Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Globalisation Related Abstracts

15 Empowering the Citizens: The Potential of Zimbabwean Library and Information Science Schools in Contributing towards Socio-Economic Transformation

Authors: Collence Takaingenhamo Chisita, Munyaradzi Shoko


Library and Information Science Schools play significant roles in socio–economic transformation but in most cases they are downplayed or overshadowed by other institutions, and professions. Currently Zimbabwe boasts of high literacy rate in Africa and this success would have been impossible without the contributions of library schools and related institutions. Libraries and librarians are at the epicentre of socio-economic development and their role cannot be downplayed. It is out of this context that the writer will explore the extent to which library schools are contributing towards socio-economic transformation, for example, human capital development and facilitating access to information. The writer will seek to explain and clarify how LIS schools are engaged in socio-economic transformation through supporting education and culture through community engagement. The paper will examine the LIS education models, for example, general education and Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) or Competency Based Education and Training (CBET). It will also seek to find out how LIS Schools are contributing to the information/knowledge economy through education, training and research. The writer will also seek to find out how LIS Education is responding to socio-economic and political dynamics in Zimbabwe amidst forces of globalisation and cultural identities. Furthermore, the writer will explore the extent to which LIS education can help to reposition Zimbabwe in the global knowledge economy. The author will examine how LIS schools integrate culture and technology.

Keywords: Development, Culture, Collaboration, Globalisation, Empowerment, information/knowledge economy

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14 Sovereign State System in the Era of Globalisation: An Appraisal

Authors: Dilip Gogoi


This paper attempts to explore the notion of sovereign state system, its emergence and legitimization by the treaty of Westphalia, 1648 in Europe and examines how the very notion of sovereign state is subject to changes in the later part of the 20th century both politically and economically in the wake of globalisation. The paper firstly traces the tradition of Westphalian sovereign state system which influenced the dominant understanding about sovereign state system till mid 20th century. Secondly, it explores how the notion of sovereign nation state is subjected to change in the post World War II specially in the context of universal acceptance of human rights and right to intervene in internal affairs of a sovereign state to protect the same, the decolonization and legitimization of the principle of self determination and through the experience of European Integration. Thirdly, it analyses how globalisation drives certain fundamental changes and poses challenges to the sovereign state system. The concluding part of the paper argues that sovereign state system is relevant and will continue to be relevant although it needs to redefine its role in the changing global environment.

Keywords: Globalisation, Intervention, Sovereignty, Westphalia, nation-state system

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13 Financial Policies in the Process of Global Crisis: Case Study Kosovo, Case Kosovo

Authors: Shpetim Rezniqi


Financial Policies in the process of global crisis the current crisis has swept the world with special emphasis, most developed countries, those countries which have most gross -product world and you have a high level of living.Even those who are not experts can describe the consequences of the crisis to see the reality that is seen, but how far will it go this crisis is impossible to predict. Even the biggest experts have conjecture and large divergence, but agree on one thing: - The devastating effects of this crisis will be more severe than ever before and can not be predicted.Long time, the world was dominated economic theory of free market laws. With the belief that the market is the regulator of all economic problems. The market, as river water will flow to find the best and will find the necessary solution best. Therefore much less state market barriers, less state intervention and market itself is an economic self-regulation. Free market economy became the model of global economic development and progress, it transcends national barriers and became the law of the development of the entire world economy. Globalization and global market freedom were principles of development and international cooperation. All international organizations like the World Bank, states powerful economic, development and cooperation principles laid free market economy and the elimination of state intervention. The less state intervention much more freedom of action was this market- leading international principle. We live in an era of financial tragic. Financial markets and banking in particular economies are in a state of thy good, US stock markets fell about 40%, in other words, this time, was one of the darkest moments 5 since 1920. Prior to her rank can only "collapse" of the stock of Wall Street in 1929, technological collapse of 2000, the crisis of 1973 after the Yom Kippur war, while the price of oil quadrupled and famous collapse of 1937 / '38, when Europe was beginning World war II In 2000, even though it seems like the end of the world was the corner, the world economy survived almost intact. Of course, that was small recessions in the United States, Europe, or Japan. Much more difficult the situation was at crisis 30s, or 70s, however, succeeded the world. Regarding the recent financial crisis, it has all the signs to be much sharper and with more consequences. The decline in stock prices is more a byproduct of what is really happening. Financial markets began dance of death with the credit crisis, which came as a result of the large increase in real estate prices and household debt. It is these last two phenomena can be matched very well with the gains of the '20s, a period during which people spent fists as if there was no tomorrow. All is not away from the mouth of the word recession, that fact no longer a sudden and abrupt. But as much as the financial markets melt, the greater is the risk of a problematic economy for years to come. Thus, for example, the banking crisis in Japan proved to be much more severe than initially expected, partly because the assets which were based more loans had, especially the land that falling in value. The price of land in Japan is about 15 years that continues to fall. (ADRI Nurellari-Published in the newspaper "Classifieds"). At this moment, it is still difficult to çmosh to what extent the crisis has affected the economy and what would be the consequences of the crisis. What we know is that many banks will need more time to reduce the award of credit, but banks have this primary function, this means huge loss.

Keywords: Finance, Bank, Globalisation, Crisis, credits, recomandation

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12 Globalisation and Diplomacy: How Can Small States Improve the Practice of Diplomacy to Secure Their Foreign Policy Objectives?

Authors: H. M. Ross-McAlpine


Much of what is written on diplomacy, globalization and the global economy addresses the changing nature of relationships between major powers. While the most dramatic and influential changes have resulted from these developing relationships the world is not, on deeper inspection, governed neatly by major powers. Due to advances in technology, the shifting balance of power and a changing geopolitical order, small states have the ability to exercise a greater influence than ever before. Increasingly interdependent and ever complex, our world is too delicate to be handled by a mighty few. The pressure of global change requires small states to adapt their diplomatic practices and diversify their strategic alliances and relationships. The nature and practice of diplomacy must be re-evaluated in light of the pressures resulting from globalization. This research examines: how small states can best secure their foreign policy objectives? Small state theory is used as a foundation for exploring the case study of New Zealand. The research draws on secondary sources to evaluate the existing theory in relation to modern practices of diplomacy. As New Zealand lacks the required economic and military power to play an active, influential role in international affairs what strategies are used to exert influence? Furthermore, New Zealand lies in a remote corner of the Pacific and is geographically isolated from its nearest neighbors how does this affect security and trade priorities? The findings note a significant shift since the 1970’s in New Zealand’s diplomatic relations. This shift is arguably a direct result of globalization, regionalism and a growing independence from the traditional bi-lateral relationships. The need to source predictable trade, investment and technology are an essential driving force for New Zealand’s diplomatic relations. A lack of hard power aligns New Zealand’s prosperity with a secure, rules-based international system that increases the likelihood of a stable and secure global order. New Zealand’s diplomacy and prosperity has been intrinsically reliant on its reputation. A vital component of New Zealand’s diplomacy is preserving a reputation for integrity and global responsibility. It is the use of this soft power that facilitates the influence that New Zealand enjoys on the world stage. To weave a comprehensive network of successful diplomatic relationships, New Zealand must maintain a reputation of international credibility. Globalization has substantially influenced the practice of diplomacy for New Zealand. The current world order places economic and military might in the hands of a few, subsequently requiring smaller states to use other means for securing their interests. There are clear strategies evident in New Zealand’s diplomacy practice that draw attention to how other smaller states might best secure their foreign policy objectives. While these findings are limited, as with all case study research, there is value in applying the findings to other small states struggling to secure their interests in the wake of rapid globalization.

Keywords: Globalisation, Foreign Policy, diplomacy, small state

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11 Self in Networks: Public Sphere in the Era of Globalisation

Authors: Sanghamitra Sadhu


A paradigm shift from capitalism to information technology is discerned in the era globalisation. The idea of public sphere, which was theorized in terms of its decline in the wake of the rise of commercial mass media has now emerged as a transnational or global sphere with the discourse being dominated by the ‘network society’. In other words, the dynamic of globalisation has brought about ‘a spatial turn’ in the social and political sciences which is also manifested in the public sphere, Especially the global public sphere. The paper revisits the Habermasian concept of the public sphere and focuses on the various social networking sites with their plausibility to create a virtual global public sphere. Situating Habermas’s notion of the bourgeois public sphere in the present context of global public sphere, it considers the changing dimensions of the public sphere across time and examines the concept of the ‘public’ with its shifting transformation from the concrete collective to the fluid ‘imagined’ category. The paper addresses the problematic of multimodal self-portraiture in the social networking sites as well as various online diaries/journals with an attempt to explore the nuances of the networked self.

Keywords: Identity, Globalisation, Public Sphere, Autonomy, network society, self-fashioning

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10 A Discourse on the Rhythmic Pattern Employed in Yoruba Sakara Music of Nigeria

Authors: Oludare Olupemi Ezekiel


This research examines the rhythmic structure of Sakara music by tracing its roots and analyzing the various rhythmic patterns of this neo-traditional genre, as well as the contributions of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, using these as a model for understanding and establishing African rhythms. Biography of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, interviews and participant observational methods were used to elicit information. Samples of the genre which were chosen at random were transcribed, notated and analyzed for academic use and documentation. The research affirmed that rhythms such as the Hemiola, Cross-rhythm, Clave or Bell rhythm, Percussive, Speech and Melodic rhythm and other relevant rhythmic theories were prevalent and applicable to Sakara music, while making important contributions to musical scholarship through its analysis of the music. The analysis and discussions carried out in the research pointed towards a conclusion that the Yoruba musicians are guided by some preconceptions and sound musical considerations in making their rhythmic patterns, used as compositional techniques and not mere incidental occurrence. These rhythmic patterns, with its consequential socio-cultural connotations, enhance musical values and national identity in Nigeria. The study concludes by recommending that musicologists need to carry out more research into this and other neo-traditional genres in order to advance the globalisation of African music.

Keywords: Identity, Globalisation, Compositional Techniques, neo-traditional, rhythmic theory, Sakara music

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9 Competitive Advantage: Sustainable or Transient

Authors: Pallavi Thacker, H. P. Mathur


This paper tries to find out from the available literature the status of Competitive Advantage. It has been stated a number of times that firms must strive to attain sustainable competitive advantage; but is the concept of sustainability of advantage still valid in this new diversified and too-rapidly changing world? The paper reaches a conclusion that the answer is “no”. Gone is the time when once attained position could easily be retained forever or at-least for a substantial amount of time. We live in a time which is very much globalised. We are used to a high level of competition from all directions. Technological advances, developed human capital, flexibility and end number of factors make the sustenance of competitive advantage difficult. This paper analyses competitive advantage from the view points of Michael Porter (who talks about sustainability) and Rita Gunther McGrath (who says competitive advantage can no more be sustained). It uses many examples and evidences from papers, journals and news. A research in this area is very much required (especially in a developing country like India) so that industries, firms and people can find out the suitable strategies that match with the changing times.

Keywords: Sustainable, Globalisation, competitive advantage, transient

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8 Critical Understanding on Equity and Access in Higher Education Engaging with Adult Learners and International Student in the Context of Globalisation

Authors: Jin-Hee Kim


The way that globalization distinguishes itself from the previous changes is scope and intensity of changes, which together affect many parts of a nation’s system. In this way, globalization has its relation with the concept of ‘internationalization’ in that a nation state formulates a set of strategies in many areas of its governance to actively react to it. In short, globalization is a ‘catalyst,’ and internationalization is a ‘response’. In this regard, the field of higher education is one of the representative cases that globalization has several consequences that change the terrain of national policy-making. Started and been dominated mainly by the Western world, it has now been expanded to the ‘late movers,’ such as Asia-Pacific countries. The case of internationalization of Korean higher education is, therefore, located in a unique place in this arena. Yet Korea still is one of the major countries of sending its students to the so-called, ‘first world.’ On the other hand, it has started its effort to recruit international students from the world to its higher education system. After new Millennium, particularly, internationalization of higher education has been launched in its full-scale and gradually been one of the important global policy agenda, striving in both ways by opening its turf to foreign educational service providers and recruiting prospective students from other countries. Particularly the latter, recruiting international students, has been highlighted under the government project named ‘Study Korea,’ launched in 2004. Not only global, but also local issues and motivations were based to launch this nationwide project. Bringing international students means various desirable economic outcomes such as reducing educational deficit as well as utilizing them in Korean industry after the completion of their study, to name a few. In addition, in a similar vein, Korea's higher education institutes have started to have a new comers of adult learners. When it comes to the questions regarding the quality and access of this new learning agency, the answer is quite tricky. This study will investigate the different dimension of education provision and learning process to empower diverse group regardless of nationality, race, class and gender in Korea. Listening to the voices of international students and adult learning as non-traditional participants in a changing Korean higher educational space not only benefit students themselves, but Korean stakeholders who should try to accommodate more comprehensive and fair educational provisions for more and more diversifying groups of learners.

Keywords: Globalisation, Access, adult learning, international students, education equity, learning support

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7 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu


This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: Globalisation, Food choice, students, fast food

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6 Evaluations of New Public Administration Reforms and Local Government Laws in Turkey in the Context of the Reforms

Authors: Handan Ertaş


The subject of government reform which is started to be discussed all over the world today has also deeply affected Turkey. Turkey, who aims to come to the level of the developed countries and not to fall behind the change must immediately complete the reform issue. For this, the government needs to be redefined and changed in accordance with the new public administration. In the first part of this study, the new public administration reforms in the world are generally explained and then the reforms in Local Government Regulations in Turkey are evaluated with the method of Content Analysis.

Keywords: Reform, Globalisation, neo-liberalism, local administration

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5 Globalization as Instrument for Multi-National Corporation in Transforming Asian’s Perspective towards Clean Water Consumption

Authors: Atanta Gian


It is inevitable that globalization has succeeded in transforming the world today. The influence of globalization has emerged in almost every aspect of life nowadays, especially in shaping the perception of the people. It can be seen on how easy for people are affected by the information surrounding them. Due to globalization, the flow of information has become more rapid along with the development of technology. People tend to believe in information that they actually get by themselves, if there is information where most of the people believe it is true, then this information could be categorized as factual and relevant. Therefore if people gain information on what is best for them in terms of daily consumption, then this information could transform their perspective, and it becomes a consideration in selecting their needs for daily consumption. By looking at this trend, the author sees that globalization could be used by Multi-National Corporation (MNC) to enhance the promotion of their products. This is applied by shaping the perspectives of the world regarding what is the best for them. Multi-National Corporation which has better technology in terms of the development of their external promotion could utilize this opportunity to affect people’s perspectives into what they want. In this paper, the author would like to elaborate how globalization is applied by MNC to shape people’s perspective regarding what is the best for them. The author would utilize a case study to analyze on how MNC could transform the perspectives of Asian people regarding the necessary of having a better quality drinking water, which in this case, MNC has shaped the perspective of Asian people in choosing their product by promoting the bottled water as the best choice for them. In the end of this paper, author would come to a conclusion that MNCs are able to shape the world’s perspective regarding the needs of their products which is supported by the globalization that is happening now.

Keywords: Information Technology, Globalisation, consumption, influence, multi-national corporations

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4 Brand Preferences in Saudi Arabia: Explorative Study in Jeddah

Authors: Badr Alharbi


There is significant debate on the evolution of retail marketing as an economy matures. In penetrating new markets, global brands are efficient in establishing a presence and replacing less effective competitors by engaging in superior advertising, pricing and sometimes quality. However, national brands adapt over time and may either partner with global brands in distribution and services or directly compete more efficiently in the new, open market. This explorative study investigates brand preferences in Saudi Arabia. As a conservative society, which is nevertheless highly commercialised, Saudi Arabia markets could be fragmenting with consumer preferences and rejections based on country of origin, globalisation, or perhaps regionalisation. To investigate this, an online survey was distributed to Saudis in Jeddah to gather data on their preferences for travel, technology, clothes and accessories, eating out, vehicles, and influential brands. The results from 710 valid responses were that there are distinct regional and national brand preferences among the young Saudi men who contributed to the survey. Apart from a preference for Saudi food providers, airline preferences were the United Emirates, holiday preferences were Europe, study and work preferences were the United States, hotel preferences were United States-based, car preferences were Japanese, and clothing preferences were United States-based. The results were broadly in line with international research findings; however, the study participants varied from Arab research findings by describing themselves as innovative in their purchase selections, rarely loyal (exception of Apple products) and continually seeking new brand experiences. This survey contributes to an understanding of evolving Saudi consumer preferences.

Keywords: Globalisation, country of origin, Saudi marketing, brand preferences

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3 A Contemplation of Iranian Islamic Architecture in the Age of Globalization

Authors: Maziar Asefi, Safa Salkhi Khasraghi


Despite the great development of Islamic Architecture in its conquered lands, its active performance in a vast geographical area, faded by the advent of industrial age. Now in the Information Age with great advances in technologies and increased interconnection among many societies, every aspect of life is affected by rapid spreading phenomenon called globalization which resulted in the world with less regional and cultural boundaries. So being proudly globalized in the past and becoming inactive in today's globalized world puts Islamic Architecture in a great challenge. Indeed, its important role has changed from transmitting cultural values to the world to importing dominated values even defectively. This study aimed to determine the factors influenced this controversial situation of Islamic Architecture, especially in current age. The paper focuses on performance of Islamic architecture in relation with Globalization as an ancient process. So qualitative method in terms of logic analysis was chosen to evaluate how Islamic architecture of Iran has contributed in Globalization subject in different time periods. Several works were analyzed as case studies in three categories: religious, monumental, commercial utilities and climate element. Theoretical and practical findings indicate that there is a mutual relationship between Islamic Architecture and Globalization which is transformed from the active mode to passive mode gradually in three periods of Globalization: proto, modern and communication Globalization. The proposed solution in the response to this challenge is finding a solution that makes an equilibrium between science, art, and technology, as well as taking the global performance of architecture.

Keywords: Islamic Architecture, Globalisation, Science and Technology, Iranian Architecture, the relationship among art

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2 World on the Edge: Migration and Cross Border Crimes in West Africa

Authors: Adeyemi Kamil Hamzah


The contiguity of nations in international system suggests that world is a composite of socio-economic unit with people exploring and exploiting the potentials in the world via migrations. Thus, cross border migration has made positive contributions to social and economic development of individuals and nations by increasing the household incomes of the host countries. However, the cross border migrations in West Africa are becoming part of a dynamic and unstable world migration system. This is due to the nature and consequences of trans-border crimes in West Africa, with both short and long term effects on the socio-economic viability of developing countries like West African States. The paper identified that migration influenced cross-border crimes as well as the high spate of insurgencies in the sub-region. Furthermore, the consequential effect of a global village has imbalanced population flows, making some countries host and parasites to others. Also, stern and deft cross-border rules and regulations, as well as territorial security and protections, ameliorate cross border crimes and migration in West African sub-regions. Therefore, the study concluded that cross border migration is the linchpin of all kinds of criminal activities which affect the security of states in the sub-region.

Keywords: Development, Security, Globalisation, West Africa, cross-border migration, border crimes

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1 Globalisation and the Resulting Labour Exploitation in Business Operations and Supply Chains

Authors: Akilah A. Jardine


The integration and expansion of the global economy have indeed brought about a number of positive changes such as access to new goods and services and the opportunity for individuals and businesses to migrate, communicate, and work globally. Nevertheless, the interconnectedness of world economies is not without its negative and shameful side effects. The subsequent overabundance of goods and services has resulted in heightened competition among firms and their supply chains, fuelling the exploitation of impoverished and vulnerable individuals who are unable to equally salvage from the benefits of the integrated economy. To maintain their position in a highly competitive arena, the operations of many businesses have adopted unethical and unscrupulous practices to maximise profit, often targeting the most marginalised members of society. Simultaneously, in a consumerist obsessed society preoccupied with the consumption and accumulation of material wealth, the demand for goods and services greatly contributes to the pressure on firms, thus bolstering the exploitation of labour. This paper aims to examine the impact of business operations on the practice of labour exploitation. It explores corrupt business practices that firms adopt and key labour exploitative conditions outlined by the International Labour Organization, particularly, paying workers low wages, forcing individuals to work in abusive and unsafe conditions, and considers the issue regarding individuals’ consent to exploitative environments. Further, it considers the role of consumers in creating the high demand for goods and services, which in turn fosters the exploitation of labour. This paper illustrates that the practice of labour exploitation in the economy is a by-product of both global competitive business operations and heightened consumer consumption.

Keywords: Globalisation, Modern Slavery, labour exploitation, sweatshops, unethical business practices

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