Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Gold Related Abstracts

20 Molecular Docking of Marrubiin in Candida Rugosa Lipase

Authors: Benarous Khedidja, Yousfi Mohamed


Infections caused by Candida species manifest in a number of diseases, including candidemia, vulvovaginal candidiasis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. These Candida species have been reported to have lipolytic activity by secretion of lipolytic enzymes such as esterases, lipases and phospholipases. These Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes seem to play an important role in Candida overgrowth. Candidiasis is commonly treated with antimycotics such as clotrimazole and nystatin, which bind to a major component of the fungal cell membrane (ergosterol). This binding forms pores in the membrane that lead to death of the fungus. Due to their secondary effects, scientists have thought of another treatment basing on lipase inhibition but we haven’t found any lipase inhibitors used as candidiasis treatment. In this work, we are interested to lipases inhibitors such as alkaloids as another candidiasis treatment. In the first part, we have proceeded to optimize the alkaloid structures and protein 3D structure using Hyperchem software. Secondly, we have docked inhibitors using Genetic algorithm with GOLD software. The results have shown ten possibilities of binding inhibitor to Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) but only one possibility has been accepted depending on the weakest binding energy.

Keywords: Gold, marrubiin, candida rugosa lipase, docking

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19 Zn, Sb, Pb (Au) Mineralization of Hammam N’bails, NE of Algeria

Authors: Brahim Merdas, Abdelhak Boutaleb


Polymetallic mineralizations with Zn, Sb, Pb boxed in miopliocene limestones of Hammam N’bails’s basin are regarded as the youngest mineralizations of North East of Algeria and are characterized by the presence of rather rare mineral phases throughout the world such as nadorite and flajolotite. Mineralization seems to have a bond with thermal springs emergent within the basin and with the faults which limit the basin. The comparison between mineralizations and similar ore deposits known in the world and which are characterized by the presence of the noble metals such as gold and the discovery of traces of this metal (1.4g/t) enables us to start again the problems of the noble metals of the type “low sulfidation” related to the thermal springs in the area in particular and in all Algerian North generally.

Keywords: Epigenetic, Gold, Algeria, Nadorite, galana, dolomitisation, hot springs, miopliocene, Hammam N’bails

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18 Nano-Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Active Schistosomal Infection

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Hanan G. El-Baz, Zeinab A.Demerdash, Engy M. Abd El-Moneem, Mohamed A. Hendawy, Ibrahim R. Bayoumi


There is a constant need to improve the performance of current diagnostic assays of schistosomiasis as well as develop innovative testing strategies to meet new testing challenges. This study aims at increasing the diagnostic efficiency of monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based antigen detection assays through gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific anti-Schistosoma mansoni monoclonal antibodies. In this study, several hybidoma cell lines secreting MAbs against adult worm tegumental Schistosoma antigen (AWTA) were produced at Immunology Department of Theodor Bilharz Research Institute and preserved in liquid nitrogen. One MAb (6D/6F) was chosen for this study due to its high reactivity to schistosome antigens with highest optical density (OD) values. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were functionalized and conjugated with MAb (6D/6F). The study was conducted on serum samples of 116 subjects: 71 patients with S. mansoni eggs in their stool samples group (gp 1), 25 with other parasites (gp2) and 20 negative healthy controls (gp3). Patients in gp1 were further subdivided according to egg count in their stool samples into Light infection {≤ 50 egg per gram(epg) (n= 17)}, moderate {51-100 epg (n= 33)} and severe infection {>100 epg(n= 21)}. Sandwich ELISA was performed using (AuNPs -MAb) for detection of circulating schistosomal antigen (CSA) levels in serum samples of all groups and the results were compared with that after using MAb/ sandwich ELISA system. Results Gold- MAb/ ELISA system reached a lower detection limit of 10 ng/ml compared to 85 ng/ml on using MAb/ ELISA and the optimal concentrations of AuNPs -MAb were found to be 12 folds less than that of MAb/ ELISA system for detection of CSA. The sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA levels using AuNPs -MAb were 100% & 97.8 % respectively compared to 87.3% &93.38% respectively on using MAb/ ELISA system. It was found that CSA was detected in 9 out of 71 S.mansoni infected patients on using AuNPs - MAb/ ELISA system and was not detected by MAb/ ELISA system. All those patients (9) was found to have an egg count below 50 epg feces (patients with light infections). ROC curve analyses revealed that sandwich ELISA using gold-MAb was an excellent diagnostic investigator that could differentiate Schistosoma patients from healthy controls, on the other hand it revealed that sandwich ELISA using MAb was not accurate enough as it could not recognize nine out of 71 patients with light infections. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that: Loading gold nanoparticles with MAb (6D/6F) increases the sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA, thus active (early) and light infections could be easily detected. Moreover this binding will decrease the amount of MAb consumed in the assay and lower the coast. The significant positive correlation that was detected between ova count (intensity of infection) and OD reading in sandwich ELISA using gold- MAb enables its use to detect the severity of infections and follow up patients after treatment for monitoring of cure.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Monoclonal Antibodies, Schistosomiasis, Gold, ELISA

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17 Volatility Spillover and Hedging Effectiveness between Gold and Stock Markets: Evidence for BRICS Countries

Authors: Walid Chkili


This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between gold and stock markets using data for BRICS counties. For this purpose, we estimate three multivariate GARCH models (namely CCC, DCC and BEKK) for weekly stock and gold data. Our main objective is to examine time variations in conditional correlations between the two assets and to check the effectiveness use of gold as a hedge for equity markets. Empirical results reveal that dynamic conditional correlations switch between positive and negative values over the period under study. This correlation is negative during the major financial crises suggesting that gold can act as a safe haven during the major stress period of stock markets. We also evaluate the implications for portfolio diversification and hedging effectiveness for the pair gold/stock. Our findings suggest that adding gold in the stock portfolio enhance its risk-adjusted return.

Keywords: Financial Markets, Gold, hedge, multivariate GARCH

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16 The Effect of Temperature, Contact Time and Agitation Speed During Pre-Treatment on Elution of Gold

Authors: T. P. Oladele, C. A. Snyders, S. M. Bradshaw, G. Akdogan


The effect of temperature, contact time and agitation during pre-treatment was investigated on the elution of gold from granular activated carbon at fixed caustic-cyanide concentration and elution conditions. It was shown that there are interactions between parameters during pre-treatment. At 80oC, recovery is independent of the contact time while the maximum recovery is obtained in the absence of agitation (0rpm). Increase in agitation speed from 0 rev/min to 1200 rev/min showed a decrease in recovery of approximately 20 percent at 80°C. Recovery with increased time from 15 minutes to 45 minutes is only pronounced at 25°C with approximately 4 percent increase at all agitation speeds. The results from elution recovery are aimed to give insight into the mechanisms of pre-treatment under the combinations of the chosen parameters.

Keywords: Recovery, temperature, Gold, contact time, agitation speed

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15 Polymer-Layered Gold Nanoparticles: Preparation, Properties and Uses of a New Class of Materials

Authors: S. M. Chabane sari S. Zargou, A.R. Senoudi, F. Benmouna


Immobilization of nano particles (NPs) is the subject of numerous studies pertaining to the design of polymer nano composites, supported catalysts, bioactive colloidal crystals, inverse opals for novel optical materials, latex templated-hollow inorganic capsules, immunodiagnostic assays; “Pickering” emulsion polymerization for making latex particles and film-forming composites or Janus particles; chemo- and biosensors, tunable plasmonic nano structures, hybrid porous monoliths for separation science and technology, biocidal polymer/metal nano particle composite coatings, and so on. Particularly, in the recent years, the literature has witnessed an impressive progress of investigations on polymer coatings, grafts and particles as supports for anchoring nano particles. This is actually due to several factors: polymer chains are flexible and may contain a variety of functional groups that are able to efficiently immobilize nano particles and their precursors by dispersive or van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen or covalent bonds. We review methods to prepare polymer-immobilized nano particles through a plethora of strategies in view of developing systems for separation, sensing, extraction and catalysis. The emphasis is on methods to provide (i) polymer brushes and grafts; (ii) monoliths and porous polymer systems; (iii) natural polymers and (iv) conjugated polymers as platforms for anchoring nano particles. The latter range from soft bio macromolecular species (proteins, DNA) to metallic, C60, semiconductor and oxide nano particles; they can be attached through electrostatic interactions or covalent bonding. It is very clear that physicochemical properties of polymers (e.g. sensing and separation) are enhanced by anchored nano particles, while polymers provide excellent platforms for dispersing nano particles for e.g. high catalytic performances. We thus anticipate that the synergetic role of polymeric supports and anchored particles will increasingly be exploited in view of designing unique hybrid systems with unprecedented properties.

Keywords: Macromolecular, Polymer, Gold, layer

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14 Self-Directed-Car on GT Road: Grand Trunk Road

Authors: Imran Khan, Rameez Ahmad, Aqib Mehmood


Self-directed car (SDC) that can drive itself from one fact to another without support from a driver. Certain trust that self-directed car obligate the probable to transform the transportation manufacturing while essentially removing coincidences, and cleaning up the environment. This study realizes the effects that SDC (also called a self-driving, driver or robotic) vehicle travel demands and ride scheme is likely to have. Without the typical obstacles that allows detection of a audio vision based hardware and software construction (It (SDC) and cost benefits, the vehicle technologies, Gold (Generic Obstacle and Lane Detection) to a knowledge-based system to predict their potential and consider the shape, color, or balance) and an organized environment with colored lane patterns, lane position ban. Discovery the problematic consequence of (SDC) on GT (grand trunk road) road and brand the car further effectual.

Keywords: Gold, knowledge-based system, SDC

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13 Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Na-Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction

Authors: Fatima Ammari, Meriem Chenouf


Synthesis of gold nano particles has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nano particles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used Na-montmorillonite for gold nanoparticles stabilization; different loading percentage 1, 2 and 5%. The gold nano particles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nano particles Au-mont stabilized in Na-montmorillonite were used as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature. The UV-Vis results confirm directly the gold nano particles formation. The XRD and N2 adsorption results showed the formation of gold nano particles in the pores of montmorillonite with an average size of 5 nm obtained on samples with 2%Au-mont. The gold particles size increased with the increase of gold loading percentage. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au-Na-montmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 9 min for 1Au-mont and within 3 min for 2Au-mont.

Keywords: Gold, montmorillonite, chemical reduction, nano particles

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12 Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Acid-Activated Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction

Authors: Fatima Ammari, Meriem Chenouf


Synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nanoparticles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used montmorillonite pre-acidified under gentle conditions for AuNPs stabilization; using different loading percentage 1, 2 and 5%. The gold nanoparticles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nanoparticles stabilized in acid-activated montmorillonite were used as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature The UV-Vis results confirm directly the gold nanaoparticles formation. The XRD N2 adsorption and MET results showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the pores of preacidified montmorillonite with an average size of 5.7nm. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au°-montmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 4.5min.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Gold, acid-activated montmorillonite

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11 High Temperature in Caustic Pretreatment of Gold Locked in the Residue after Filtration from Gold Cyanidation Leaching

Authors: K. L. Kabemba, R. F. Sandenberg


The usual way to desorb gold is by elution with a hot concentrated alkaline solution of sodium cyanide. The high temperature is necessary because the dielectric constant of water decreases with increasing temperature hence the electrostatic forces between charcoal and the gold cyanide complex decreases. High alkalinity and a high concentration of cyanide are necessary for gold desorption because both OH- and CN- ions are preferentially adsorbed. The rate of elution increases with increasing anion concentration but decreases with increasing cation concentration that means the rate of elution passes through a maximum as the concentration of the eluting salt (NaCN, for example) is increased. The anion that gives the best results, the cyanide ion, decomposes fairly rapidly at elevated temperatures (40% in 6 hours, 90% in 24 hours at 95°C).

Keywords: temperature, Gold, caustic, cyanide

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10 Sensitivity Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor

Authors: Mohamed Farhat O. Hameed, Yasamin K. A. Alrayk, A. A Shaalan, S. S. A. Obayya


The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used due to its high sensitivity with molecular labels free. The commercial SPR sensors depend on the conventional prism-coupled configuration. However, this type of configuration suffers from miniaturization and integration. Therefore, the search for compact, portable and highly sensitive SPR sensors becomes mandatory.In this paper, sensitivity enhancement of a novel photonic crystal fiber biosensoris introduced and studied. The suggested design has microstructure of air holes in the core region surrounded by two large semicircular metallized channels filled with the analyte. The inner surfaces of the two channels are coated by a silver layer followed by a gold layer.The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite element methodwith perfect matched layer (PML) boundary conditions. The proposed design depends on bimetallic configuration to enhance the biosensor sensitivity. Additionally, the suggested biosensor can be used for multi-channel/multi-analyte sensing. In this study, the sensor geometrical parameters are studied to maximize the sensitivity for the two polarized modes. The numerical results show that high refractive index sensitivity of 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU can be achieved for the quasi (transverse magnetic) TM and quasi (transverse electric) TE modes of the proposed biosensor, respectively. The reportedbiosensor has advantages of integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide and metallic layers into a single structure. As a result, compact biosensor with better integration compared to conventional optical fiber SPR biosensors can be obtained.

Keywords: Biosensor, Silver, Gold, surface plasmon, photonic crystal fibers

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9 Thiosulfate Leaching of the Auriferous Ore from Castromil Deposit: A Case Study

Authors: Rui Sousa, Aurora Futuro, António Fiúza


The exploitation of gold ore deposits is highly dependent on efficient mineral processing methods, although actual perspectives based on life-cycle assessment introduce difficulties that were unforeseen in a very recent past. Cyanidation is the most applied gold processing method, but the potential environmental problems derived from the usage of cyanide as leaching reagent led to a demand for alternative methods. Ammoniacal thiosulfate leaching is one of the most important alternatives to cyanidation. In this article, some experimental studies carried out in order to assess the feasibility of thiosulfate as a leaching agent for the ore from the unexploited Portuguese gold mine of Castromil. It became clear that the process depends on the concentrations of ammonia, thiosulfate and copper. Based on this fact, a few leaching tests were performed in order to assess the best reagent prescription, and also the effects of different combination of these concentrations. Higher thiosulfate concentrations cause the decrease of gold dissolution. Lower concentrations of ammonia require higher thiosulfate concentrations, and higher ammonia concentrations require lower thiosulfate concentrations. The addition of copper increases the gold dissolution ratio. Subsequently, some alternative operatory conditions were tested such as variations in temperature and in the solid/liquid ratio as well as the application of a pre-treatment before the leaching stage. Finally, thiosulfate leaching was compared to cyanidation. Thiosulfate leaching showed to be an important alternative, although a pre-treatment is required to increase the yield of the gold dissolution.

Keywords: Leaching, Pre-treatment, Gold, thiosulfate

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8 Determination of Gold in Microelectronics Waste Pieces

Authors: S. I. Usenko, V. N. Golubeva, I. A. Konopkina, I. V. Astakhova, O. V. Vakhnina, A. A. Korableva, A. A. Kalinina, K. B. Zhogova


Gold can be determined in natural objects and manufactured articles of different origin. The up-to-date status of research and problems of high gold level determination in alloys and manufactured articles are described in detail in the literature. No less important is the task of this metal determination in minerals, process products and waste pieces. The latters, as objects of gold content chemical analysis, are most hard-to-study for two reasons: Because of high requirements to accuracy of analysis results and because of difference in chemical and phase composition. As a rule, such objects are characterized by compound, variable and very often unknown matrix composition that leads to unpredictable and uncontrolled effect on accuracy and other analytical characteristics of analysis technique. In this paper, the methods for the determination of gold are described, using flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis technique. The techniques are aimed at gold determination in a solution for gold etching (KJ+J2), in the technological mixture formed after cleaning stainless steel members of vacuum-deposit installation with concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids as well as in gold-containing powder resulted from liquid wastes reprocessing. Optimal conditions for sample preparation and analysis of liquid and solid waste specimens of compound and variable matrix composition were chosen. The boundaries of relative resultant error were determined for the methods within the range of gold mass concentration from 0.1 to 30g/dm3 in the specimens of liquid wastes and mass fractions from 3 to 80% in the specimens of solid wastes.

Keywords: Gold, Sample Preparation, microelectronics waste pieces, atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, gravimetric analysis technique

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7 Modified Gold Screen Printed Electrode with Ruthenium Complex for Selective Detection of Porcine DNA

Authors: Siti Aishah Hasbullah


Studies on identification of pork content in food have grown rapidly to meet the Halal food standard in Malaysia. The used mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) approaches for the identification of pig species is thought to be the most precise marker due to the mtDNA genes are present in thousands of copies per cell, the large variability of mtDNA. The standard method commonly used for DNA detection is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method combined with gel electrophoresis but has major drawback. Its major drawbacks are laborious, need longer time and toxic to handle. Therefore, the need for simplicity and fast assay of DNA is vital and has triggered us to develop DNA biosensors for porcine DNA detection. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop electrochemical DNA biosensor based on ruthenium (II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(p-PIP)]2+ as DNA hybridization label. The interaction of DNA and [Ru(bpy)2(p-HPIP)]2+ will be studied by electrochemical transduction using Gold Screen-Printed Electrode (GSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and succinimide acrylic microspheres. The electrochemical detection by redox active ruthenium (II) complex was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA. Under optimized condition, this porcine DNA biosensor incorporated modified GSPE shows good linear range towards porcine DNA.

Keywords: Gold, ruthenium, screen printed electrode, porcine DNA

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6 Experimental Recovery of Gold, Silver and Palladium from Electronic Wastes Using Ionic Liquids BmimHSO4 and BmimCl as Solvents

Authors: Lisa Shambare, Jean Mulopo, Sehliselo Ndlovu


One of the major challenges of sustainable development is promoting an industry which is both ecologically durable and economically viable. This requires processes that are material and energy efficient whilst also being able to limit the production of waste and toxic effluents through effective methods of process synthesis and intensification. In South Africa and globally, both miniaturisation and technological advances have substantially increased the amount of electronic wastes (e-waste) generated annually. Vast amounts of e-waste are being generated yearly with only a minute quantity being recycled officially. The passion for electronic devices cannot ignore the scarcity and cost of mining the noble metal resources which contribute significantly to the efficiency of most electronic devices. It has hence become imperative especially in an African context that sustainable strategies which are environmentally friendly be developed for recycling of the noble metals from e-waste. This paper investigates the recovery of gold, silver and palladium from electronic wastes, which consists of a vast array of metals, using ionic liquids which have the potential of reducing the gaseous and aqueous emissions associated with existing hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical technologies while also maintaining the economy of the overall recycling scheme through solvent recovery. The ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulphate (BmimHSO4) which behaves like a protic acid and was used in the present research for the selective leaching of gold and silver from e-waste. Different concentrations of the aqueous ionic liquid were used in the experiments ranging from 10% to 50%. Thiourea was used as the complexing agent in the investigation with Fe3+ as the oxidant. The pH of the reaction was maintained in the range of 0.8 to 1.5. The preliminary investigations conducted were successful in the leaching of silver and palladium at room temperature with optimum results being at 48hrs. The leaching results could not be explained because of the leaching of palladium with the absence of gold. Hence a conclusion could not be drawn and there was the need for further experiments to be run. The leaching of palladium was carried out with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (BmimCl) as the solvent. The experiments at carried out at a temperature of 60 degrees celsius and a very low pH. The chloride ion was used to complex with palladium metal. From the preliminary results, it could be concluded that pretreatment of the treatment e-waste was necessary to improve the efficiency of the metal recovery process. A conclusion could not be drawn for the leaching experiments.

Keywords: Silver, Gold, palladium, BmimCl, BmimHSO4

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5 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee


Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biomass, Sustainability, Adsorption, Reduction, Hydrometallurgy, Gold, biosorption

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4 Controlled Growth of Au Hierarchically Ordered Crystals Architectures for Electrochemical Detection of Traces of Molecules

Authors: P. Bauer, K. Mougin, V. Vignal, A. Buch, P. Ponthiaux, D. Faye


Nowadays, noble metallic nanostructures with unique morphology are widely used as new sensors due to their fascinating optical, electronic and catalytic properties. Among various shapes, dendritic nanostructures have attracted much attention because of their large surface-to-volume ratio, high sensitivity and special texture with sharp tips and nanoscale junctions. Several methods have been developed to fabricate those specific structures such as electrodeposition, photochemical way, seed-mediated growth or wet chemical method. The present study deals with a novel approach for a controlled growth pattern-directed organisation of Au flower-like crystals (NFs) deposited onto stainless steel plates to achieve large-scale functional surfaces. This technique consists in the deposition of a soft nanoporous template on which Au NFs are grown by electroplating and seed-mediated method. Size, morphology, and interstructure distance have been controlled by a site selective nucleation process. Dendritic Au nanostructures have appeared as excellent Raman-active candidates due to the presence of very sharp tips of multi-branched Au nanoparticles that leads to a large local field enhancement and a good SERS sensitivity. In addition, these structures have also been used as electrochemical sensors to detect traces of molecules present in a solution. A correlation of the number of active sites on the surface and the current charge by both colorimetric method and cyclic voltammetry of gold structures have allowed a calibration of the system. This device represents a first step for the fabrication of MEMs platform that could ultimately be integrated into a lab-on-chip system. It also opens pathways to several technologically large-scale nanomaterials fabrication such as hierarchically ordered crystal architectures for sensor applications.

Keywords: Gold, electroplating, template, dendritic

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3 Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ Nanoparticles as Catalyst for Recovery of Gold from the Mixture of Au(III) and Cu(II) Ions

Authors: Eko S. Kunarti, Akhmad Syoufian, Indriana Kartini, Agnes


Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles have been synthesized and applied as a photocatalyst for the recovery of gold from the mixture of Au(III) and Cu(II) ions. The synthesis was started by the preparation of magnetite (Fe₃O₄) using coprecipitation and sonication methods, followed by SiO₂ coating on magnetite using sol-gel reactions, and then TiO₂ coating using sol-gel process. Characterization was performed by using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy methods. Activity of Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles was evaluated as a photocatalyst for recovery of gold through photoreduction of Au(III) ions in Au(III) and Cu(II) ions mixture with a ratio of 1:1, in a closed reactor equipped with UV lamp. The photoreduction yield was represented as a percentage (%) of reduced Au(III) which was calculated by substraction of initial Au(III) concentration by the unreduced one. The unreduced Au(III) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that the Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles were successfully synthesised with excellent magnetic and photocatalytic properties. The nanoparticles present optimum activity at a pH of 5 under UV irradiation for 120 minutes. At the optimum condition, the Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂ nanoparticles could reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ 97.24%. In the mixture of Au(III) and Cu(II) ions, the Au(III) ions are more easily reducible than Cu(II) ions with the reduction results of 96.9% and 45.80% for Au(III) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. In addition, the presence of Cu(II) ions has no significant effect on the amount of gold recovered and its reduction reaction rate.

Keywords: Recovery, Gold, photocatalyst, Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/TiO₂, Au(III) and Cu(II) mixture

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2 Phytotechnologies for Use and Reconstitution of Contaminated Sites

Authors: Olga Shuvaeva, Tamara Romanova, Sergey Volynkin, Valentina Podolinnaya


Green chemistry concept is focused on the prevention of environmental pollution caused by human activity. However, there are a lot of contaminated areas in the world which pose a serious threat to ecosystems in terms of their conservation. Therefore in accordance with the principles of green chemistry, it should not be forgotten about the need to clean these areas. Furthermore, the waste material often contains the valuable components, the extraction of which by traditional wet chemical technologies is inefficient both from the economic and environmental protection standpoint. Wherein, the plants may be successfully used to ‘scavenge’ a range of metals from polluted land sites in an approach allowing to carry out both of these processes – phytoremediation and phytomining in conjunction. The goal of the present work was to study bioaccumulation ability of floating macrophytes such as water hyacinth and pondweed toward Hg, Ba, Cd, Mo and Pb as pollutants in aquatic medium and terrestrial plants (birch, reed, and cane) towards gold and silver as valuable components. The peculiarity of ongoing research was that the plants grew under extreme conditions (pH of drainage and pore waters was about 2.5). The study was conducted at the territory of Ursk tailings (Southwestern Siberia, Russia) formed as a result of primary polymetallic ores cyanidation. The waste material is mainly presented (~80%) by pyrite (FeS₂) and barite (BaSO₄), the raw minerals included FeAsS, HgS, PbS, Ag₂S as minor ones. It has been shown that water hyacinth demonstrates high ability to accumulate different metals, and what is especially important – to remove mercury from polluted waters with BCF value more than 1000. As for the gold, its concentrations in reed and cane growing near the waste material were estimated as 500 and 900 μg∙kg⁻¹ respectively. It was also found that the plants can survive under extreme conditions of acidic environment and hence we can assume that there is a principal opportunity to use them for the valuable substances extraction from an area of the mining waste dumps burial.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Gold, bioaccumulation, mine tailing

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1 Gold-Bearing Alteration Zones in South Eastern Desert of Egypt: Geology and Remote Sensing Analysis

Authors: Mohamed F. Sadek, Safaa M. Hassan, Safwat S. Gabr


Several alteration zones hosting gold mineralization are wide spreading in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt where gold has been mined from many localities since the time of the Pharaohs. The Sukkari is the only mine currently producing gold in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more detailed studies on these locations using modern exploratory methods. The remote sensing plays an important role in lithological mapping and detection of associated hydrothermal mineralization particularly the exploration of gold mineralization. This study is focused on three localities in South Eastern Desert of Egypt, namely Beida, Defiet and Hoteib-Eiqat aiming to detect the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones using the integrated data of remote sensing, field study and mineralogical investigation. Generally, these areas are dominated by Precambrian basement rocks including metamorphic and magmatic assemblages. They comprise ophiolitic serpentinite-talc carbonate, island-arc metavolcanics which were intruded by syn to late orogenic mafic and felsic intrusions mainly gabbro, granodiorite and monzogranite. The processed data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) and Landsat-8 images are used in the present study to map the gold bearing-hydrothermal alteration zones. Band rationing and principal component analysis techniques are used to discriminate the different lithologic units exposed in the studied three areas. Field study and mineralogical investigation have been used to verify the remote sensing data. This study concluded that, the integrated remote sensing data with geological, field and mineralogical investigations are very effective in lithological discrimination, detailed geological mapping and detection of the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones. More detailed exploration for gold mineralization with the help of remote sensing techniques is recommended to evaluate its potentiality in the study areas.

Keywords: Gold, Egypt, pan-african, alteration zones, landsat-8; ASTER

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