Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Goats Related Abstracts

8 The Haemoglobin, Transferrin, Ceruloplasmin and Glutathione Polymorphism of Native Goat Breeds of Turkey, I-Angora and Hair

Authors: Ayse Ozge Demir, Nihat Mert


This study has been carried out in order to determine the polymorphic traits of various biochemical parameters in goat breeds which are native to Turkey. For this purpose, Angora and Hair goats breeds were chosen as live materials. Two different herds for each breed were selected from Ankara and Antalya, respectively. Blood samples were taken from a total of 120 goats aged between 2 and 4 which was made up of 60 Angora goats and 60 Hair goats. All which derived equally from 4 lots of herds. Analyses were performed for the polymorphic determination of the Haemoglobin (Hb), Transferrine (Tf), Ceruloplasmin (Cp) and Glutathione (GSH). Hb types were determined by starch gel electrophoresis and Tf types were detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Furthermore, Cp and GSH analyses were performed by spectrophotometrically. Following the analysis, Hb types were found as 3 genotypes (AA, AB, BB) controlled by 2 allel genes. Tf types were found as 6 genotypes (AA, AB, AC, BB, BC, CC) controlled by 3 allele genes. Findings for Hb was in line with the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in Angora goats while the Hair goat was not found to be in line. Moreover, Tf was found in line with the HWE for 2 separate goat breeds. The levels of Cp and GSH of two breeds were significantly different from other (P<0.0001). The findings are recorded as a source of reference for prospective polymorphism studies.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, Genetic resources, Goats, spectrophotometer

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7 A Pilot Epidemiological Survey of Parasitic Problems of Goats in and Around Derawar Fort Area, Cholistan, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Tahir Riaz, Khalid Mehmood, Ahmad Waseem Akhtar, Tariq Abbas, Sadaqat Ali, Muhammad Altaf


Livestock sector contributes around 55.9 and 11.8% to agriculture and GDP respectively, according to economic survey of Pakistan 2013-2014. The goats population has been estimated about 66.6 million (M). Parasitic infestation is a major health problem in goats causing loss in body weight, poor body condition, low birth weights, and difficulty in kidding. Keeping in view the utilization of these animals in the country, a pilot epidemiological survey was conducted to find out the major parasitic problems of goats in and around Derawar fort area, Cholistan. Data regarding 662 fecal samples of goats was collected from 25 tobas of Cholistan during June 2012 to June 2013. All the fecal samples were examined through Direct Smear Method and Salt Flotation Technique for the presence of helminth eggs. External parasites were taken from the various components of the carcass of goat and were conserved in 70% alcohol in hygienic, properly enclosed glass jars that were tagged thoroughly. The collected date was analyzed statistically by Chi-square test to find out the prevalence in goats. Out of 662 goats, 261 (39.42%) were found positive for parasites. 233 (35.20%) goats were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites while 28 (4.23%) were positive for external parasites including ticks 20 (3.02%) and mange 8 (1.21%). The higher prevalence of parasites in the study area may be due to pasture grazing, poor management and lack of extension work. In this regards proper management and control measures should be adopted to minimize the Parasitic Problems.

Keywords: Surveillance, Parasite, Goats, Cholistan

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6 Reproductive Performance of Red Sokoto Goats from a Semi-Intensive Management System in Semi-Arid Zone, Nigeria

Authors: Garba Yusuf, Ibrahim Rakson Muhammad, Bashir Fagge Muhammad, Shehu Ahmad Maigandi


On-farm data were collected to evaluate reproductive performance of Red Sokoto does reared under small-holder agro-pastoral production system within metropolitan Kano, semi-arid, Nigeria. The effects of age of dams, parity, litter size(s) and sex of kid(s) on pre-weaning growth rate were investigated. Data was obtained from semi-intensively managed herds of twenty four households for a period of six months. Pregnant does were ear tagged and age determined through dentition. Upon kidding, litter size, parity of dam and sex of kid(s) were recorded. Subsequently, daily liveweight changes of kids was monitored and recorded. Results obtained revealed average weight at birth to be 3.18 kg and 2.87 kg for female and male kids with average daily weight gain of 0.11 and 0.13 kg, respectively. Result also showed that male kids gained higher liveweight from 21st day to weaning and single or twin births had higher liveweight changes relative to triplets. Does at third parity produced kids with higher weight gain. From the results of this study, it is concluded that male kids at 21 days of age (single or twin) or dam at third parity or three years of age be selected for a sound breeding programme.

Keywords: Reproductive, Goats, parity, agro-pastoral, semi-intensive

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5 Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens β2-Toxin in Type a Isolates of Sheep and Goats

Authors: Mudassar Mohiuddin, Zahid Iqbal


Introduction: Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen responsible for causing enteric diseases in both human and animals. The bacteria produce several toxins. These toxins play vital role in the pathogenesis of various fatal enteric diseases and are classified into five types, on the basis of the differential production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. In addition to the so-called major toxins, there are other toxins like beta2 toxin, produced by some strains of C. perfringens which may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Aim of the study: In this study a multiplex PCR assay was developed and used for detection of cpb2 gene to identify the Beta2 harboring isolates among different types of C. perfringens. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of β2-toxin gene in local isolates of Clostridium perfringens. Methodology: This was an experimental study. Random sampling technique was used. A total of 97 sheep and goats were included in this study. All were Pakistani local breeds. The samples were collected during the period from Sep, 2014 to Mar, 2015 from selected districts of Punjab province (Pakistan). Faecal samples were cultured in cooked meat media. The identification of Clostridium perfringens was made on the basis of biochemical tests. Multiplex PCR was performed to identify the toxin genes. Results: A total of 43 C. perfringens isolates were genotyped using multiplex PCR assay. The gene encoding C. perfringens β2-toxin (cpb2) was present in more than 50% of the isolates genotyped. However, the prevalence of this gene varied between sheep and goat isolates. Conclusion: The present study suggests the high occurrence of C. perfringens b2-toxin (cpb2) in the local isolates of Pakistan. As β2-toxin is present in both healthy and diseased animals, so further studies are suggested to establish the role of β2-toxin in pathogenesis of the clostridial enteric diseases.

Keywords: Sheep, Goats, multiplex PCR, beta 2 toxin gene, clostridium perfringens, enteric diseases

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4 Influence of Improved Roughage Quality and Period of Meal Termination on Digesta Load in the Digestive Organs of Goats

Authors: Rasheed A. Adebayo, Mehluli M. Moyo, Ignatius V. Nsahlai


Ruminants are known to relish roughage for productivity but the effect of its quality on digesta load in rumen, omasum, abomasum and other distal organs of the digestive tract is yet unknown. Reticulorumen fill is a strong indicator for long-term control of intake in ruminants. As such, the measurement and prediction of digesta load in these compartments may be crucial to productivity in the ruminant industry. The current study aimed at determining the effect of (a) diet quality on digesta load in digestive organs of goats, and (b) period of meal termination on the reticulorumen fill and digesta load in other distal compartments of the digestive tract of goats. Goats were fed with urea-treated hay (UTH), urea-sprayed hay (USH) and non-treated hay (NTH). At the end of eight weeks of a feeding trial period, upon termination of a meal in the morning, afternoon or evening, all goats were slaughtered in random groups of three per day to measure reticulorumen fill and digesta loads in other distal compartments of the digestive tract. Both diet quality and period affected (P < 0.05) the measure of reticulorumen fill. However, reticulorumen fill in the evening was larger (P < 0.05) than afternoon, while afternoon was similar (P > 0.05) to morning. Also, diet quality affected (P < 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, wet abomasum, dry abomasum and dry caecum digesta loads but did not affect (P > 0.05) both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract. Period of measurement did not affect (P > 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, and both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract except wet abomasum digesta load (P < 0.05) and dry caecum digesta load (P < 0.05). Both wet and dry reticulorumen fill were correlated (P < 0.05) with omasum (r = 0.623) and (r = 0.723), respectively. In conclusion, reticulorumen fill of goats decreased by improving the roughage quality; and the period of meal termination and measurement of the fill is a key factor to the quantity of digesta load.

Keywords: Goats, digesta, meal termination, reticulo-rumen fill

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3 Use of Real Time Ultrasound for the Prediction of Carcass Composition in Serrana Goats

Authors: Antonio Monteiro, Jorge Azevedo, Severiano Silva, Alfredo Teixeira


The objective of this study was to compare the carcass and in vivo real-time ultrasound measurements (RTU) and their capacity to predict the composition of Serrana goats up to 40% of maturity. Twenty one females (11.1 ± 3.97 kg) and Twenty one males (15.6 ± 5.38 kg) were utilized to made in vivo measurements with a 5 MHz probe (ALOKA 500V scanner) at the 9th-10th, 10th-11th thoracic vertebrae (uT910 and uT1011, respectively), at the 1st- 2nd, 3rd-4th, and 4th-5th lumbar vertebrae (uL12, ul34 and uL45, respectively) and also at the 3rd-4th sternebrae (EEST). It was recorded the images of RTU measurements of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (LTL) depth (EM), width (LM), perimeter (PM), area (AM) and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFD) above the LTL, as well as the depth of tissues of the sternum (EEST) between the 3rd-4th sternebrae. All RTU images were analyzed using the ImageJ software. After slaughter, the carcasses were stored at 4 ºC for 24 h. After this period the carcasses were divided and the left half was entirely dissected into muscle, dissected fat (subcutaneous fat plus intermuscular fat) and bone. Prior to the dissection measurements equivalent to those obtained in vivo with RTU were recorded. Using the Statistica 5, correlation and regression analyses were performed. The prediction of carcass composition was achieved by stepwise regression procedure, with live weight and RTU measurements with and without transformation of variables to the same dimension. The RTU and carcass measurements, except for SFD measurements, showed high correlation (r > 0.60, P < 0.001). The RTU measurements and the live weight, showed ability to predict carcass composition on muscle (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001), subcutaneous fat (R2 = 0.41, P < 0.001), intermuscular fat (R2 = 0.84, P < 0.001), dissected fat (R2 = 0.71, P < 0.001) and bone (R2 = 0.94, P < 0.001). The transformation of variables allowed a slight increase of precision, but with the increase in the number of variables, with the exception of subcutaneous fat prediction. In vivo measurements by RTU can be applied to predict kid goat carcass composition, from 5 measurements of RTU and the live weight.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Goats, real time, carcass

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2 Meat Potential Indicators of Red Sokoto, Sahel and West African Dwarf Goat Based on Morphometrical Measurements

Authors: Ozioma Beauty Nwaodu, Adebowale E Salako, Omolara Mabel Akinyemi, Nkechi Uche, Isuama Isu, Uchechi Jane Elechi


Goats form an integral part of livestock production in the tropics. Meat potential is determined subjectively by resource poor livestock keepers, using hand to measure the rump width (RW). Objective evaluation of meat potential in different breads of goats can overcome problems associated with subjective evaluation. Hence, the objectives were to predict meatiness in Red Sokoto (RS), Sahel and the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats, using product of the body length (BL), wither height (WH) and (RW) and to indicate the inherent size of each breed, using WH: BL ratio. These three parameters were used because they are less environmentally sensitive. A total of 2849 goats were sampled purposefully from the Akinyele and Oranyan markets in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. RS showed no significant difference for BL and WH but different from the RW of both sexes (p < 0.01). Similarly WAD showed no significant difference for the BL and WH, but differed (p < 0.01) between sexes for RW. Using the ANOVA, BL:WH ratio showed no significant difference between the breeds. WAD goats have the highest mean for BL:WH ratio. Western meat livestock is primarily identified using BL:WH. The combinations of these body parameters as indicator for meat type in meat animals showed that WAD goat has more potential to lay down meat, than RS and Sahel.

Keywords: Quantitative, Descriptive Analysis, Goats, morphologial traits

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1 Effect of Spirulina Supplementation on Growth Performance and Body Conformation of Two Omani Goat Breeds

Authors: Fahad Al Yahyaey, Ihab Shaat, Russell Bush


This study was conducted at the Livestock Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Oman, on two local goat breeds (Jabbali and Sahrawi) due to their importance to Omani livestock production and food security. The Jabbali is characterized by increased growth rates and a higher twinning rate, while the Sahrawi has increased milk production. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Spirulina supplementation on live weight (BWT), average daily gain (ADG), and body conformation measurements; chest girth (CG), wither height (WH), body length (BL), and body condition score (BCS). Thirty-six males (approximately nine-months-old and 16.44 ± 0.33 kg average of initial body weight) were used across an eleven-week study from November–February 2019-2020. Each breed was divided into three groups (n = 6/group) and fed one of three rations: (1) concentrate mixture (Control) with crude protein 14% and energy 11.97% MJ/kg DM; (2) the same concentrate feed with the addition of 2 gm /capita daily Spirulina platensis (Treatment 1) and (3) the same concentrate feed with the addition of 4 gm /capita daily Spirulina platensis (Treatment 2). Analysis of weekly data collections for all traits indicated a significant effect of feeding Spirulina on all the studied traits except WH and BL. Analysis of variance for fixed effects in this study (damage and kid birth type i.e., single, twin or triple) were not significant for all studied traits. However, the breed effect was highly significant (P < 0.001) on BWT, ADG, BCS, and CG traits. On the other hand, when the analysis was done for the treatment effect within breeds for ADG, the Sahrawi breed had a significant effect (P < 0.05) at 56.52, 85.51, and 85.50 g/day for control, treatment 1 and treatment 2, respectively. This is a 51% difference between the control and treatment 1 (2 gm /capita). Whereas for the Jabbali breed, the treatment effect was not significant for ADG (P =0.55), and the actual ADG was 104.59, 118.84, and 114.25 g/day for control, treatment 1, and treatment 2, respectively, providing a 14% difference between the control group and the treated group (4 gm /capita). These findings indicate using Spirulina supplementation in Omani goat diets is recommended at 2 gm per capita as there was no benefit in feeding at 4 gm per capita for either breed. Farmers feeding Spirulina supplementation to kids after weaning at six-months could increase their herd performance and growth rate and facilitate buck selection at an earlier age.

Keywords: Goats, Spirulina, live weight, body conformation

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