Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Global Financial Crisis Related Abstracts

12 Consequences of Transformation of Modern Monetary Policy during the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Aleksandra Szunke

Abstract:

Monetary policy is an important pillar of the economy, directly affecting on the condition of banking sector. Depending on the strategy may both support functioning of banking institutions, as well as limit their excessively risky activities. The literature studies indicate a large number of publications, which include characteristics of initiatives, implemented by central banks during the global financial crisis and the potential effects of the use of non-standard monetary policy instruments. However, the empirical evidence about their effects and real consequences for the financial markets are still not final. Even before the escalation of instability, Bernanke, Reinhart, and Sack (2004) analyzed the effectiveness of various unconventional monetary tools in lowering long-term interest rates in the United States and Japan. The obtained results largely confirmed the effectiveness of the zero-interest-rate policy and Quantitative Easing (QE) in achieving the goal of reducing long-term interest rates. Japan, considered as the precursor of QE policy, also conducted research about the consequences of non-standard instruments, implemented to restore financial stability of the country. Although the literature about the effectiveness of Quantitative Easing in Japan is extensive, it does not uniquely specify whether it brought permanent effects. The main aim of the study is to identify the implications of non-standard monetary policy, implemented by selected central banks (the Federal Reserve System, Bank of England and European Central Bank), paying particular attention to the consequences into three areas: the size of money supply, financial markets, and the real economy.

Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, consequences of modern monetary policy, quantitative easing policy, banking sector instability

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11 A Study of the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Financial Performance of Banks in Mauritius

Authors: Narvada Ramdhany, Reena Bhattu Babajee

Abstract:

The 2007-2008 Global Financial Crisis which initiated in the US had a global outreach, impacting the financial and banking sectors of several economies; such as European countries, developing and emerging countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa. European countries represent one of the main sources of export earnings for Mauritius and given that Europe has been quite profoundly affected by the crisis, the Mauritian economy also could have been negatively affected. This study is being undertaken to see if the crisis had a spill-over effect on the Mauritian banking system. It will also enable to determine if the measures put in place to counteract the crisis by regulatory authorities have been effective. The study will be carried out on 17 banks and data will be collected over a time frame of seven years; with a pre-crisis period from 2005 to 2007 and a post-crisis period from 2009 to 2011. The impact of the crisis as such will be measured through the financial performance of the banks, using financial ratios and regression analysis. The results show that during the period concerned Mauritian banks have remained solvent and relatively stable. One of the main explanations put forward to explain the resilience of the banking sector to the crisis is that foreign exposure was relatively low. Another explanation put forward is that Mauritian banks normally transact mainly with prime borrowers unlike most the banks which were affected by the financial crisis.  

Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, Financial Performance, banking sector, Mauritian banks

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10 The Effectiveness of Cash Flow Management by SMEs in the Mafikeng Local Municipality of South Africa

Authors: Ateba Benedict Belobo, Faan Pelser, Ambe Marcus

Abstract:

Aims: This study arise from repeated complaints from both electronic mails about the underperformance of Mafikeng Small and Medium-Size enterprises after the global financial crisis. The authors were on the view that, this poor performance experienced could be as a result of the negative effects on the cash flow of these businesses due to volatilities in the business environment in general prior to the global crisis. Thus, the paper was mainly aimed at determining the shortcomings experienced by these SMEs with regards to cash flow management. It was also aimed at suggesting possible measures to improve cash flow management of these SMEs in this tough time. Methods: A case study was conducted on 3 beverage suppliers, 27 bottle stores, 3 largest fast consumer goods super markets and 7 automobiles enterprises in the Mafikeng local municipality. A mixed method research design was employed and a purposive sampling was used in selecting SMEs that participated. Views and experiences of participants of the paper were captured through in-depth interviews. Data from the empirical investigation were interpreted using open coding and a simple percentage formula. Results: Findings from the empirical research reflected that majority of Mafikeng SMEs suffer poor operational performance prior to the global financial crisis primarily as a result of poor cash flow management. However, the empirical outcome also indicted other secondary factors contributing to this poor operational performance. Conclusion: Finally, the authorsproposed possible measures that could be used to improve cash flow management and to solve other factors affecting operational performance of SMEs in the Mafikeng local municipality in other to achieve a better business performance.

Keywords: Business Performance, Global Financial Crisis, SMEs, cash flow

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9 Measuring Output Multipliers of Energy Consumption and Manufacturing Sectors in Malaysia during the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Tuan Ab. Rashid Bin Tuan Abdullah, Tahira Yasmin

Abstract:

The strong relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is widely recognised. Most countries’ energy demand declined during the economic depression known as the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2008–2009. The objective of the current study is to investigate the energy consumption and performance of Malaysia’s manufacturing sectors during the GFC. We applied the output multiplier approach, which is based on the input-output model. Two input-output tables of Malaysia covering 2005 and 2010 were used. The results indicate significant changes in the output multipliers of the manufacturing sectors between 2005 and 2010. Moreover, the energy-to-manufacturing sectors’ output multipliers also decreased during the GFC due to a decline in export-oriented industries during the crisis. The increasing importance of the manufacturing sector to the development of Malaysian trade resulted in a noticeable decrease in the consumption of each energy sector’s output, especially the electricity and gas sector. Based on the research findings, the Malaysian government released several policy implementations in the form of stimulus packages to enhance these sectors’ performance and generally improve the Malaysian economy.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Energy, Global Financial Crisis, Malaysia, input-output model, output multipliers

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8 Analyzing the Impact of Global Financial Crisis on Interconnectedness of Asian Stock Markets Using Network Science

Authors: Jitendra Aswani

Abstract:

In the first section of this study, impact of Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on the synchronization of fourteen Asian Stock Markets (ASM’s) of countries like Hong Kong, India, Thailand, Singapore, Taiwan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, South Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, China, Philippines and Sri Lanka, has been analysed using the network science and its metrics like degree of node, clustering coefficient and network density. Then in the second section of this study by introducing the US stock market in existing network and developing a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) spread of crisis from the US stock market to Asian Stock Markets (ASM) has been explained. Data used for this study is adjusted the closing price of these indices from 6th January, 2000 to 15th September, 2013 which further divided into three sub-periods: Pre, during and post-crisis. Using network analysis, it is found that Asian stock markets become more interdependent during the crisis than pre and post crisis, and also Hong Kong, India, South Korea and Japan are systemic important stock markets in the Asian region. Therefore, failure or shock to any of these systemic important stock markets can cause contagion to another stock market of this region. This study is useful for global investors’ in portfolio management especially during the crisis period and also for policy makers in formulating the financial regulation norms by knowing the connections between the stock markets and how the system of these stock markets changes in crisis period and after that.

Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, Network Science, Asian stock markets, Kruskal algorithm

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7 Changing New York Financial Clusters in the 2000s: Modeling the Impact and Policy Implication of the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Silvia Lorenzo, Hongmian Gong

Abstract:

With the influx of research assessing the economic impact of the global financial crisis of 2007-8, a spatial analysis based on empirical data is needed to better understand the spatial significance of the financial crisis in New York, a key international financial center also considered the origin of the crisis. Using spatial statistics, the existence of financial clusters specializing in credit and securities throughout the New York metropolitan area are identified for 2000 and 2010, the time period before and after the height of the global financial crisis. Geographically Weighted Regressions are then used to examine processes underlying the formation and movement of financial geographies across state, county and ZIP codes of the New York metropolitan area throughout the 2000s with specific attention to tax regimes, employment, household income, technology, and transportation hubs. This analysis provides useful inputs for financial risk management and public policy initiatives aimed at addressing regional economic sustainability across state boundaries, while also developing the groundwork for further research on a spatial analysis of the global financial crisis.

Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, financial clusters, New York, geographically weighted regression

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6 Debts and Debt-Based Sukuk Related to Risk Shifting Behavior

Authors: Siti Raihana Hamzah

Abstract:

This paper elaborates risk shifting in debt financing system as the ultimate cause of the global financial crisis. In contrast, risk sharing in equity financing like sukuk helps the economic system to be better sustained. Nevertheless, some types of sukuk are haunted by the issue of imitation with bonds. The critics on the imitation issue not only have raised doubt on the ability of sukuk to diminish risk shifting behavior but also the ability of this Islamic financial instrument to ensure better future financial stability. Through that, this paper provides discussion on the possibility of sukuk to induce risk shifting and how equity financing may help sukuk to be free from risk shifting. This paper is important in the sense that sukuk receives a significant demand from investors throughout the world. For this instrument to be supportive in the future economic stability, the issue of imitation needs to be identified and addressed. Furthermore, critics cannot be focused on debts and its ability to gauge the financial flux but also to sukuk due to their structures similarity.

Keywords: Sukuk, Global Financial Crisis, Equity, Risk Sharing, Debt, risk-shifting, bonds

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5 Modelling Impacts of Global Financial Crises on Stock Volatility of Nigeria Banks

Authors: Maruf Ariyo Raheem, Patrick Oseloka Ezepue

Abstract:

This research aimed at determining most appropriate heteroskedastic model to predicting volatility of 10 major Nigerian banks: Access, United Bank for Africa (UBA), Guaranty Trust, Skye, Diamond, Fidelity, Sterling, Union, ETI and Zenith banks using daily closing stock prices of each of the banks from 2004 to 2014. The models employed include ARCH (1), GARCH (1, 1), EGARCH (1, 1) and TARCH (1, 1). The results show that all the banks returns are highly leptokurtic, significantly skewed and thus non-normal across the four periods except for Fidelity bank during financial crises; findings similar to those of other global markets. There is also strong evidence for the presence of heteroscedasticity, and that volatility persistence during crisis is higher than before the crisis across the 10 banks, with that of UBA taking the lead, about 11 times higher during the crisis. Findings further revealed that Asymmetric GARCH models became dominant especially during financial crises and post crises when the second reforms were introduced into the banking industry by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). Generally, one could say that Nigerian banks returns are volatility persistent during and after the crises, and characterised by leverage effects of negative and positive shocks during these periods

Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, volatility clustering, leverage effect, persistence

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4 A Model of Preventing Global Financial Crisis: Gauss Law Model Proposal Used in Electrical Field Calculations

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli

Abstract:

This article examines the relationship between economics and physics, starting with Adam Smith, with a new econophysics approach in Economics-Physics with the Gauss Law model proposal using for the Electric Field calculation, which will allow us to anticipate the Global Financial Crisis. For this purpose, the similarities between the Gauss Law using the electric field calculations and the global financial crisis have been explained on the formula, and a model has been suggested to predict the risks of the financial systems from the electricity field calculations. Thus, this study is expected to help for preventing the Global Financial Crisis with the contribution of the science of economics and physics from the aspect of econophysics.

Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, Financial System, Econophysics, Electric Field, Gauss law

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3 Good Banks, Bad Banks, and Public Scrutiny: The Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Times of Financial Volatility

Authors: A. W. Chalmers, O. M. van den Broek

Abstract:

This article examines the relationship between the global financial crisis and corporate social responsibility activities of financial services firms. It challenges the general consensus in existing studies that firms, when faced with economic hardship, tend to jettison CSR commitments. Instead, and building on recent insights into the institutional determinants of CSR, it is argued that firms are constrained in their ability to abandon CSR by the extent to which they are subject to intense public scrutiny by regulators and the news media. This argument is tested in the context of the European sovereign debt crisis drawing on a unique dataset of 170 firms in 15 different countries over a six-year period. Controlling for a battery of alternative explanations and comparing financial service providers to firms operating in other economic sectors, results indicate considerable evidence supporting the main argument. Rather than abandoning CSR during times of economic hardship, financial industry firms ramp up their CSR commitments in order to manage their public image and foster public trust in light of intense public scrutiny.

Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, corporate social responsibility (CSR), public scrutiny, financial services firms

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2 The Impact of Global Financial Crises and Corporate Financial Crisis (Bankruptcy Risk) on Corporate Tax Evasion: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Seyed Sajjad Habibi

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of global financial crises and corporate financial crisis on tax evasion of companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. For this purpose, panel data in the periods of financial crisis period (2007 to 2012) and without a financial crisis (2004, 2005, 2006, 2013, 2014, and 2015) was analyzed using multivariate linear regression. The results indicate a significant relationship between the corporate financial crisis (bankruptcy risk) and tax evasion in the global financial crisis period. The results also showed a significant relationship between the corporate bankruptcy risk and tax evasion in the period with no global financial crisis. A significant difference was found between the bankruptcy risk and tax evasion in the period of the global financial crisis and that with no financial crisis so that tax evasion increased in the financial crisis period.

Keywords: Emerging Markets, Global Financial Crisis, corporate financial crisis, bankruptcy risk, tax evasion risk

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1 Contagion of the Global Financial Crisis and Its Impact on Systemic Risk in the Banking System: Extreme Value Theory Analysis in Six Emerging Asia Economies

Authors: Ratna Kuswardani

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the impact of recent Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on 6 selected emerging Asian economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Singapore, and South Korea). We first figure out the contagion of GFC from the US and Europe to the selected emerging Asian countries by studying the tail dependence of market stock returns between those countries. We apply the concept of Extreme Value Theory (EVT) to model the dependence between multiple returns series of variables under examination. We explore the factors causing the contagion between the regions. We find dependencies between markets that are influenced by their size, especially for large markets in emerging Asian countries that tend to have a higher dependency to the market in the more advanced country such as the U.S. and some countries in Europe. The results also suggest that the dependencies between market returns and bank stock returns in the same region tend to be higher than dependencies between these returns across two different regions. We extend our analysis by studying the impact of GFC on the systemic in the banking system. We also find that larger institution has more dependencies with the market stock, suggesting that larger size bank can cause disruption in the market. Further, the higher probability of extreme loss can be seen during the crisis period, which is shown by the non-linear dependency between the pre-crisis and the post-crisis period. Finally, our analysis suggests that systemic risk appears in the domestic banking systems in emerging Asia, as shown by the extreme dependencies within banks in the system. Overall, our results provide caution to policy makers and investors alike on the possible contagion of the impact of global financial crisis across different markets.

Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, Systemic Risk, Extreme Value Theory, contagion

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