Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Glass Transition Related Abstracts

5 Thermal Transformation and Structural on Se90Te7Cu3 Chalcogenide Glass

Authors: Farid M. Abdel-Rahim


In this study, Se90Te7Cu3 chalcogenide glass was prepared using the melt quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the as prepared samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) under nonisothermal condition on composition bulk materials are reported and discussed. It shows that these glasses exhibit a single-stage glass transition and a single-stage crystallization on heating rates. The glass transition temperature (Tg), the onset crystallization (Tc), the crystallization temperature (Tp), were found by dependent on the composition and heating rates. Activation energy for glass transition (Et), activation energy of the amorphous –crystalline transformation (Ec), crystallization reaction rate constant (Kp), (n) and (m) are constants related to crystallization mechanism of the bulk samples have been determined by different formulations.

Keywords: Glass Transition, Heat Treatment, Thermal analysis, SEM, DSC, chalcogenides

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4 Probing Multiple Relaxation Process in Zr-Cu Base Alloy Using Mechanical Spectroscopy

Authors: A. P. Srivastava, D. Srivastava, D. J. Browne


Relaxation dynamics of Zr44Cu40Al8Ag8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) has been probed using dynamic mechanical analyzer. The BMG sample was casted in the form of a plate of dimension 55 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm using tilt casting technique. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope have been used for the microstructural characterization of as-cast BMG. For the mechanical spectroscopy study, samples in the form of a bar of size 55 mm X 2 mm X 3 mm were machined from the BMG plate. The mechanical spectroscopy was performed on dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) by 50 mm 3-point bending method in a nitrogen atmosphere. It was observed that two glass transition process were competing in supercooled liquid region around temperature 390°C and 430°C. The supercooled liquid state was completely characterized using DMA and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition to the main α-relaxation process, presence of β relaxation process around temperature 360°C; below the glass transition temperature was also observed. The β relaxation process could be described by Arrhenius law with the activation energy of 160 kJ/mole. The volume of the flow unit associated with this relaxation process has been estimated. The results from DMA study has been used to characterize the shear transformation zone in terms of activation volume and size. High fragility parameter value of 34 and higher activation volume indicates that this alloy could show good plasticity in supercooled liquid region. The possible mechanism for the relaxation processes has been discussed.

Keywords: Glass Transition, DMA, metallic glass, thermoplastic forming

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3 Segmental Motion of Polymer Chain at Glass Transition Probed by Single Molecule Detection

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


The glass transition phenomenon has been extensively studied for a long time. The glass transition of polymer materials is assigned to the transition of the dynamics of the chain backbone segment. However, the detailed mechanism of the transition behavior of the segmental motion is still unclear. In the current work, the single molecule detection technique was employed to reveal the trajectory of the molecular motion of the single polymer chain. The center segment of poly(butyl methacrylate) chain was labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule and observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was analyzed near the glass transition temperature. The direct observation of the individual polymer chains revealed the intermittent behavior of the segmental motion, indicating the spatial inhomogeneity.

Keywords: Polymer Materials, Glass Transition, Single molecule, molecular motion

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2 Understanding the Thermal Resistance of Active Dry Yeast by Differential Scanning Calorimetry Approach

Authors: Pauline Ribert, Gaelle Roudaut, Sebastien Dupont, Laurent Beney


Yeasts, anhydrobiotic organisms, can survive extreme water disturbances, thanks to the prolonged and reversible suspension of their cellular activity as well as the establishment of a defense arsenal. This property is exploited by many industrialists. One of the protection systems implemented by yeast is the vitrification of its cytoplasm by trehalose. The thermal resistance of dry yeasts is a crucial parameter for their use. However, studies on the thermal resistance of dry yeasts are often based on yeasts produced in laboratory conditions with non-optimal drying processes. We, therefore, propose a study on the thermal resistance of industrial dry yeasts in relation to their thermophysical properties. Heat stress was applied at three temperatures (50, 75, and 100°C) for 10, 30, or 60-minute treatments. The survival of yeasts to these treatments was estimated, and their thermophysical properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The industrial dry yeasts resisted 60 minutes at 50°C and 75°C and 10 minutes at a temperature close to 100°C. At 100°C, yeast was above their glass transition temperature. Industrial dry yeasts are therefore capable of withstanding high thermal stress if maintained in a specific thermophysical state.

Keywords: Glass Transition, Thermal Resistance, vitrification, dry yeast

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1 Modeling, Topology Optimization and Experimental Validation of Glass-Transition-Based 4D-Printed Polymeric Structures

Authors: Sara A. Pakvis, Giulia Scalet, Stefania Marconi, Ferdinando Auricchio, Matthijs Langelaar


In recent developments in the field of multi-material additive manufacturing, differences in material properties are exploited to create printed shape-memory structures, which are referred to as 4D-printed structures. New printing techniques allow for the deliberate introduction of prestresses in the specimen during manufacturing, and, in combination with the right design, this enables new functionalities. This research focuses on bi-polymer 4D-printed structures, where the transformation process is based on a heat-induced glass transition in one material lowering its Young’s modulus, combined with an initial prestress in the other material. Upon the decrease in stiffness, the prestress is released, which results in the realization of an essentially pre-programmed deformation. As the design of such functional multi-material structures is crucial but far from trivial, a systematic methodology to find the design of 4D-printed structures is developed, where a finite element model is combined with a density-based topology optimization method to describe the material layout. This modeling approach is verified by a convergence analysis and validated by comparing its numerical results to analytical and published data. Specific aspects that are addressed include the interplay between the definition of the prestress and the material interpolation function used in the density-based topology description, the inclusion of a temperature-dependent stiffness relationship to simulate the glass transition effect, and the importance of the consideration of geometric nonlinearity in the finite element modeling. The efficacy of topology optimization to design 4D-printed structures is explored by applying the methodology to a variety of design problems, both in 2D and 3D settings. Bi-layer designs composed of thermoplastic polymers are printed by means of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer undergoes the glass transition transformation, while polyurethane (TPU) polymer is prestressed by means of the 3D-printing process itself. Tests inducing shape transformation in the printed samples through heating are performed to calibrate the prestress and validate the modeling approach by comparing the numerical results to the experimental findings. Using the experimentally obtained prestress values, more complex designs have been generated through topology optimization, and samples have been printed and tested to evaluate their performance. This study demonstrates that by combining topology optimization and 4D-printing concepts, stimuli-responsive structures with specific properties can be designed and realized.

Keywords: Glass Transition, Shape Memory Polymer, topology optimization

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