Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

glycemic control Related Abstracts

5 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Adherence, Type 2 diabetes, jordan, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist

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4 Clinical Profile and Outcome of Type I Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Care-Centre in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Gauri Shankar Shah

Abstract:

Objectives: The Type I diabetes mellitus in children is frequently a missed diagnosis and children presents in emergency with diabetic ketoacidosis having significant morbidity and mortality. The present study was done to find out the clinical presentation and outcome at a tertiary-care centre. Methods: This was retrospective analysis of data of Type I diabetes mellitus reporting to our centre during last one year (2012-2013). Results: There were 12 patients (8 males) and the age group was 4-14 years (mean ± 3.7). The presenting symptoms were fever, vomiting, altered sensorium and fast breathing in 8 (66.6%), 6 (50%), 4 (33.3%), and 4 (33.3%) cases, respectively. The classical triad of polyuria, polydypsia, and polyphagia were present only in two patients (33.2%). Seizures and epigastric pain were found in two cases each (33.2%). The four cases (33.3%) presented with diabetic ketoacidosis due to discontinuation of insulin doses, while 2 had hyperglycemia alone. The hemogram revealed mean hemoglobin of 12.1± 1.6 g/dL and total leukocyte count was 22,883.3 ± 10,345.9 per mm3, with polymorphs percentage of 73.1 ± 9.0%. The mean blood sugar at presentation was 740 ± 277 mg/ dl (544–1240). HbA1c ranged between 7.1-8.8 with mean of 8.1±0.6 %. The mean sodium, potassium, blood ph, pCO2, pO2 and bicarbonate were 140.8 ± 6.9 mEq/L, 4.4 ± 1.8mEq/L, 7.0 ± 0.2, 20.2 ± 10.8 mmHg, 112.6 ± 46.5 mmHg and 9.2 ± 8.8 mEq/L, respectively. All the patients were managed in pediatric intensive care unit as per our protocol, recovered and discharged on intermediate insulin given twice daily. Conclusions: Thus, it shows that these patients have uncontrolled hyperglycemia and often presents in emergency with ketoacidosis and deranged biochemical profile. The regular administration of insulin, frequent monitoring of blood sugar and health education are required to have better metabolic control and good quality of life.

Keywords: glycemic control, type I diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, outcome

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3 Glycemic Control on Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Behaviors among Omani Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Melba Sheila D'Souza, Anandhi Amirtharaj, Shreedevi Balachandran

Abstract:

Background: Type 2 diabetes has a significant impact on individuals’ health and well-being. Glycemic control may influence self-efficacy and self-care behaviors, and reduce the risk of complications among adults with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has substantial morbidity and mortality and 60% of adults’ poor self-care. Glycemic control is associated with reported self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Adults with type 2 diabetes with less information were less likely to take diabetes self-care. Aim: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic factors, clinical factors on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors among Omani adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A correlational, descriptive study was used. Omani adults with type 2 diabetes (n=140) were recruited from a public hospital in Oman. The data were collected during January-March 2015. Ethical approval was given by the college research and ethics committee, College of Nursing, and the Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University Data was collected on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control. The study was approved by the Institution Ethics and Research Committee. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Most adults had a fasting blood glucose >7.2mmol/L (90.7%), with the majority demonstrating ‘uncontrolled or poor HbA1c of > 8%’ (65%). Variance of self-care behavior (20.6%) and 31.3% of the variance of the self-efficacy was explained by the age, duration of diabetes, medication, HbA1c and prevention of activities of living. Adults with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control were more likely to have poor self-efficacy and poor self-care behaviors. Conclusion: This study confirms that self-efficacy model on outcome predicts self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Higher understanding of diabetes, prevention of normal daily activities, higher ability to fit diabetes life in a positive manner and high patient-physician communication were significant with self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Hence, glycemic control has a high effect on improving self-care behaviors like diet, exercise, medication, foot care and self-efficacy among type 2 diabetes. Implications: Using these findings to improve self-efficacy, individualized self-care management is recommended for better self-efficacy and self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Self-efficacy, nurse, glycemic control, self-care behaviors, self-care management

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2 The Effect of Nutrition Education on Glycemic and Lipidemic Control in Iranian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Samira Rabiei, Faezeh Askari, Reza Rastmanesh

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the effects of nutrition education and adherence to a healthy diet on glycemic and lipidemic control in patients with T2DM. Material and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 494 patients with T2DM, aged 14-87 years from both sexes who were selected by convenience sampling from referees to Aliebneabitaleb hospital in Ghom. The participants were divided into two 247 person groups by stratified randomization. Both groups received a diet adjusted based on ideal body weight, and the intervention group was additionally educated about healthy food choices regarding diabetes. Information on medications, psychological factors, diet and physical activity was obtained from questionnaires. Blood samples were collected to measure FBS, 2 hPG, HbA1c, cholesterol, and triglyceride. After 2 months, weight and biochemical parameters were measured again. Independent T-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Wilcoxon were used as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio of abnormal glycemic and lipidemic control according to the intervention. Results: The mean weight, FBS, 2 hPG, cholesterol and triglyceride after intervention were significantly lower than before that (p < 0.05). Discussion: Nutrition education plus a weigh reducer diet is more effective on glycemic and lipidemic control than a weight reducer diet, alone.

Keywords: lipid profile, nutrition education, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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1 The Effect of a Computer-Assisted Glycemic Surveillance Protocol on Nursing Workload

Authors: Özlem Canbolat, Sevgisun Kapucu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol on nursing workload in intensive care unit. The study is completed in an Education and Research Hospital in Ankara with the attendance of volunteered 19 nurse who had been worked in reanimation unit. Nurses used the written protocol and computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol for glycemic follow-up approach of the intensive care patients. Nurses used the written protocol first in the glycemic follow-up of the patient, then used the computer-assisted protocol. (Nurses used the written protocol first, then the computer-assisted protocol in the glycemic follow-up of the patient). Less time was spent in glycemic control with computerized protocol than written protocol and this difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was determined that the computerized protocol application was completed in about 10 seconds (25% shorter) than the written protocol implementation. The computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol was found to be more easy and appropriate by nurses and the satisfaction level of the users was higher than with written protocol. While 79% of the nurses find it confusing to implement the written protocol, 79% were satisfied with the use of computerized protocol.

Keywords: Intensive Care, glycemic control, nursing workload, computer-assisted protocol, insulin infusion protocol

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