Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Governance Related Abstracts

63 Governance Disclosure Quality and Cooperative Performance in Malaysia

Authors: Maslinawati Mohamad, Intan Waheedah Othman, Azizah Abdullah

Abstract:

Few discussions were made on cooperative governance reforms despite the fact that cooperative movements operate and compete in an identical business environment as the private as well as the public corporations. Due to the scarcity of research examining the issue of governance among cooperatives, this paper is motivated to examine the extent of governance compliance and disclosure among cooperatives, hence the relationship between cooperative governance and its firm performance. Results from the study provide empirical evidence that disclosure on ownership structure and exercise of control rights was found to have significant negative relationship with cooperative firm performance.

Keywords: Governance, Cooperative, Firm Performance, Malaysia

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62 The Challenges of Security Sector Governance in West African Democracies-The Ecowas Response Mechanism

Authors: Adamu Buba

Abstract:

As West Africa gradually recovers from the cost of more than a decade of civil conflicts in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Côte d’Ivoire, ECOWAS has continued to place prominence on peace consolidation and the prevention of conflict in the West African Sub-Region. Of particular interest is the recent political uprising in Mali and in this regard, ECOWAS has been repositioning their existing machineries to manage this dispensation more effectively by improving their early warning and mediation capabilities. This paper firstly seeks among other things to provide a conceptual understanding of what security sector governance is, and also highlight the overview of ECOWAS and to closely examine the benchmark for assessing progress in the promotion of democracy and political governance within the sub-region as well as conflict prevention techniques. The views and analysis expressed in this paper is based on secondary method of data collection alone and do not in any way represent the views of the institutions or their representatives involved in this assignment in one way or the other.

Keywords: Security, Governance, Challenges, response, ecowas

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61 Novel Practices in Research and Innovation Management

Authors: A. Ravinder Nath, D. Jaya Prakash, T. Venkateshwarlu, P. Raja Rao

Abstract:

The introduction of novel practices in research and innovation management at the university are likely to make a real difference in improving the quality of life and boost the global competitiveness for sustainable economic growth. Establishment a specific institutional structure at the university level provides professional management and administrative expertise to the university’s research community by sourcing out funding opportunities, extending guidance in grant proposal preparation and submission and also assisting in the post award reporting and regulatory observance. In addition to these it can involve in negotiating fair and equitable research contracts. Further it administer research governance to provide support and encourage collaborations across all disciplines of the university with industry, government, community based organizations, foundations, and associations at the local, regional, national and international levels/scales. The partnerships in research and innovation are more powerful and far needed tools for knowledge-based economy, where the universities can offer the services of much wanted human resources to promote, foster, and sustain excellence in research. In addition to this the institutes provide amply desired infrastructure and expertise to work with the investigators, and the industry will generate required financial resources in a coordinated manner. Further it is possible to carryout high-end applied research and synergizes the research capabilities and professional skills of students, faculty, scientists, and industrial work force.

Keywords: Governance, Contracts, Competitiveness, collaborations

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60 Status of Participative Governance Practices in Higher Education: Implications for Stakeholders' Transformative Role-Assumption

Authors: Endalew Fufa Kufi

Abstract:

The research investigated the role of stakeholders such as students, teachers and administrators in the practices of good governance in higher education by looking into the special contributions of top-officials, teachers and students in ensuring workable ties and productive interchanges in Adama Science and Technology University. Attention was given to participation, fairness and exemplariness as key indicators of good governance. The target university was chosen for its familiarity for the researcher to get dependable data, access to respondent and management of the processing of data. Descriptive survey design was used for the purpose of describing concerned roles the stakeholders in the university governance in order to reflect on the nature of participation of the practices. Centres of the research were administration where supportive groups such as central administrators and underlying service-givers had parts and academia where teachers and students were target. Generally, 60 teachers, 40 students and 15 administrative officers were referents. Data were collected in the form of self-report through open-ended questionnaires. The findings indicated that, while vertical interchanges in terms of academic and administrative routines were had normal flow on top-down basis, planned practices of stakeholders in decision-making and reasonably communicating roles and changes in decisions with top-officials were not efficiently practiced. Moreover, the practices of good modelling were not witnessed to have existed to the fullest extent. Rather, existence of a very wide gap between the academic and administrative staffs was witnessed as was reflected the case between teachers and students. The implication was such that for shortage in participative atmosphere and weaning of fairness in governance, routine practices have been there as the vicious circles of governance.

Keywords: Governance, Stakeholders, participative, transformative, role-assumption

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59 Governance of Clean Energy in Rural Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Inayatullah Jan, Sidra Pervez

Abstract:

Effective institutional arrangements at local and national levels are quintessential for promotion of renewable energy in a country. This study attempts to examine the institutional arrangements for development of domestic renewable energy in rural northwest Pakistan. The study describes that very limited number of public and private organizations were working on clean development in the area. Surprisingly, no institutional arrangements exclusively meant for domestic clean energy promotion were observed in the area. The study concludes that the objectives of Kyoto Protocol in Pakistan can be achieved only if the government and non-governmental organizations work together to launch cost-effective renewable energy interventions, particularly in rural areas. The need is to have a coordinated, consistent, and focused cooperation of all stakeholders involved in promotion of domestic renewable energy at all levels. This will not only improve the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the local context, but will play a key role in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals(MDGs).

Keywords: Governance, clean energy, Greenhouse gases, CDM, Northwest Pakistan

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58 New Public Management: Step towards Democratization

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Krunal Mehta

Abstract:

Administration is largely based on two sciences: ‘management science’ and ‘political science’. The approach of new public management is more inclined towards the management science. Era of ‘New Public Management’ has affected the developing countries very immensely. Public management reforms are needed to enhance the development of the countries. This reform mainly includes capacity building, control of corruption, political decentralization, debureaucratization and public empowerment. This gives the opportunity to create self-sustaining change in the governance. This paper includes the link of approach of new public management and their effect on building effective democratization in the country. This approach mainly focuses on rationality and effectiveness of governance system. These need to have deep efforts on technological, organizational, social and cultural fields. Bringing citizen participation in governance is main objective of NPM. The shift from traditional public management to new public management have low success rate of reforms. This research includes case study of RTI which is a big step of government towards citizen centric approach of governance. The aspect of ‘publicness’ in the democratic policy implementation is important for good governance in India.

Keywords: Development, Governance, Public Management, public empowerment

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57 Improving Human Resources Management in Indian Civil Service

Authors: Anant Deogaonkar, Archana Nanoty

Abstract:

The term civil service plays a vital role in functioning of any government. In today’s modern era of globalization civil services essentially contribute for the success of the good governance system. The civil service in India refers to the body of government officials employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. The Indian Civil Services were created to foster the idea of unity in diversity with the expectation of giving continuity and change in administration independent of the political scenario and turmoil affecting the country. The civil service is an integral part of administration and the structures of administration to determine the way civil service functions. The concept of good governance necessarily precludes the effective human resource management ensuring the root level reach of the good governance. The serious matter of concern is the element of change. The civil service in general has maintained status quo instead of sweeping changes in social and economic scenario. One may disagree for this but it is a fact on the street that the Indian civil service was not able to deliver up to the expectations of the people and was lacking on the service front. The effective management of human resources at civil service needs to be prioritized and will form a key factor in successful delivery of the desired results may be in minimum duration. This paper focuses on the various ways of effective management of human resources in civil services. It also highlights the importance of improvement in human resource management in civil services with the detailed discussion of positives and negatives if any of the human resource management in civil services.

Keywords: Governance, Human Resources Management, India, civil services

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56 Governing External Innovation: Lessons from Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android

Authors: Amir Mohagheghzadeh, Solaleh Salimi, Ramin Tafazzoli

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Ecosystem and networks plays significant roles in product innovation. External innovation within developing firms can bring a wide range of advantages for a firm in a competitive market. Using external innovation can be mentioned as one of the most significant concepts regarding the firm’s transition phase into openness. Derivative concepts such as open or shared platform and app stores are the main result of this thinking within the firms. However, adopting this concept and leverage the defined advantages of external innovation should be aligned with other strategies and policies of a firm. Consequently, one of the key aspects that have been raised while using external innovation is how to govern external innovation within a developing firm. This paper describes the frameworks that two pioneer companies in mobile operating system development have used in order to control and govern external innovation through platform.

Keywords: Innovation, Governance, open innovation, ios, Governance Mechanisms, android, external innovation, Apple, Google

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55 Governing Ecosystem Services for Poverty Reduction: Empirical Evidences from Purulia District, India

Authors: Soma Sarkar

Abstract:

A number of authors have recently argued that there are strong links between ecosystem services and sustainable development, particularly development efforts that aim to reduce rural poverty. We see two distinct routes by which the science of ecosystem services can contribute to both nature conservation and sustainable development. First, a thorough accounting of ecosystem services and a better understanding of how and at what rates ecosystems produce these services can be used to motivate payment for nature conservation. At least part of the generated funds can be used to compensate people who suffer lost economic opportunities to protect these services. For example, if rural poor are asked to take actions that reduce farm productivity to protect and regulate water supply, those farmers could be compensated for the reduced productivity they experience. When the benefits of natural ecosystems are explicitly quantified, those benefits are more valued both by the people who directly interact with the ecosystems and the governmental and other agencies that would have to pay for substitute sources of these services if these ecosystems should become impaired. Appreciating the value of ecosystem services can motivate increased conservation investment to prevent having to pay for substitutes later. This approach could be characterized as a ‘‘government investment’’ approach because the payments will generally come from beneficiaries outside of the local area, and a governmental or other agency is typically responsible for collecting and redistributing the funds. Second, a focus on the conservation of ecosystem services could improve the success of projects that attempt to both conserve nature and improve the welfare of the rural poor by fostering markets for the goods and services that local people produce or extract from ecosystems. These projects could be characterized as more ‘‘community based’’ because the goal is to foster the more organic, or grassroots, development of cottage industries, such as ecotourism, or the production of non-timber forest products, that are enhanced by better protection of local ecosystems. Using this framework, we discuss the factors that may have contributed to failure or success for several projects in the district of Purulia, one of the most backward districts of India and inhabited by indigenous group of people. A large majority of people in this district are dependent on environment based incomes for their sustenance. The erosion of natural resource base owing to poor governance in the district has led to the reductions in the household incomes of these people. The scale of our analysis is local or project level. The plight of poor has little to do with the production functions of ecosystem services. But for rural poor, at the local level, the status of ecosystem services can make a big difference in their daily lives.

Keywords: Governance, ecosystem services, rural poor, community based natural resource management

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54 Planning Method Study on the Ecological Restrained Construction Area from the Perspective of Governance: A Case from Yangzijin, Yangzhou, China

Authors: Rushi Tan, Yilun Xu, Xiaohui Wang

Abstract:

The restrained construction zoning, an important part in the urban master plan, is a necessary planning tool to control the city sprawl, to guarantee the reservation implementation of the various types of protective elements, and to realize the storage of the essential urban spatial resources. Simultaneously, owing to the diverse constitutes of restrained construction area and the various stakeholders involved in, its planning requires an overall consideration of all elements from the perspective of coordination, balance and practicability to deal with the problems and conflicts in this process. Taking Yangzijin Ecological Restrained Construction Area in Yangzhou as an example, this study analyzes all the potential actors, agencies and stakeholders in this restrained construction area, as well as the relevant conflicts between each other. Besides, this study tries to build up a planning procedure based on the framework of governance theory, and proposes a possible planning method that combines "rigidity" and "flexibility" to protect the ecological limitation boundary, to take every interest into account, and to promote economic development in a harmonious society.

Keywords: Governance, China, stakeholder, restrained construction area, flexible stratagem

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53 Preventing Corruption in Dubai: Governance, Contemporary Strategies and Systemic Flaws

Authors: Graham Brooks, Belaisha Bin Belaisha, Hakkyong Kim

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The problem of preventing and/or reducing corruption is a major international problem. This paper, however, specifically focuses on how organisations in Dubai are tackling the problem of money laundering. This research establishes that Dubai has a clear international anti-money laundering framework but suffers from some national weaknesses such as diverse anti-money laundering working practice, lack of communication, sharing information and disparate organisational vested self-interest.

Keywords: Governance, Prevention, Corruption, Strategies, Money Laundering

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52 Understanding Informal Settlements: The Role of Geo-Information Tools

Authors: Musyimi Mbathi

Abstract:

Information regarding social, political, demographic, economic and other attributes of human settlement is important for decision makers at all levels of planning, as they have to grapple with dynamic environments often associated with settlements. At the local level, it is particularly important for both communities and urban managers to have accurate and reliable information regarding all planning attributes. Settlement mapping, in particular, informal settlements mapping in Kenya, has over the past few years been carried out using modern tools like Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing for spatial data analysis and planning. GIS tools offer a platform for integration of spatial and non-spatial data as well as visualisation of the settlements. The capabilities offered by these tools have enabled communities to participate especially in the planning and management of new infrastructure as well as settlement upgrading. Land tenure based projects within informal settlements have also relied on GIS and related tools with considerable success. Additionally, the adoption of participatory approaches and use of geo-information tools helped to provide a basis for all inclusive planning thus promoting accountability, transparency, legitimacy, and other dimensions of governance within human settlement planning. The paper examines the context and application of geo-information tools for planning within low-income settlements of Kenya. A case study of Kiambiu settlement will be used to demonstrate how the tools have been applied for planning and decision-making purposes.

Keywords: Governance, GIS, Modern Tools, informal settlements

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51 Examining the Relevance of Electoral Commission in Fostering Democratic Governance in Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed Usman

Abstract:

This paper attempts to examine the relevance of an Electoral Commission in the democratic process of governance in Nigeria. However, democratic system and governance present a clear indication of responsive and responsible governments. The idea of a government being responsive and responsible is based on the premise of conventional principles of democracy such as freedom of political, economic and social rights of and individual. More so, upholding of the Rule of Law based on the ground of constitutionalism is a clear manifestation of the democratic governance. The burdens of ascertaining theses democratic ethos rely solely on the constituted election management body known as Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) for the case of Nigeria. This body is however, saddled with the responsibility of organizing and conducting periodic regular credible election known as free and fair election. The body also, is expected to be neutral, and independent to ensure fair treatment to all. It is on the basis of this fair treatment that credible leaders emerged. To this end, the paper examines the powers, functions and features of Independent National Electoral Commission. More so, the concepts of election and democracy have been operationalized. It is obvious that electoral process in Nigeria is marred with series of problems of which the paper identified and solutions were proffered towards credible, free and fair elections for sustainable democratic governance. In order to succinctly discuss and analyze the issues at stake, Structural Functional Analysis theory is adopted as a theoretical frame work for the paper.

Keywords: Democracy, Governance, election, electoral commission

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50 Governance Structure of Islamic Philanthropic Institution: Analysis of Corporate WAQF in Malaysia

Authors: Nathasa Mazna Ramli, Nurul Husna Mohd Salleh, Nurul Aini Muhamed

Abstract:

This study focuses on the governance of an Islamic philanthropic institution in Malaysia. Specifically, the internal governance structure of corporate Islamic endowment, or waqf, is being analysed. The purposes of waqf are to provide continuous charity that could generate perpetual income flow for the needy. This study is based on the principle of MCCG 2012, Shariah Governance Framework and charity governance. This study utilises publicly available data to examine the internal governance structure of a corporate waqf. This study finds that the Islamic philanthropic Institution practices, to some extent, have a sound governance structure to discharge their transparency and accountability. Furthermore, findings also showed that though governance structure is in place, most of the structures are not disclosed in the annual reports of the company. Findings from the study could extend the knowledge in these areas and stimulate further research on the governance of Islamic philanthropic institutions, particularly for corporate waqf.

Keywords: Governance, Accountability, Islamic philanthropic, corporate waqf

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49 Women as Catalysts for the Rehabilitation of the Traditional System of Governance in Nigeria

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

Abstract:

Before the advent of Colonialists on the shores of Nigeria between the 16th and 17th Centuries, there existed the traditional systems of governance which was successful with Women as active participants. However, the current state of politics in Nigeria reveals an obvious absence of women in the Country’s governance. Being that the economy rests on the quality of leaders and their constructive contribution to the plight of the masses, it becomes pertinent to exhaust all the avenues that may be open to good governance-women inclusive. It is against this backdrop that this paper attempts to compare the machinery that were in place in pre-colonial Nigerian governance that aided the womenfolk to successfully reign or assist in leadership with the seeming lack of interest by women in present times. Factors that militate against the women will also be highlighted. Furthermore, suggestions are made on how to revive these successful traditional systems of governance. The paper concludes by emphasising the role of women as the needed catalysts for this aforementioned rehabilitation of traditional systems and the impact of media in achieving this feat.

Keywords: Governance, Media, Rehabilitation, Catalysts

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48 Governance Question and the Participatory Policy Making: Making the Process Functional in Nigeria

Authors: Albert T. Akume, P. D. Dahida

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of various epochs of governments on policy making in Nigeria. The character of governance and public policy making of both epochs was exclusive, non-participatory and self-centric. As a consequence the interests of citizenry were not represented, neither protected nor sought to meet fairly the needs of all groups. The introduction of the post-1999 democratic government demand that the hitherto skewed pattern of policy making cease to be a character of governance. Hence, the need for citizen participation in the policy making process. The question then is what mode is most appropriate to engender public participation so as to make the policy making process functional? Given the prevailing social, economic and political dilemmas the utilization of the direct mode of citizen participation to affect policy outcome is doubtful if not unattainable. It is due to these predicament that this paper uses the documentary research design argues for the utilization of the indirect mode of citizen participation in the policy making process so as to affect public policy outcome appropriately and with less cost, acrimony and delays.

Keywords: Governance, Public Policy, Civil Society, Representation, Participation

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47 Public Policy Making Process in Developing Countries: Case Study of Turkish Health System

Authors: Hakan Akin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the policy making process in Turkish Health System. This policy making process will be examined through public policy change theories. Since political actors played in the formulation of public policies also explains the type of policy change, this actors will be inspected in the supranational and national basis. Also the transformation of public policy in the Turkish health care system will be analysed under the concepts of New right ideology, neo-liberalism, neo-conservatism and governance. And after this analyse, the outputs and outcomes of this transformation will be discussed in the context of developing countries.

Keywords: Governance, policy transfer, policy diffusion, policy convergence, new right

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46 Governance and Economic Growth: Evidence for Ten Asian Countries

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This study utilizes a frequency domain approach over the period of 1996 to 2013 to examine the causal relationship between governance and economic growth in ten Asian countries, which have different levels of democracy; classified as “Free”, “Partly Free”, and “Not Free” countries. The empirical results show that there is no Granger causality running from governance to economic growth in “Not Free” countries and “Partly Free” countries with the exception of Singapore. As for “Free” countries such as South Korea and Taiwan, there is a one-way causality running from governance to economic growth. The findings of this study indicate that policy makers in South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore could use governance index to improve their predictions of the future economic growth.

Keywords: Governance, Economic growth, granger causality, frequency domain

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45 The Effort of Good Governance in Enhancing Foods Security for Sustainable National Development

Authors: Egboja Simon Oga

Abstract:

One of the most important keys to the success of a nation is to ensure steady development and national economic self-sufficiency and independence. It is therefore in this regard that this paper is designed to identify food security to be crucial to all nations’ effort toward sustainable national development. Nigeria as a case study employed various effort by the successive government towards food security. Emphasis were placed on the extent to which government has boosted food security situation on the basis of the identified limitations, conclusion was drawn, recommendation/suggestions proffered, that subsidization of the process of farm inputs like fertilizer, improved seeds and agrochemical, education of farmers on modern methods of farming through extension services, improvisation of village-based food storage mechanism and provision of infrastructural facilities in rural areas to facilitate the preservation and easy evacuation of farm produces are necessary.

Keywords: Food, Development, Security, Governance

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44 Effective Governance and Administrative Structures for Virile Trade Unions and Cordial Labour Relations

Authors: Theophilius Adekunle Tinuoye

Abstract:

Trade unions are groups formed essentially to promote, articulate and enhance the welfare of workers. They are expected to defend the workers interests and participate actively in workplace exchanges. But for trade unions to function effectively and actualize their lofty aspirations in the context of the current dynamic and ever-changing industrial relations context, they must not only have qualified and competent leaders, but also flexible and effective structure, systems, organograms, constitution, and administrative processes in place to compliment their policies and programmes. An important aspect of industrial relations is the existence of cordial tripartite or bipartite interactions between stakeholders and other social partners that are indispensable to the creation of positive and mutually beneficial exchanges and outcomes. This paper canvassed that unions must be structurally viable and administratively cohesive in order to be effective, pragmatic, functional and remain relevant. It also argued that weak, structurally deficient and less organized unions often find it immensely difficult to actualize workers goals. Finally, it outlined basic principles that will enhance union administration, guarantee that unions will continue to satisfy the yearnings of its members in these trying times and finally foster peaceful industrial relations climate and cordial labor relations between trade unions, employers /management and government.

Keywords: Governance, Labor Relations, Trade Unions, Workers

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43 Challenges of Good Government in Enhancing Food Security for Sustainable National Development in Nigeria

Authors: Agi Sunday, Egboja Simon

Abstract:

One of the most important key to success of a nation is to ensure steady development and national economic self - sufficiency and independence. There have been challenges in food security related issues in many developing nations. The problems may be as a result of rise in food price across the globe diminishing global food reserve and erratic weather patterns among other factors. In Nigeria several Agricultural politics have been formulated to curtail food security challenges. Unfortunately, these policies have not yielded the deserved results of increase food production. This paper is designed to identify the various challenges confronting food security in Nigeria with a view of highlighting the reasons that accounting for these problems. This paper also suggests ways of addressing these challenges and concludes by saying that subsidization of the process of farm inputs like fertilizer, improved seed and agro chemicals education of the farmers on modern methods of farming through extension services, improvisation of villages based food storage mechanism and provision of infrastructural facilities in rural areas to facilitate the preservation and easy evacuation of farm produce should be encouraged.

Keywords: Food, Development, Security, Society, Governance, Sustainability, Conflict, Hunger

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42 Increasing Number of NGOs and Their Conduct: A Case Study of Far Western Region of Nepal

Authors: Raju Thapa

Abstract:

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are conducting activities in Nepal with the overall objective to strengthen peace, progress and prosperity in the society. Based on the research objectives, this study has tried to trace out the reasons behind massive growth of NGOs and the trends that have shaped the handling and functioning of NGOs in the Kailali district. The outcomes of this research are quite embarrassing for NGOs officials. Based on the findings of this research, NGOs are expected to review their guiding principal, integrity and conduct for the betterment of the society.

Keywords: Networking, Financial, Governance, Human Resources, Legal, Collaboration, Integrity, Trends, conduct, NGO, increasing, guiding principle, public trust

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41 Challenges, Responses and Governance in the Conservation of Forest and Wildlife: The Case of the Aravali Ranges, Delhi NCR

Authors: Shashi Mehta, Krishan Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of issues pertaining to the conservation of the natural environment and factors affecting the coexistence of the forest, wildlife and people. As forests and wildlife together create the basis for economic, cultural and recreational spaces for overall well-being and life-support systems, the adverse impacts of increasing consumerism are only too evident. The IUCN predicts extinction of 41% of all amphibians and 26% of mammals. The major causes behind this threatened extinction are Deforestation, Dysfunctional governance, Climate Change, Pollution and Cataclysmic phenomena. Thus the intrinsic relationship between natural resources and wildlife needs to be understood in totality, not only for the eco-system but for humanity at large. To demonstrate this, forest areas in the Aravalis- the oldest mountain ranges of Asia—falling in the States of Haryana and Rajasthan, have been taken up for study. The Aravalis are characterized by extreme climatic conditions and dry deciduous forest cover on intermittent scattered hills. Extending across the districts of Gurgaon, Faridabad, Mewat, Mahendergarh, Rewari and Bhiwani, these ranges - with village common land on which the entire economy of the rural settlements depends - fall in the state of Haryana. Aravali ranges with diverse fauna and flora near Alwar town of state of Rajasthan also form part of NCR. Once, rich in biodiversity, the Aravalis played an important role in the sustainable co-existence of forest and people. However, with the advent of industrialization and unregulated urbanization, these ranges are facing deforestation, degradation and denudation. The causes are twofold, i.e. the need of the poor and the greed of the rich. People living in and around the Aravalis are mainly poor and eke out a living by rearing live-stock. With shrinking commons, they depend entirely upon these hills for grazing, fuel, NTFP, medicinal plants and even drinking water. But at the same time, the pressure of indiscriminate urbanization and industrialization in these hills fulfils the demands of the rich and powerful in collusion with Government agencies. The functionaries of federal and State Governments play largely a negative role supporting commercial interests. Additionally, planting of a non- indigenous species like prosopis juliflora across the ranges has resulted in the extinction of almost all the indigenous species. The wildlife in the area is also threatened because of the lack of safe corridors and suitable habitat. In this scenario, the participatory role of different stakeholders such as NGOs, civil society and local community in the management of forests becomes crucial not only for conservation but also for the economic wellbeing of the local people. Exclusion of villagers from protection and conservation efforts - be it designing, implementing or monitoring and evaluating could prove counterproductive. A strategy needs to be evolved, wherein Government agencies be made responsible by putting relevant legislation in place along with nurturing and promoting the traditional wisdom and ethics of local communities in the protection and conservation of forests and wild life in the Aravali ranges of States of Haryana and Rajasthan of the National Capital Region, Delhi.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Governance, Deforestation, Urbanization

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40 Controlling Youths Participation in Politics in Sokoto State: A Constructive Inclusiveness for Good Governance in Nigeria

Authors: Umar Ubandawaki

Abstract:

Political participation involves voluntary and deliberate efforts by the members of a political system to determine the kinds of political institution and individuals that will govern them and equally influence the mobilization and allocation of the available societal resources. Over the years, youths in Nigeria participated actively in political party rallies and voting to elect their leaders and representatives in governance. This paper examines categories and nature of participation in politics as well as factors that derived youths into politics in Sokoto State. Through the use of qualitative and quantitative data generated from focus group discussions, interviews and questionnaire, the paper find out that youth, in Sokoto State, have been induced in participatory activities that encourage political thuggery and manipulation of electoral outcomes. Moreover, they are neglected in the mobilization and allocation of the available resources of the society i.e they are denied dividends of good governance. The paper recommends that youths should be engaged into positive participatory activities for ensuring inclusiveness and promotion of good governance in Nigeria. It is hoped that this will enlighten youth and policy implementers on the constructive strategies in controlling youth’s participation in politics in Nigeria.

Keywords: Democracy, Governance, inclusivenes, participation and politic

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39 The Development of Shariah-Based Cooperative and Its Governance System: Cases in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia

Authors: Zurina Shafii, Mohamed Obaidullah, Rochania Ayu Yunanda, Nor Farha Zubair

Abstract:

Cooperative members (also known as user-owners) are responsible in running the cooperative businesses in order to improve their socio economic well-being. Cooperatives have always been recognized as a vehicle to elevate the standard of living of the poor and low-income earners by improving their ability to mobilize resources among the people within the urban and rural sectors of the population. To improve its performance and role, the cooperative should ensure the existence of its specific governance. Using narrative analysis and quasi-statistics, this paper describes the state of operation, growth and nature of products and services offered in Sakofah Savings Co-op (the largest Islamic cooperative in Krabi), Koperasi Muslimin Malaysia Berhad (KMMB) in Malaysia and KOSPIN Jasa Keuangan in Indonesia. Furthermore, it identifies and evaluates the current governance system in each cooperatives and proposes governance framework which may enhance the performance of the cooperatives. The paper, in turn discusses the challenges to cooperative growth and investment from the aspects of governance and monitoring, transparency and human capital. The paper will be useful for regulators and governance organs of cooperatives, namely Board of Members, Management and Shariah Committee in order for these parties to strengthen the governance within cooperatives to further grow this economic sector.

Keywords: Governance, Case study, Islamic cooperatives, Shariah governance

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38 Governance Commitment and Time Differences in Aspects of Sustainability Reporting in Nigerian Banks

Authors: Nwobu Obiamaka, Owolabi Akintola

Abstract:

This study examined the extent of statistical significant difference between the economic, environmental, governance and social aspects of sustainability reporting as a result of board committee on sustainability and time (year) of reporting for business organizations in the Nigerian banking sector. The years of reporting under consideration were 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Content analysis methodology was employed through a reporting index used to score the amount of economic, environmental, governance and social indicators of sustainability reporting. The results of this study indicated that business organizations with board committee on sustainability had more indicators of sustainability reporting than those without board committees on sustainability issues. Also, sustainability reporting in 2013 was higher than that of prior years (2012, 2011 and 2010) for the economic, environmental and social indicators. The governance indicators of 2012 was highest compared to the other years (2013, 2011 and 2010) under consideration in this study. The implication of this finding is that business organizations that have board committees on sustainability are monitored by such boards to report more to their stakeholders. On the other hand, business organizations are appreciating the need to engage in sustainability reporting with each passing year. This could be due to the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Sustainability Reporting framework that business organizations in the banking sector have to adhere to. When sustainability issues are monitored from the board of directors, business organizations are likely to increase and improve on their sustainability reporting.

Keywords: Governance, Sustainability, Organizations, Reporting

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37 Analyzing the Performance of the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 as Framework for Managing and Recovering from Large-Scale Disasters: A Typhoon Haiyan Recovery Case Study

Authors: Fouad M. Bendimerad, Jerome B. Zayas, Michael Adrian T. Padilla

Abstract:

With the increasing scale of severity and frequency of disasters worldwide, the performance of governance systems for disaster risk reduction and management in many countries are being put to the test. In the Philippines, the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) Act of 2010 (Republic Act 10121 or RA 10121) as the framework for disaster risk reduction and management was tested when Super Typhoon Haiyan hit the eastern provinces of the Philippines in November 2013. Typhoon Haiyan is considered to be the strongest recorded typhoon in history to make landfall with winds exceeding 252 km/hr. In assessing the performance of RA 10121 the authors conducted document reviews of related policies, plans, programs, and key interviews and focus groups with representatives of 21 national government departments, two (2) local government units, six (6) private sector and civil society organizations, and five (5) development agencies. Our analysis will argue that enhancements are needed in RA 10121 in order to meet the challenges of large-scale disasters. The current structure where government agencies and departments organize along DRRM thematic areas such response and relief, preparedness, prevention and mitigation, and recovery and response proved to be inefficient in coordinating response and recovery and in mobilizing resources on the ground. However, experience from various disasters has shown the Philippine government’s tendency to organize major recovery programs along development sectors such as infrastructure, livelihood, shelter, and social services, which is consistent with the concept of DRM mainstreaming. We will argue that this sectoral approach is more effective than the thematic approach to DRRM. The council-type arrangement for coordination has also been rendered inoperable by Typhoon Haiyan because the agency responsible for coordination does not have decision-making authority to mobilize action and resources of other agencies which are members of the council. Resources have been devolved to agencies responsible for each thematic area and there is no clear command and direction structure for decision-making. However, experience also shows that the Philippine government has appointed ad-hoc bodies with authority over other agencies to coordinate and mobilize action and resources in recovering from large-scale disasters. We will argue that this approach be institutionalized within the government structure to enable a more efficient and effective disaster risk reduction and management system.

Keywords: Governance, Recovery, risk reduction and management, typhoon haiyan response and recovery

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36 Fighting Corruption: Antidote to Strengthening Governance in Africa

Authors: Gabriel Adegbite

Abstract:

Corruption has become one of the most notoriously persistent and progressively worsening social problems afflicting most of the African states. It has permeated virtually all institutions and has become a way of life and principal method of accumulating wealth on the continent. While major cause of this pandemic has been traced to the post-colonial antecedents of many African leaders, some highlights during the colonial era have shown that activities during the period gave impetus for its entrenchment. There is also a growing study establishing an intersection between corruption and governance. However, any comprehensive analysis of factors responsible for the emergence and entrenchment of corruption in Africa must take a holistic view of the practice. It must examine the role played by colonialism and neo-colonialism in African countries. This study presents few elements and historical view of corruption in sub-Sahara Africa. It analyse the reason for corruption eruption in most of the African states while suggesting some anti-corruption strategy that may be peculiar to the continent. This study makes a contribution to the growing literature in the area of corruption and panacea in developing countries.

Keywords: Governance, Africa, fighting corruption, antidote

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35 Public Debt Shocks and Public Goods Provisioning in Nigeria: Implication for National Development

Authors: Amenawo I. Offiong, Hodo B. Riman

Abstract:

Public debt profile of Nigeria has continuously been on the increase over the years. The drop in international crude oil prices has further worsened revenue position of the country, thus, necessitating further acquisition of public debt to bridge the gap in revenue deficit. Yet, when we look back at the increasing public sector spending, there are concerns that the government spending do not amount to increase in public goods provided for the country. Using data from 1980 to 2014 the study therefore seeks to investigate the factors responsible for the poor provision of public goods in the face of increasing public debt profile. Using the unrestricted VAR model Governance and Tax revenue were introduced into the model as structural variables. The result suggested that governance and tax revenue were structural determinants of the effectiveness of public goods provisioning in Nigeria. The study therefore identified weak governance as the major reason for the non-provision of public goods in Nigeria. While tax revenue exerted positive influence on the provisions of public goods, weak/poor governance was observed to crowd the benefits from increase tax revenue. The study therefore recommends reappraisal of the governance system in Nigeria. Elected officers in governance should be more transparent and accountable to the electorates they represent. Furthermore, the study advocates for an annual auditing of all government MDAs accounts by external auditors to ensure (a) accountability of public debts utilization, (b) transparent in implementation of program support funds, (c) integrity of agencies responsible for program management, and (d) measuring program effectiveness with amount of funds expended.

Keywords: Governance, public goods, impulse response function, public debt shocks, tax revenue, vector auto-regression

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34 Free, Fair, and Credible Election and Democratic Governance in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Awal Hossain Mollah

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the free, fair and credible election in ensuring democratic governance in Bangladesh. The paper is a case (Bangladesh) study and qualitative in nature and based on secondary sources of materials. For doing this study, conceptual clarification has been done first and identified few elements of free, fair and credible elections. Then, how far these elements have been ensured in Bangladeshi elections has been evaluated by analyzing all the national elections held since independence. Apart from these, major factors and challenges of holding a free, fair and credible election in Bangladesh have been examined through using the following research questions: 1. Does role of election commission matter for free, fair and credible elections to form a democratic government? 2. Does role of political parties matter for democratic governance? 3. Do role of government matter for conducting the free, fair and credible election in ensuring democratic governance? 4. Does non-party caretaker government matter for conducting a free, fair and credible election? 5. Does democratic governance depend on multi-dimensional factors and actors? Major findings of this study are: Since the independence of Bangladesh, 10 national elections held in various regimes. 4 out of 10 national elections have been found free, fair and credible which have been conducted by the non-party caretaker government. Rests of the elections are not out of controversy and full of manipulation held under elected government. However, the caretaker government has already been abolished by the AL government through 15th amendment of the constitution. The present AL government is elected by the 10th parliamentary election under incumbent (AL) government, but a major opposition allies (20 parties) lead by BNP boycotted this election and 154 of the total 300 seats being uncontested. As a result, AL again came to the power without a competitive election and most of the national and International election observers including media world consider this election as unfair and the government is suffering from lack of legitimacy. Therefore, the governance of present Bangladesh is not democratic at all and it is to be considered as one party (14 parties’ allies lead by AL) authoritarian governance in the shade of parliamentary governance. Both the position and opposition of the parliament is belonging in 14 parties’ alliances lead by AL.

Keywords: Democracy, Governance, free, Bangladesh, fair and credible elections

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