation of people to set government policy people’s demand, (6) Brunei Darussalam has social welfare to people, (7) Vietnam revolved testing system and administration including manpower base construction of government effectively, (8) Myanmar creates high rank administrators to develop country, (9) Laos distributes power to locality, and (10) Cambodia revolved personnel resource policy.

Keywords: Government, private sector, public administration development, ASEAN member states

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35 The Importance of Upholding Corporate Governance: A Case Study of Government Pension Funds

Authors: Pichamon Chansuchai

Abstract:

This qualitative research paper aimed to study the best practice regulation of the Government Pension Fund of Thailand or GPF to explore the importance of good corporate governance and to identify and compare impacts towards the organizational operation and image before and after adopting the corporate good governance practice. The study employed the six principles of good corporate governance and best practice including accountability, responsibility, equitable treatment, transparency, value creation and ethics. The study pointed out that the GPF was a good example of the organization that regained public trust and receiving a positive image and credibility after implementing corporate good governance in all aspects of its organizational management.

Keywords: Government, Corporate Governance, pension funds, organizational operation

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34 Developments in Corporate Governance: The Case of Vietnam

Authors: Lien T. H. Tran, David A. Holloway

Abstract:

Corporate governance practices have changed significantly across the world in the past three decades. Spectacular corporate failures during this period have acted as a catalyst for the development of codes and guidelines that have resulted in the global acceptance of a ‘best practice’ model. This study assesses the relevance of such a ‘one size fits all model’ for the developing nation state of Vietnam. The findings of this analytical paper is that there are three key elements (government, international institutions and the nature of business) that are pertinent and central to corporate governance developments in the country. We also find that the quality of corporate governance in Vietnam is at a medium level when compared to international practices. Vietnam still has a long way to go to construct and embed effective corporate governance policies and practices and promote ethical business behaviours and sound decision making at board level.

Keywords: Government, Corporate Governance, International Institutions, Vietnam, public companies

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33 Measuring Government’s Performance (Services) Oman Service Maturity Model (OSMM)

Authors: Khalid Al Siyabi, Angie Al Habib

Abstract:

To measure or asses any government’s efficiency we need to measure the performance of this government in regards to the quality of the service it provides. Using a technological platform in service provision became a trend and a public demand. It is also a public need to make sure these services are aligned to values and to the whole government’s strategy, vision and goals as well. Providing services using technology tools and channels can enhance the internal business process and also help establish many essential values to government services like transparency and excellence, since in order to establish e-services many standards and policies must be put in place to enable the handing over of decision making to a mature system oriented mechanism. There was no doubt that the Sultanate of Oman wanted to enhance its services and move it towards automation and establishes a smart government as well as links its services to life events. Measuring government efficiency is very essential in achieving social security and economic growth, since it can provide a clear dashboard of all projects and improvements. Based on this data we can improve the strategies and align the country goals to them.

Keywords: Government, Service, Performance, Maturity, oman

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32 Competitiveness of Animation Industry: The Case of Thailand

Authors: T. Niracharapa

Abstract:

The research studied and examined the competitiveness of the animation industry in Thailand. Data were collected based on articles, related reports and websites, news, research, and interviews of key persons from both public and private sectors. The diamond model was used to analyze the study. The major factor driving the Thai animation industry forward includes a quality workforce, their creativity and strong associations. However, discontinuity in government support, infrastructure, marketing, IP creation and financial constraints were factors keeping the Thai animation industry less competitive in the global market.

Keywords: Government, Animation, Market, Competitiveness, Thailand

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31 State Budget Accounting: Factors Affected and Basic Orientation to Vietnamese Public Sector Entities

Authors: Pham Quang Huy

Abstract:

State budget is considered as an effective tool for controlling, adjusting and regulating the market economy of any countries. To ensure that the activities of the state in the fields of politics, economy and society has been efficiency, it requires major sources of certain budget. These financial funds are formed from tax revenues and tax revenues beyond. Therefore, the Governments need to have an accounting regime to manage the receipt, expenditure which are suitable for recording a full range of items. From that, it can help to increase the transparency and accountability in budget system. One of the main requirements in Vietnamese policies is to improve that accounting system of revenues and expenditures which can provide many reports to meet the information required of government and users, as well as directions to the trends of international standards requirements. By using quantitative research methods and analytical models to exploring factors, the main purpose of this article is to identify the factors affecting budget accounting and providing some direction for Vietnamese public sector in the future. The results indicated that Vietnam budget accounting has been impacted by seven factors and aims to implement three main orientations in the public sector units.

Keywords: Accounting, Government, Public Sector, budget management, state budget, IPSAS

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30 The Presidential Mediator: Different Terminologies Same Missions

Authors: Khodr Fakih

Abstract:

The Ombudsman is a procedural mechanism that provides a different approach of dispute resolution. The ombudsman primarily deals with specific grievances from the public against governmental injustice and misconduct. The ombudsman theory is considered an important instrument to any democratic government. This is true since it improves the transparency of the governmental activities in a world in which executive power are rising. Many countries have adopted the concept of Ombudsman but under different terminologies. This paper will provide the different types of Ombudsman and the common activities/processes of fulfilling their mandates.

Keywords: Government, Administration, citizens, mediator, ombudsman, presidential mediator

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29 Historical Analysis of Nigeria Politics, 1960–2010

Authors: Abdulsalami Muyideen Deji

Abstract:

Nigeria as nation got independence in 1960 from British government which allowed indigenous people to form self-government and rule themselves base on the acceptable laws and orders provided by indigenes. All citizens saw it as a welcome development that gave them opportunity to develop at their own pace. Certainly, this occurred at the first instance up to the first republic of 1963. But things became worse for the country when the first military coup of January 15, 1966 sowed apple of discord between the three major tribes in Nigeria Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo as a result of miscarriage of well-conceived plan of master-minder of that coup Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. Although, the argument had emanated from different quarters that if Nigeria was given opportunity to develop at the pace it was going at that time probably the Nigeria would have been among developed nation today, but that ill-fated coup was a clog in the wheel of nation’s progress. The base of this argument is that Nigeria achievements after independence still depend on the work of leaders who secure independence and also directed the affairs of nation within that short period of time up till today. Since then Nigeria has been grasping with different system of government, yet, the nation is still far from the solution. This paper will analyze Nigeria politics from independence, offer suggestion on the way forward. The source is strictly base on secondary source from textbook, newspapers, internet and journals.

Keywords: Development, Government, Politics, independence

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28 Price Control: A Comprehensive Step to Control Corruption in the Society

Authors: Muhammad Zia Ullah Baig, Atiq Uz Zama

Abstract:

The motivation of the project is to facilitate the governance body, as well as the common man in his/her daily life consuming product rates, to easily monitor the expense, to control the budget with the help of single SMS (message), e-mail facility, and to manage governance body by task management system. The system will also be capable of finding irregularities being done by the concerned department in mitigating the complaints generated by the customer and also provide a solution to overcome problems. We are building a system that easily controls the price control system of any country, we will feeling proud to give this system free of cost to Indian Government also. The system is able to easily manage and control the price control department of government all over the country. Price control department run in different cities under City District Government, so the system easily run in different cities with different SMS Code and decentralize Database ensure the non-functional requirement of system (scalability, reliability, availability, security, safety). The customer request for the government official price list with respect to his/her city SMS code (price list of all city available on website or application), the server will forward the price list through a SMS, if the product is not available according to the price list the customer generate a complaint through an SMS or using website/smartphone application, complaint is registered in complaint database and forward to inspection department when the complaint is entertained, the inspection department will forward a message about the complaint to customer. Inspection department physically checks the seller who does not follow the price list, but the major issue of the system is corruption, may be inspection officer will take a bribe and resolve the complaint (complaint is fake) in that case the customer will not use the system. The major issue of the system is to distinguish the fake and real complain and fight for corruption in the department. To counter the corruption, our strategy is to rank the complain if the same type of complaint is generated the complaint is in high rank and the higher authority will also notify about that complain, now the higher authority of department have reviewed the complaint and its history, the officer who resolve that complaint in past and the action against the complaint, these data will help in decision-making process, if the complaint was resolved because the officer takes bribe, the higher authority will take action against that officer. When the price of any good is decided the market/former representative is also there, with the mutual understanding of both party the price is decided, the system facilitate the decision-making process. The system shows the price history of any goods, inflation rate, available supply, demand, and the gap between supply and demand, these data will help to allot for the decision-making process.

Keywords: Government, Inspection, customer, employees, price control, goods, department

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27 The Concept and Practice of Good Governance in the European Union

Authors: Robert Grzeszczak

Abstract:

The article deals with one of the most significant issues concerning the functioning of the public sector in the European Union. The objectives of good governance were formulated by the EU itself and also the Scholars in reaction to the discussion that started a decade ago and concerned the role of the government in 21st century, the future of integration processes and globalization challenges in Europe. Currently, the concept of good governance is mainly associated with the improvement of management of public policies in the European Union, concerning both domestic and EU policies. However, it goes beyond the issues of state capacity and effectiveness of management. Good governance relates also to societal participation in the public administration and verification of decisions made in public authorities’ (including public administration). Indirectly, the concept and practice of good governance are connected to societal legitimisation of public bodies in the European Union.

Keywords: Government, Good Governance, European law, European Union

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26 (Mis) Communication across the Borders: Politics, Media, and Public Opinion in Turkey

Authors: Banu Baybars Hawks

Abstract:

To date, academic attention in social sciences remains inadequate with regard to research and analysis of public opinion in Turkey. Most of the existing research has assessed the public opinion during political election periods. Therefore, it is of great interest to find out what the public thinks about current issues in Turkey, and how to interpret the results to be able to reveal whether they may have any reflections on social, political, and cultural structure of the country. Accordingly, the current study seeks to fill the gap in the social sciences literature in English regarding Turkey’s social and political stand which may be perceived to be very different by other nations. Without timely feedback from public surveys, various programs for improving different services and institutions functioning in the country might not achieve their expected goal, nor can decisions about which programs to implement be made rationally. Additionally, the information gathered may not only yield important insights into public’s opinion regarding current agenda in Turkey, but also into the correlates shaping public policies. Agenda-setting studies including agenda-building, agenda melding, reversed agenda-setting and information diffusion studies will be used to explain the roles of factors and actors in the formation of public opinion in Turkey. Knowing the importance of public agenda in the agenda setting and building process, this paper aims to reveal the social and political tendencies of the Turkish public. For that purpose, a survey will be carried out in December of 2014 to determine the social and political trends in Turkey for that same year. The subjects for the study, which utilize a questionairre in one-on-one interviews, will include 1,000 individuals aged 18 years and older from 26 cities representing general population. A stratified random sampling frame will be used. The topics covered by the survey include: The most important current problem in Turkey; the Economy; Terror; Approaches to the Kurdish Issue; Evaluations of the Government and Opposition Parties; Evaluations of Institutional Efficiency; Foreign Policy; the Judicial System/Constitution; Democracy and the Media; and, Social Relations/Life in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Turkey has been undergoing a rapid transformation. The reflections of the changes can be seen in all areas from economics to politics. It is my hope that findings of this study may shed light on the important aspects of institutions, variables setting the agenda, and formation process of public opinion in Turkey.

Keywords: Government, Turkey, Media, Freedom, Public Opinion, Information Diffusion, agenda setting

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25 The Role of Accounting in the Run-Added Tax in Iran

Authors: Zahra Karimi

Abstract:

Money is not the only medium of economic exchanges, but also affects the national identity of citizens and national sovereignty of the government. Hence, money can be used as a tool to strengthen the national and political identity of nations. In other words, the value of the national currency can be affecting citizen’s view to the economic situation of their country and national identity. Government with the maintenance of the value of the national currency must increase the confidence of its citizens into national currency and prevents that "currency substitution phenomenon" occurred and people turn to foreign currencies. Hence, this article intends to explain the zeros elimination from the national currency and study of experience of other countries and discussion history analyzed benefits and harms of zeroes elimination from the national currency, And then to evaluate the effect or lack of effect of removing of zeros from the national currency on inflation answer the question whether it is appropriate and on time to delete three zeros from the Riyal of Iran is or not?

Keywords: Government, Inflation, Money, Iran, zeros elimination from the national currency, value of the national currency, Riyal

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24 Cyber Security in Nigeria: A Collaboration between Communities and Professionals

Authors: Alese Boniface K., Adu Michael K., Owa Victor K.

Abstract:

Security can be defined as the degree of resistance to, or protection from harm. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable assets, such as persons, dwellings, communities, nations or organizations. Cybercrime is any crime committed or facilitated via the Internet. It is any criminal activity involving computers and networks. It can range from fraud to unsolicited emails (spam). It includes the distant theft of government or corporate secrets through criminal trespass into remote systems around the globe. Nigeria like any other nations of the world is currently having their own share of the menace that has been used even as tools by terrorists. This paper is an attempt at presenting cyber security as an issue that requires a coordinated national response. It also acknowledges and advocates the key roles to be played by stakeholders and the importance of forging strong partnerships to prevent and tackle cybercrime in Nigeria.

Keywords: Security, Government, Internet, Cybercrime, Partnerships, Stakeholders

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23 Identifying Organizational Culture to Implement Knowledge Management: Case Study of BKN, Indonesia

Authors: Elin Cahyaningsih, Maria Margaretha, Dana Indra Sensuse Lukman

Abstract:

One of key success an organization can be seen from its culture. Employee, environment, and so on are factors for organization to achieve goals and build a competitive advantage. Type of organizational culture can be a guide to implementing Knowledge Management (KM) in organization especially in BKN. Culture will determine behavior of employees or environment to support KM. This paper describes the process to decide which culture does organization belong and suggestion and creating strategic moves in the future to implement KM. OCAI (Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument) and its framework (Competing Value Framework) were used to decide the type of organizational culture. To implement KM in organization, clan is an appropriate culture, because clan culture represent cultural values and leader type to implement a successful KM. Result of the measurement will be references for BKN to improve organization culture to achieve its goals and organization effectiveness.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Government, Organizational Culture, OCAI

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22 Should Local Governments Expect Benefits from Special Economic Zones: The Case of Poland

Authors: Radosław Pastusiak, Anna Kaźmierska, Magdalena Jasiniak

Abstract:

The impact of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) has been analyzed for many years by researchers. There are lot of theoretical studies proving the SEZs importance for regional development, however, there is lack of empirical studies (and they are mainly focused on China market) that are based on available data. The theoretical studies indicate the various impacts of enterprises operating within SEZs on the economy. The article proves that, in case of Poland, locating SEZs in municipalities is an important part of increasing municipalities’ income. Therefore SEZs have a positive impact on regional development. Municipality income is understood as taxes paid by taxpayers who depend on SEZ companies’ performance. The analysis includes the Corporate Income Tax (CIT), Personal Income Tax (PIT) and real estate tax. The effects of SEZs on regional development were narrowed to a few variables that are most significant for the financial system. The analysis indicates the significant impact of SEZs on the amount of taxes influencing the municipality budget.

Keywords: Government, special economic zone, local finance, municipal finance

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21 The Golden Bridge for Better Farmers Life

Authors: Giga Rahmah An-Nafisah, Lailatus Syifa Kamilah

Abstract:

Agriculture today, especially in Indonesia have globally improved. Since the election of the new president, who in the program of work priority the food self-sufficiency. Many ways and attempts have been planned carefully. All this is done to maximize agricultural production for the future. But if we look from another side, there is something missing. Yes! Improvement of life safety of the farmers, useless we fix all agricultural processing systems to maximize agricultural output, but the Hero of agriculture itself it does not change towards a better life. Yes, broker or middleman system agriculture results. Broker system or middleman this is the real problem facing farmers for their welfare. How come? As much as agriculture result, but if farmers were sell into middlemen with very low prices, then there will be no progress for their welfare. Broker system who do the actual middlemen should not happen in the current agricultural system, because the agriculture condition currently being concern, they would still be able to reap a profit as much as possible, no matter how miserable farmers manage the farm and currently face import competition this cannot be avoided anymore. This phenomenon is already visible plain sight all, who see it. Why? Because farmers those who fell victim cannot do anything to change this system. It is true, if only these middlemen who want to receive it for the sale of agricultural products, or arguably the only system that is the bridge realtor economic life of the farmers. The problem is that we should strive for the welfare of the heroes of our food. A golden bridge that could save them that, are the government. Why? Because the government can more easily with the powers to stop this broker system compared to other parties. The government supposed to be a bridge connecting the farmers with consumers or the people themselves. Yes, with improved broker system becomes: buy agricultural produce with highest prices to farmers and selling of agricultural products with lowest price to the consumer or the people themselves. And then the next question about the fate of middlemen? The system indirectly realtor is like system corruption. Why? Because the definition of corruption is an activity that is detrimental to the victim without being noticed by anyone continue to enrich himself and his victim's life miserable. Government may transfer performance of the middlemen into the idea of a new bridge that is done by the government itself. The government could lift them into this new bridge system employs them to remain a distributor of agricultural products themselves, but under the new policy made by the government to keep improving the welfare of farmers. This idea is made is not going to have much effect would improve the welfare of farmers, but most/least this idea will bring around many people for helping conscience farmers to the government, through the daily chatter, as well as celebrity gossip can quickly know too many people.

Keywords: Government, Agricultural Economics, broker system, farmers live

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20 Increasing The Role of Civil Society through LAPOR!: National Complaint Handling System in Indonesia

Authors: Izzati Nabiyla Risfa

Abstract:

The role of civil society has become an important issue in national and international level nowadays. Government all over the world started to realize that the involvement of civil society can boost up public services and better policy making. Global Policy Forum stated that there are five good reasons for civil society to be engaged in global governance; (1) to conferring legitimacy on policy decisions; (2) to increasing the pool of policy ideas; (3) to support less powerful governments; (4) countering a lack of political will; and (5) helping states to put nationalism aside. Indonesia also keeps up with this good trend. In November 2011, Indonesian Government set up LAPOR! (means “to report” in Indonesian), an online portal for complaints about public services, which is accessible through its website lapor.ukp.go.id. LAPOR! also accessible through social media (Twitter, Facebook) and text message. This program is an initiative from the government to provide an integrated and accessible portal for the Indonesian public to submit complaints and inquiries as a means of enhancing public participation in national development programs. LAPOR! aims to catalyze public participation as well as to have a more coordinated national complaint handling mechanism. The goal of this program is to increase the role of civil society in order to develop better public services. Thus, LAPOR! works in a simplest way possible. Public can submit any complaints or report their problem concerning development programs and public services simply through the website, short message services to 1708 and mobile applications for BlackBerry and Android. LAPOR! will then transfer every validated input to relevant institutions to be featured and responded on the website. LAPOR! is now integrated with 81 Ministries, 5 local government, and 44 State Owned Enterprise. Public can also give comments, likes or share them through Facebook and Twitter to have a discussion and to ensure the completeness of the reports. LAPOR! has unexpectedly contributed to various successful cases concerning public services. So far the portal has over 280,704 registered users, receiving an average of 1,000 reports every day. Government's response rate increase time to time, with 81% of complaints and inquiries have been solved or are being investigated. This paper will examine the effectiveness of LAPOR! as a tools to increase the role of civil society in order to develop better public services in Indonesia. Beside their promising story, there still are various difficulties that need to be solved. With qualitative approach as methodology for this research, writers will also explore potential improvement of LAPOR! so it can perform effectively as a leading national complaint handling system in Indonesia.

Keywords: Government, Civil Society, Public services, Indonesia

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19 The Role of State in Promoting the Green Innovation: Challenges and Opportunities in Taiwan

Authors: Po-Kun Tsai

Abstract:

The issue of climate change is essential in the 21st century. State governments have launched types of strategic industrial policies to encourage more widespread R&D in green technology. Research also indicates that technology is an essential tool to mitigate some of extreme situations. However, one could learn from several prominent cases in international trade area that they have been easily argued and disputed by the foreign counterparts. Thus, how to justify the public sector’s R&D measures under the current world trading system and how to promote the transfer of environmentally sound technologies (EST) to developing states are crucial. The study is to undertake a preliminary examination of the current R&D research area in green technology in Taiwan. Through selective interviews and comparative approach, it tries to identify the loopholes under the current legal framework in Taiwan. It would be, as a basis, for further legal and policy recommendations for the benefits of mankind.

Keywords: Innovation, Government, R&D, environmentally sound technology (EST)

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18 A Correlational Study of Political Accountability of Sanguniang Barangay (Barangay Council) and Barangay Readiness for Climate Change

Authors: Ester B. Onag, Manuel Morga, Belen Tangco

Abstract:

Evidence-based research attested that Climate Change is a global phenomenon that has a massive impact on the economy, the government and the people. To minimize its impact, the national government must undertake social orders to ensure the needs of the people by implementing developmental policies that provide adequate social service to improve the quality of life for all. This research attempts to evaluate the political accountability of the Sangguniang Barangay of Malabon on its readiness for climate change. Which, the theory of decentralization takes an active participation, where the the national policies for climate change are adopted by local ordinances and it is enforced, monitored, and reported through the Barangay ordinance enacted by the Sangguniang Barangay. This paper also analyzes certain factors anchored on the political accountability of the Sangguniang Barangay which determines the state of their readiness in climate change, such as the gravity of their accountability which extends beyond the lines of their responsibility as stated in the local government code. It also evaluated the degree of their capabilities in actual legislation, the nature of their prioritization through their enacted ordinances and the extent of participation from different stakeholders of barangay such as the sectoral representatives and the citizens in which their participation is a means that leads to community awareness.

Keywords: Climate Change, Government, Local Government, Sangguniang Barangay

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17 The Impact of Government Subsidies to Keep Residents Studying at Home

Authors: Melissa James Maceachern

Abstract:

This study examines a financial aid program that is designed to “keep residents at home” to attend higher education by providing financial aid as an incentive or discount in their first year of university following high school graduation. This study offers insight into financial matters for higher education students that can assist in providing policy direction for student financing. In particular, this study found that students appeared to value the bursary but none of the key metrics related to participation or conversion to the home institution indicated that the bursary impacted enrolment or participation. One key metric, student loans received by direct entry high school students did indicate a decline in the number of recipients. This study also identified accessibility issues to higher education that are of importance when considering the declining youth populations, future labour market needs and the need to sustain higher education institutions. This is undoubtedly a challenging period of time given the changing social and demographic forces within Canada. A comprehensive examination of the policy and programs to address these forces needs to be undertaken. This study highlights the importance of utilizing financial aid in combination with other policy to assist students in accessing higher education.

Keywords: Government, Accessibility, Participation, Financing

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16 Building Social Capital for Social Inclusion: The Use of Social Networks in Government

Authors: Suha Alawadhi, Malak Alrasheed

Abstract:

In the recent past, public participation in governments has been declined to a great extent, as citizens have been isolated from community life and their ability to articulate demands for good government has been noticeably decreased. However, the Internet has introduced new forms of interaction that could enhance different types of relationships, including government-public relationship. In fact, technology-enabled government has become a catalyst for enabling social inclusion. This exploratory study seeks to investigate public perceptions in Kuwait regarding the use of social media networks in government where social capital is built to achieve social inclusion. Social capital has been defined as social networks and connections amongst individuals, that are based on shared trust, ideas and norms, enable participants of a network to act effectively to pursue a shared objective. The quantitative method was used to generate empirical evidence. A questionnaire was designed to address the research objective and reflect the identified constructs: social capital dimensions (bridging, bonding and maintaining social capital), social inclusion, and social equality. In this pilot study, data was collected from a random sample of 61 subjects. The results indicate that all participants have a positive attitude towards the dimensions of social capital (bridging, bonding and maintaining), social inclusion and social equality constructs. Tests of identified constructs against demographic characteristics indicate that there are significant differences between male and female as they perceived bonding and maintaining social capital, social inclusion and social equality whereas no difference was identified in their perceptions of bridging social capital. Also, those who are aged 26-30 perceived bonding and maintaining social capital, social inclusion and social equality negatively compared to those aged 20-25, 31-35, and 40-above whose perceptions were positive. With regard to education, the results also show that those holding high school, university degree and diploma perceived maintaining social capital positively higher than with those who hold graduate degrees. Moreover, a regression model is proposed to study the effect of bridging, bonding, and maintaining social capital on social inclusion via social equality as a mediator. This exploratory study is necessary for testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire which will be used in the main study that aims to investigate the perceptions of individuals towards building social capital to achieve social inclusion.

Keywords: Social Networks, Government, Social Capital, Social Inclusion

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15 Analysis of Turkish Government Cultural Portal for Supporting Gastronomy Tourism

Authors: Hilmi Rafet Yüncü

Abstract:

Today Internet has very important role to promote products and services all over the world. Companies and destinations in tourism industry use Internet to sell and to promote their core products to directly potential tourists. Internet technologies have redefined the relationships between tourists, tourism companies, and travel agents. The new relationship allows for accessing and tapping tourism information and services. Internet technologies ensure new opportunities to available for the tourism industry, including travel accommodation, and tourist destination organizations. Websites are important devices to the marketing of a destination. Most people make a research about the destination before arriving via internet. Governments have a considerable role in the process of marketing tourism destinations. Governments make policies and regulations; furthermore, they help to market destinations to potential tourists. Governments have a comprehensive overview of the sector to see changes in tourism market and design better policies, programs and marketing plans. At the same time, governments support developing of alternative tourism in the country with regulations and marketing tools. The aim of this study is to analyse of an Internet website of governmental tourism portal in Turkey to determine effectiveness about gastronomy tourism. The Turkish government has established a culture portal for foreign and local tourists. The Portal provides local and general information about tourism attractions of cities and Turkey. There are 81 official cities in Turkey and all these cities are conducted to analyse to determine how effective marketing is done by Turkish Government in the manner of gastronomy tourism. A content analysis will be conducted to Internet website of the portal with food content, recipes and gastronomic feature of cities.

Keywords: Government, Turkey, Gastronomy Tourism, culture portal

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14 Greyscale: A Tree-Based Taxonomy for Grey Literature Published by Fisheries Agencies

Authors: Tatiana Tunon, Gottfried Pestal

Abstract:

Government agencies responsible for the management of fisheries resources publish many types of grey literature, and these materials are increasingly accessible to the public on agency websites. However, scope and quality vary considerably, and end-users need meta-data about the report series when deciding whether to use the information (e.g. apply the methods, include the results in a systematic review), or when prioritizing materials for archiving (e.g. library holdings, reference databases). A proposed taxonomy for these report series was developed based on a review of 41 report series from 6 government agencies in 4 countries (Canada, New Zealand, Scotland, and United States). Each report series was categorized according to multiple criteria describing peer-review process, content, and purpose. A robust classification tree was then fitted to these descriptions, and the resulting taxonomic groups were used to compare agency output from 4 countries using reports available in their online repositories.

Keywords: Fisheries, Government, classification tree, grey literature

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13 Government Intervention Strategies in Providing Water to Rural Communities in the O R Tambo District Municipality, South Africa

Authors: Cecilia Kunseh Betek

Abstract:

Managing rural water supply systems effectively and efficiently is a challenge in the O R Tambo District Municipality due to the long distances between consumers and municipal centres. This is a couple with the low income of most residents and the government's policy of free basic water which is making rural water provision very difficult. With regard to cartage, the results reveal that the majority (84.4%) of the population covers distances of about 1kilometre to fetch water, and 15.6% travel up kilometer to access water facilities. This means that the water sources are located very far from households, outside the officially legislated array of 200metres. These are many reasons to account for this situation. Firstly, this implies that there are inadequate stand pipes to cater for all the homesteads scattered across the rugged terrain of OR Tambo District municipality. Secondly, and following from the first explanation, it would be seen that funding that is made available is not adequate, or is not efficiently spent on the targeted projects. The situation in the rural areas of South Africa is fraught with cumbersome complexity when it comes to service delivery.

Keywords: Management, Government, Water, Rural

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12 The Impact of Entrepreneur to Develop Economy in Indonesia

Authors: Alif Nur Irvan, M. Varaby Wahyu

Abstract:

Indonesia is a country that have a lot of natural resources and as one of the most populous people in the world. In the last few years, the world economic is growing rapid, and then Indonesia must be able to develop his economy like the other country. The number of graduates in Indonesia always increase every year and the employment in Indonesia is getting decreased, this situation leads to rise unemployment in Indonesia. Limited employment makes people look for the ways to live decently. From this situation, entrepreneurs become an alternative in Indonesia to develop the economy. Being an entrepreneur means being able to find opportunities to utilize existing resources to take advantage of these opportunities. With the increasing number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia can increase employment, improve the quality of life, income distribution, utilize and mobilize resources to improve national productivity, and improve the welfare of government. The main sources for economic growth are the investments that improve the quality of capital or human resources, which in turn managed to increase the quantity of productive resources and can raise the productivity of all resources through new discoveries, innovations, creativity and technological progress. This paper is talking about the topic, discussions, and it offers the solutions to support entrepreneurs in Indonesia, and also talk about entrepreneurial problems that occurred in Indonesia, and the right solution to solve the problems of entrepreneurship in Indonesia and also discusses the role of government to support entrepreneurship to encourage the economy in Indonesia.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Government, Employment, Economy

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11 A Case from China on the Situation of Knowledge Management in Government

Authors: Qiaoyun Yang

Abstract:

Organizational scholars have paid enormous attention on how local governments manage their knowledge during the past two decades. Government knowledge management (KM) research recognizes that the management of knowledge flows and networks is critical to reforms on government service efficiency and the effect of administration. When dealing with complex affairs, all the limitations resulting from a lack of KM concept, processes and technologies among all the involved organizations begin to be exposed and further compound the processing difficulty of the affair. As a result, the challenges for individual or group knowledge sharing, knowledge digging and organizations’ collaboration in government's activities are diverse and immense. This analysis presents recent situation of government KM in China drawing from a total of more than 300 questionnaires and highlights important challenges that remain. The causes of the lapses in KM processes within and across the government agencies are discussed.

Keywords: Government, KM processes, KM technologies, KM situation

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10 Changes in Foreign Direct Investment Policy of India and Its Impact on Economic Development

Authors: Kishor P. Kadam

Abstract:

Foreign direct investment policy (FDI) is defined as an investment involving a long term relationship and reflecting a long duration interest and control of a resident entity in the home country (foreign direct investor or parent firm) in the host country. India has been one of the most translucent and open-minded FDI regimes among the emerging and developing economies. There is clear cut mentioned about the sectoral caps for foreign investment. The policy problems that have been identified by time to time surveys as acting as additional hurdles for FDI are laws, regulatory systems and government monopolies that do not have contemporary relevance. Foreign investment policies in the post-reforms period have emphasized greater encouragement and mobilization of non-debt creating private inflows for plunging reliance on debt flows. This paper will focus on how foreign direct investment policy changed from 1990-91 up to now. A time series data of 25 years is used for analysing the policy changes. It is observed that India has more liberal policy. The growth in number of Greenfield investments in India has been more impressive than the number of M&A deals whereas equity capital for incorporated bodies FDI inflows has been increased continuously 2014-15. India has made major changes in FDI Policy, and it has positive impact on economic development.

Keywords: Government, Economic Development, India, FDI

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9 Authority and Function of Administrative Organs According to the Constitution: A Construction of Democracy in the Administrative Law of Indonesia

Authors: Andhika Danesjvara, Nur Widyastanti

Abstract:

The constitution regulates the forms, types, and powers of sState organs in a government. The powers of the organs are then regulated in more detail in the legislation. One of these organs is a government organ, headed by a president or by another name that serves as the main organizer of government. The laws and regulations will govern how the organs of government shall exercise their authority and functions. In a modern state, the function of enacting laws or called executive power does not exercise the functions of government alone, but there are other organs that help the government run the country. These organs are often called government agencies, government accelerating bodies, independent regulatory bodies, commissions, councils or other similar names. The legislation also limits the power of officials within the organs to keep from abusing its authority. The main question in this paper is whether organs are the implementation of a democratic country, or as a form of compromise with the power of stakeholders. It becomes important to see how the administrative organs perform their functions. The administrative organs that are bound by government procedures work in the public service; therefore the next question is how far the function of public service is appropriate and not contradictory to the constitution.

Keywords: Democracy, Government, Constitution, administrative organs

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8 Effective Citizen Participation in Local Government Decision-Making and Democracy

Authors: Ali Zaimi

Abstract:

Citizen participation in local government is an opportunity given to citizens and government to increase communication between them, create public support for local government plans and most important grow public trust in government. Also, the citizens’ involvement in the political process is an important part of democracy. This study aims to define the strategies for increasing citizen participation in local governance and concentrated in two important mechanisms such as participatory budget and public policy councils. Three strategies that promote more effective citizen involvement in local governance are understanding and using formal institutions of power, collaboration of citizens’ groups and governments officials to jointly formulate programs plans, electing and appointing local officials. A unique aspect of citizen participation to operate effectively is the transparency of government and the inclusion of actors into decision-making. The citizen engagement in local governance enhances accountability and problem solving, promote more inclusive and cohesive communities and enlarge the quality and quantity of initiatives made by communities.

Keywords: Democracy, Government, Accountability, citizen participation

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7 Deconstructing Reintegration Services for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Feminist Analysis of Australian and Thai Government and Non-Government Responses

Authors: Jessica J. Gillies

Abstract:

Awareness of the tragedy that is human trafficking has increased exponentially over the past two decades. The four pillars widely recognised as global solutions to the problem are prevention, prosecution, protection, and partnership between government and non-government organisations. While ‘sex-trafficking’ initially received major attention, this focus has shifted to other industries that conceal broader experiences of exploitation. However, within the regions of focus for this study, namely Australia and Thailand, trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation remains the commonly uncovered narrative of criminal justice investigations. In these regions anti-trafficking action is characterised by government-led prevention and prosecution efforts; whereas protection and reintegration practices have received criticism. Typically, non-government organisations straddle the critical chasm between policy and practice; therefore, they are perfectly positioned to contribute valuable experiential knowledge toward understanding how both sectors can support survivors in the post-trafficking experience. The aim of this research is to inform improved partnerships throughout government and non-government post-trafficking services by illuminating gaps in protection and reintegration initiatives. This research will explore government and non-government responses to human trafficking in Thailand and Australia, in order to understand how meaning is constructed in this context and how the construction of meaning effects survivors in the post-trafficking experience. A qualitative, three-stage methodology was adopted for this study. The initial stage of enquiry consisted of a discursive analysis, in order to deconstruct the broader discourses surrounding human trafficking. The data included empirical papers, grey literature such as publicly available government and non-government reports, and anti-trafficking policy documents. The second and third stages of enquiry will attempt to further explore the findings of the discourse analysis and will focus more specifically on protection and reintegration in Australia and Thailand. Stages two and three will incorporate process observations in government and non-government survivor support services, and semi-structured interviews with employees and volunteers within these settings. Two key findings emerged from the discursive analysis. The first exposed conflicting feminist arguments embedded throughout anti-trafficking discourse. Informed by conflicting feminist discourses on sex-work, a discursive relationship has been constructed between sex-industry policy and anti-trafficking policy. In response to this finding, data emerging from the process observations and semi-structured interviews will be interpreted using a feminist theoretical framework. The second finding progresses from the construction in the first. The discursive construction of sex-trafficking appears to have had influence over perceptions of the legitimacy of survivors, and therefore the support they receive in the post-trafficking experience. For example; women who willingly migrate for employment in the sex-industry, and on arrival are faced with exploitative conditions, are not perceived to be deserving of the same support as a woman who is not coerced, but rather physically forced, into such circumstances, yet both meet the criteria for a victim of human trafficking. The forthcoming study is intended to contribute toward building knowledge and understanding around the implications of the construction of legitimacy; and contextualise this in reference to government led protection and reintegration support services for survivors in the post-trafficking experience.

Keywords: Government, Human trafficking, Australia, Thailand, non-government, reintegration

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