Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Glass Related Abstracts

12 Glass and Polypropylene Combinations for Thermoplastic Preforms

Authors: Hireni Mankodi


The textile preforms for thermoplastic composite play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about preparing combination of yarn from Glass, Basalt, Carbon as reinforcement and PP, PET, Nylon as thermoplastic matrix at yarn stage for preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to develop the hybrid yarn using different yarn manufacturing process and prepare different performs using hybrid yarns. It has been observed that the glass/pp combination give homogeneous distribution in yarn. The proportion varied to optimize the glass/pp composition. The different preform has been prepared with combination of hybrid yarn, PP, glass combination. Further studies will investigate the effect of glass content in fabric, effect of weave, warps and filling density, number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of thermoplastic laminates.

Keywords: Glass, Laminates, thermoplastic, preform, hybrid yarn

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11 Determining Factors of Suspended Glass Systems with Pre-Stress Cable Truss

Authors: Cemil Atakara, Hüseyin Eryaman


The use of glass as an envelope of a building has been increasing in the twentieth century. For more transparency and dematerialization new glass facade types have emerged in the past two decades which depends on point fixed glazing system (PFGS). The aim of this study is to analyze of the PFGS systems which are used on the glass curtain wall according to their types, degree, architectural and structural effects. This new system is desired because it enhances the transparency of the façade and it minimizes the component of the frames or of the profiles. This PFGS led to new structural elements which use cables, rods, trusses when designing a glass building facades, this structural element called the suspended glass system with pre-stressed cable truss (SGSPCT) which has been used for the first time in 1980 in Serres building. The twenty glass buildings which are designed in different systems have been analyzed during this study. After these analyses five selected SGSPCT building analyzed deeply and one skeletal frame building selected from Lefkosa redesigned according to the analysis results. These selected buildings have been included of various cable-truss system typologies and degree. The methodology of this study is building analysis method and literature survey with the help of books, articles, magazines, drawings, internet sources and applied connection details of the glass buildings. The selected five glass buildings and case building have been detailed analyzed with their architectural drawings, photographs and details. A gridshell structure can be compared with a shell structure; it consists of discrete members connecting nodal points. As these nodal points lie on the surface of an imaginary shell, their shapes function almost identically. Difference between shell and gridshell structures can be found in the fact that, due to their free-form and thus, due to the presence of bending forces, gridshells are required to resist loading through their cross-section. This research is divided into parts. A general study about the glass building and cable-glass and grid shell system will be done in the first chapters. Structural analyses and detailed analyses with schematic drawings with the plans, sections of the selected buildings will be explained in the second part. The third part it consists of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of the SGSPCT and Grid Shell in architecture. The study consists of four chapters including the introduction chapter. The general information of the SGSPCT and glazing system has been mentioned in the first chapter. Structural features, typologies, transparency principle and analytical information on systems have been explained of the selected buildings in the second chapter. The detailed analyses of case building have been done according to their schematic drawings with the plans, sections in the third chapter. After third chapter SGSPCT discussed on to the case building and selected buildings. SGSPCT systems have been compared with their advantages and disadvantages to the other systems. Advantages of cable-truss systems and SGSPCT have been concluded that the use of glass substrates in the last chapter.

Keywords: Glass, Transparency, cable truss, grid shell

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10 Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy for the Characterization of CdSxSe1-x Quantum Dots in a Glass Matrix

Authors: C. Fornacelli, P. Colomban, E. Mugnaioli, I. Memmi Turbanti


When semiconductor particles are reduced in scale to nanometer dimension, their optical and electro-optical properties strongly differ from those of bulk crystals of the same composition. Since sampling is often not allowed concerning cultural heritage artefacts, the potentialities of two non-invasive techniques, such as Raman and Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS), have been investigated and the results of the analysis on some original glasses of different colours (from yellow to orange and deep red) and periods (from the second decade of the 20th century to present days) are reported in the present study. In order to evaluate the potentialities of the application of non-invasive techniques to the investigation of the structure and distribution of nanoparticles dispersed in a glass matrix, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy-disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, together with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Diffraction Tomography (EDT) have also been used. Raman spectroscopy allows a fast and non-destructive measure of the quantum dots composition and size, thanks to the evaluation of the frequencies and the broadening/asymmetry of the LO phonons bands, respectively, though the important role of the compressive strain arising from the glass matrix and the possible diffusion of zinc from the matrix to the nanocrystals should be taken into account when considering the optical-phonons frequency values. The incorporation of Zn has been assumed by an upward shifting of the LO band related to the most abundant anion (S or Se), while the role of the surface phonons as well as the confinement-induced scattering by phonons with a non-zero wavevectors on the Raman peaks broadening has been verified. The optical band gap varies from 2.42 eV (pure CdS) to 1.70 eV (CdSe). For the compositional range between 0.5≤x≤0.2, the presence of two absorption edges has been related to the contribution of both pure CdS and the CdSxSe1-x solid solution; this particular feature is probably due to the presence of unaltered cubic zinc blende structures of CdS that is not taking part to the formation of the solid solution occurring only between hexagonal CdS and CdSe. Moreover, the band edge tailing originating from the disorder due to the formation of weak bonds and characterized by the Urbach edge energy has been studied and, together with the FWHM of the Raman signal, has been assumed as a good parameter to evaluate the degree of topological disorder. SEM-EDS mapping showed a peculiar distribution of the major constituents of the glass matrix (fluxes and stabilizers), especially concerning those samples where a layered structure has been assumed thanks to the spectroscopic study. Finally, TEM-EDS and EDT were used to get high-resolution information about nanocrystals (NCs) and heterogeneous glass layers. The presence of ZnO NCs (< 4 nm) dispersed in the matrix has been verified for most of the samples, while, for those samples where a disorder due to a more complex distribution of the size and/or composition of the NCs has been assumed, the TEM clearly verified most of the assumption made by the spectroscopic techniques.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Glass, CdSxSe1-x, EDT, TEM-EDS

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9 Effect of Water Absorption on the Fatigue Behavior of Glass/Polyester Composite

Authors: Djamel Djeghader, Bachir Redjel


The composite materials of glass fibers can be used as a repair material for damage elements under repeated stresses, and in various environments. A cyclic bending characterization of a glass/polyester composite material was carried out with consideration of the period of immersion in water. These tests describe the behavior of materials and identify the mechanical fatigue characteristics using the Wohler Curve for different immersion time: 0, 90, 180 and 270 days in water. These curves are characterized by a dispersion in the lifetimes were modeled by straight whose intercepts are very similar and comparable to the static strength. This material deteriorates fatigue at a constant rate, which increases with increasing immersion time in water at a constant speed. The endurance limit seems to be independent of the immersion time in the water.

Keywords: Glass, Immersion, Composite, Fatigue, polyester, wohler

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8 Interaction between the Main Crack and Dislocation in the Glass Material

Authors: A. Mezzidi, H. Hamli Benzahar


The present study evaluates the stress and stress intensity factor during the propagation of a crack at presence of a dislocation near of crack tip. The problem is formulated using a glass material having an equivalent elasticity modulus and a Poisson ratio. In this research work, the proposed material is a plate form with a main crack in one of these ends and a dislocation near this crack, subjected to tensile stresses according to the mode 1 opening. For each distance between the two cracks, we can determine these stresses. This study is treated by finite elements method by using the software (ABAQUS) rate. It is shown here in that obtained results agreed with those determined by other researchers

Keywords: Glass, finite element, crack, dislocation

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7 The Crack Propagation on Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin


In the laser cleavage of glass, the laser is mostly adopted as a heat source to generate a thermal stress state on the substrates. The crack propagation of the soda-lime glass in the laser thermal cleavage with the straight-turning paths was investigated in this study experimentally and numerically. The crack propagation was visualized by a high speed camera with the off-line examination on the micro-crack propagation. The temperature and stress distributions induced by the laser heat source were calculated by ANSYS software based on the finite element method (FEM). With the cutting paths in various turning directions, the experimental and numerical results were in comparison and verified. The fracture modes due to the normal and shear stresses were verified at the turning point of the laser cleavage path. It shows a significant variation of the stress profiles along the straight-turning paths and causes a change on the fracture modes.

Keywords: fracture, Glass, stress analysis, laser cleavage

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6 The Impact of Glass Additives on the Functional and Microstructural Properties of Sand-Lime Bricks

Authors: Anna Stepien


The paper presents the results of research on modifications of sand-lime bricks, especially using glass additives (glass fiber and glass sand) and other additives (e.g.:basalt&barite aggregate, lithium silicate and microsilica) as well. The main goal of this paper is to answer the question ‘How to use glass additives in the sand-lime mass and get a better bricks?’ The article contains information on modification of sand-lime bricks using glass fiber, glass sand, microsilica (different structure of silica). It also presents the results of the conducted compression tests, which were focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density, and their microstructure. The Scanning Electron Microscope, spectrum EDS, X-ray diffractometry and DTA analysis helped to define the microstructural changes of modified products. The interpretation of the products structure revealed the existence of diversified phases i.e.the C-S-H and tobermorite. CaO-SiO2-H2O system is the object of intensive research due to its meaning in chemistry and technologies of mineral binding materials. Because the blocks are the autoclaving materials, the temperature of hydrothermal treatment of the products is around 200°C, the pressure - 1,6-1,8 MPa and the time - up to 8hours (it means: 1h heating + 6h autoclaving + 1h cooling). The microstructure of the products consists mostly of hydrated calcium silicates with a different level of structural arrangement. The X-ray diffraction indicated that the type of used sand is an important factor in the manufacturing of sand-lime elements. Quartz sand of a high hardness is also a substrate hardly reacting with other possible modifiers, which may cause deterioration of certain physical and mechanical properties. TG and DTA curves show the changes in the weight loss of the sand-lime bricks specimen against time as well as the endo- and exothermic reactions that took place. The endothermic effect with the maximum at T=573°C is related to isomorphic transformation of quartz. This effect is not accompanied by a change of the specimen weight. The next endothermic effect with the maximum at T=730-760°C is related to the decomposition of the calcium carbonates. The bulk density of the brick it is 1,73kg/dm3, the presence of xonotlite in the microstructure and significant weight loss during DTA and TG tests (around 0,6% after 70 minutes) have been noticed. Silicate elements were assessed on the basis of their compressive property. Orthogonal compositional plan type 3k (with k=2), i.e.full two-factor experiment was applied in order to carry out the experiments both, in the compression strength test and bulk density test. Some modification (e.g.products with barite and basalt aggregate) have improved the compressive strength around 41.3 MPa and water absorption due to capillary raising have been limited to 12%. The next modification was adding glass fiber to sand-lime mass, then glass sand. The results show that the compressive strength was higher than in the case of traditional bricks, while modified bricks were lighter.

Keywords: Microstructure, Glass, Fiber, bricks

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5 Resilient Modulus and Deformation Responses of Waste Glass in Flexible Pavement System

Authors: A. Chegenizadeh, H. Nikraz, M. Al-Saedi


Experimental investigations are conducted to assess a layered structure of glass (G) - rock (R) blends under the impact of repeated loading. Laboratory tests included sieve analyses, modified compaction test and repeated load triaxial test (RLTT) is conducted on different structures of stratified GR samples to reach the objectives of this study. Waste materials are such essential components in the climate system, and also commonly used in minimising the need for natural materials in many countries. Glass is one of the most widely used groups of waste materials which have been extensively using in road applications. Full range particle size and colours of glass are collected and mixed at different ratios with natural rock material trying to use the blends in pavement layers. Whole subsurface specimen sequentially consists of a single layer of R and a layer of G-R blend. 12G/88R and 45G/55R mix ratios are employed in this research, the thickness of G-R layer was changed, and the results were compared between the pure rock and the layered specimens. The relations between resilient module (Mr) and permanent deformation with sequence number are presented. During the earlier stages of RLTT, the results indicated that the 45G/55R specimen shows higher moduli than R specimen.

Keywords: Glass, resilient modulus, Rock base course, Layered Structure

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4 Feasibility Study on the Application of Waste Materials for Production of Sustainable Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Farzaneh Tahmoorian, Bijan Samali, John Yeaman


Road networks are expanding all over the world during the past few decades to meet the increasing freight volumes created by the population growth and industrial development. At the same time, the rate of generation of solid wastes in the society is increasing with the population growth, technological development, and changes in the lifestyle of people. Thus, the management of solid wastes has become an acute problem. Accordingly, there is a need for greater efficiency in the construction and maintenance of road networks, in reducing the overall cost, especially the utilization of natural materials such as aggregates. An efficient means to reduce construction and maintenance costs of road networks is to replace natural (virgin) materials by secondary, recycled materials. Recycling will also help to reduce pressure on landfills and demand for extraction of natural virgin materials thus ensuring sustainability. Application of solid wastes in asphalt layer reduces not only environmental issues associated with waste disposal but also the demand for virgin materials which will subsequently result in sustainability. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the feasibility of the application of some of the waste materials such as glass, construction and demolition wastes, etc. as alternative materials in pavement construction, particularly flexible pavements. To this end, various combination of different waste materials in certain percentages is considered in designing the asphalt mixture. One of the goals of this research is to determine the optimum percentage of all these materials in the mixture. This is done through a series of tests to evaluate the volumetric properties and resilient modulus of the mixture. The information and data collected from these tests are used to select the adequate samples for further assessment through advanced tests such as triaxial dynamic test and fatigue test, in order to investigate the asphalt mixture resistance to permanent deformation and also cracking. This paper presents the results of these investigations on the application of waste materials in asphalt mixture for production of a sustainable asphalt mix.

Keywords: Sustainability, Glass, Asphalt, Pavement, recycled aggregate

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3 Furnishing The Envelope; 3D Printed Construction Unit as Furniture

Authors: Maryam Kalkatechi


The paper presents the construction unit that was proposed as a result of researching and finding solutions for challenges of the traditional masonry unit. The concept of ‘unit as arrangements of cells’ was investigated in four categories of structure, handling and assembly, thermal characteristics and weather ability which resulted in construction unit as an independent system which shapes a part of the envelope. Comparing to the traditional wall systems in which the system is in layers, the part system is a monolithic piece by itself. Even though the overall wythe-10 inches- is less than the combined layers-14 inches- in a traditional wall system, it is still seen as a spatial component. The component as a furnishing of envelope is discussed from material application point of view. The algorithm definition of the arrangement cells crafts the relationship between cells and functionality with material. This craft is realized as the envelope furnishing. Three alternative materials in relation to furnishing the envelope are discussed for printing the construction unit; transparent plastic, opaque plastic and glass. The qualities vary in the four categories, however this paper focuses on the visual qualities of materials applied. In a diagram the qualities of the materials are compared in relation to each other.

Keywords: Glass, furnishing envelope, opaque plastic, transparent plastic

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2 A Study of the Replacement of Natural Coarse Aggregate by Spherically-Shaped and Crushed Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass in Concrete

Authors: M. F. M. Zain, M. Jamil, N. N. M. Pauzi, M. R. Karim, R. Hamid


The aim of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the influence of complete replacement of natural coarse aggregate with spherically-shape and crushed waste cathode ray tube (CRT) glass to the aspect of workability, density, and compressive strength of the concrete. After characterizing the glass, a group of concrete mixes was prepared to contain a 40% spherical CRT glass and 60% crushed CRT glass as a complete (100%) replacement of natural coarse aggregates. From a total of 16 types of concrete mixes, the optimum proportion was selected based on its best performance. The test results showed that the use of spherical and crushed glass that possesses a smooth surface, rounded, irregular and elongated shape, and low water absorption affects the workability of concrete. Due to a higher specific gravity of crushed glass, concrete mixes containing CRT glass had a higher density compared to ordinary concrete. Despite the spherical and crushed CRT glass being stronger than gravel, the results revealed a reduction in compressive strength of the concrete. However, using a lower water to binder (w/b) ratio and a higher superplasticizer (SP) dosage, it is found to enhance the compressive strength of 60.97 MPa at 28 days that is lower by 13% than the control specimen. These findings indicate that waste CRT glass in the form of spherical and crushed could be used as an alternative of coarse aggregate that may pave the way for the disposal of hazardous e-waste.

Keywords: Glass, compressive strength, coarse aggregate, cathode ray tube

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1 Scientific and Technical Basis for the Application of Textile Structures in Glass Using Pate De Verre Technique

Authors: Walaa Hamed Mohamed Hamza


Textile structures are the way in which the threading process of both thread and loom is done together to form the woven. Different methods of attaching the clothing and the flesh produce different textile structures, which differ in their surface appearance from each other, including so-called simple textile structures. Textile compositions are the basis of woven fabric, through which aesthetic values can be achieved in the textile industry by weaving threads of yarn with the weft at varying degrees that may reach the total control of one of the two groups on the other. Hence the idea of how art and design can be used using different textile structures under the modern techniques of pate de verre. In the creation of designs suitable for glass products employed in the interior architecture. The problem of research: The textile structures, in general, have a significant impact on the appearance of the fabrics in terms of form and aesthetic. How can we benefit from the characteristics of different textile compositions in different glass designs with different artistic values. The research achieves its goal by the investment of simple textile structures in innovative artistic designs using the pate de verre technique, as well as the use of designs resulting from the textile structures in the external architecture to add various aesthetic values. The importance of research in the revival of heritage using ancient techniques, as well as synergy between different fields of applied arts such as glass and textile, and also study the different and diverse effects resulting from each fabric composition and the possibility of use in various designs in the interior architecture. The research will be achieved that by investing in simple textile compositions, innovative artistic designs produced using pate de verre technology can be used in interior architecture.

Keywords: Glass, Interior architecture, Textile Structures, pate de verre

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