Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

‎girth‎ Related Abstracts

3 On the Girth of the Regular Digraph of Ideals of a ‎Commutative ‎Ring

Authors: Masoud Karimi

Abstract:

‎Let R be a commutative ring‎. ‎The regular digraph of ideals of R, which is denoted by‎ Γ(R)‎, ‎is a digraph whose vertex-set is the set of all ‎non-‎trivial ideals of R and‎, ‎for every‎ two distinct vertices I and J‎, ‎there is an arc from I to J‎, ‎whenever I contains‎ a non-zero-divisor on J. In this article, ‎we ‎show ‎that an indecomposable ‎Noetherian ring ‎‎‎R ‎is ‎Artinian ‎local ‎if ‎and ‎only ‎if Z(I)=Z(R) ‎for ‎every ‎non-nilpotent ‎ideal ‎‎‎I‎. ‎Then ‎we ‎conclude ‎that ‎‎the ‎girth ‎of‎ Γ(R)‎ ‎is ‎not ‎equal ‎to ‎four.

Keywords: commutative ring‎, ‎girth‎, regular digraph‎, zero-divisor

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
2 Effect of Three Resistance Training Methods on Performance-Related Variables of Powerlifters

Authors: K. Shyamnath, K. Suresh Kutty

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of three resistance training methods on performance-related variables of powerlifters. A total of forty male students (N=40) who had participated in Kannur University powerlifting championship were selected as subjects. The age group of the subjects ranged from 18 years old to 25 years old. The selected subjects were equally divided into four groups (n=10) of three experimental groups and a control group. The experimental Group I underwent traditional resistance training (TRTG), Group II underwent combined traditional resistance training and plyometrics (TRTPG), and Group III underwent combined traditional resistance training and resistance training with high rhythm (TRTHRG). Group IV acted as the control group (CG) receiving no training during the experimental period. The duration of the experimental period was sixteen weeks, five days per week. Powerlifting performance was assessed by the 1RM test in the squat, bench press and deadlift. Performance-related variables assessed were chest girth, arm girth, forearm girth, thigh girth, and calf girth. Pre-test and post-test were conducted a day before and two days after the experimental period on all groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to analyze the significant difference. The 0.05 level of confidence was fixed as the level of significance to test the F ratio obtained by the analysis of covariance. The result indicates that there is a significant effect of all the selected resistance training methods on the performance and selected performance-related variables of powerlifters. Combined traditional resistance training and plyometrics and combined traditional resistance training and resistance training with high rhythm proved better than the traditional resistance training in improving performance and selected performance-related variables of powerlifters. There was no significant difference between combined traditional resistance training and plyometrics and combined traditional resistance training and resistance training with high rhythm in improving performance and selected performance-related variables of powerlifters.

Keywords: powerlifting, Plyometrics, Resistance Training, ‎girth‎

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
1 Conceptual Perimeter Model for Estimating Building Envelope Quantities

Authors: Ka C. Lam, Oluwafunmibi S. Idowu

Abstract:

Building girth is important in building economics and mostly used in quantities take-off of various cost items. Literature suggests that the use of conceptual quantities can improve the accuracy of cost models. Girth or perimeter of a building can be used to estimate conceptual quantities. Hence, the current paper aims to model the perimeter-area function of buildings shapes for use at the conceptual design stage. A detailed literature review on existing building shape indexes was carried out. An empirical approach was used to study the relationship between area and the shortest length of a four-sided orthogonal polygon. Finally, a mathematical approach was used to establish the observed relationships. The empirical results obtained were in agreement with the mathematical model developed. A new equation termed “conceptual perimeter equation” is proposed. The equation can be used to estimate building envelope quantities such as external wall area, external finishing area and scaffolding area before sketch or detailed drawings are prepared.

Keywords: Building Envelope, ‎girth‎, building shape index, conceptual quantities, cost modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 203