Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

geothermal energy Related Abstracts

6 Interdisciplinary Approach for Economic Production of Oil and Gas Reserves: Application of Geothermal Energy for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Dharmit Viroja, Prerakkumar Shah, Rajanikant Gajera, Ruchit Shah


With present scenario of aging oil and gas fields with high water cuts, volatile oil prices and increasing greenhouse gas emission, the need for alleviating such issues has necessitated for oil and gas industry to make the maximum out of available assets, infrastructure and reserves in mother Earth. Study undertaken emphasizes on utilizing Geothermal Energy under specific reservoir conditions for Enhanced oil Recovery (EOR) to boost up production. Allied benefits of this process include mitigation of electricity problem in remote fields and controlled CO-emission. Utilization of this energy for EOR and increasing economic life of field could surely be rewarding. A new way to value oil lands would be considered if geothermal co-production is integrated in the field development program. Temperature profile of co-produced fluid across its journey is a pivotal issue which has been studied. Geo pressured reservoirs resulting from trapped brine under an impermeable bed is also a frontier for exploitation. Hot geothermal fluid is a by-product of large number of oil and gas wells, historically this hot water has been seen as an inconvenience; however, it can be looked at as a useful resource. The production of hot fluids from abandoned and co-production of hot fluids from producing wells has potential to prolong life of oil and gas fields. The study encompasses various factors which are required for use of this technology and application of this process across various phases of oil and gas value chain. Interdisciplinary approach in oil and gas value chain has shown potential for economic production of estimated oil and gas reserves.

Keywords: geothermal energy, Enhanced Oil Recovery, geo-pressured reservoirs, oil and gas value chain

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5 A Phase Change Materials Thermal Storage for Ground-Source Heat Pumps: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Innovative Layouts

Authors: Franco Cotana, Emanuele Bonamente, Andrea Aquino


The exploitation of the low-temperature geothermal resource via ground-source heat pumps is often limited by the high investment cost mainly due to borehole drilling. From the monitoring of a prototypal system currently used by a commercial building, it was found that a simple upgrade of the conventional layout, obtained including a thermal storage between the ground-source heat exchangers and the heat pump, can optimize the ground energy exploitation requiring for shorter/fewer boreholes. For typical applications, a reduction of up to 66% with respect to the conventional layout can be easily achieved. Results from the monitoring campaign of the prototype are presented in this paper, and upgrades of the thermal storage using phase change materials (PCMs) are proposed using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The PCM thermal storage guarantees an improvement of the system coefficient of performance both for summer cooling and winter heating (up to 25%). A drastic reduction of the storage volume (approx. 1/10 of the original size) is also achieved, making it possible to easily place it within the technical room, avoiding extra costs for underground displacement. A preliminary optimization of the PCM geometry is finally proposed.

Keywords: geothermal energy, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), phase change materials (PCM), ground-source heat pumps

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4 Geothermal Energy Potential Estimates of Niger Delta Basin from Recent Studies

Authors: Olumide J. Adedapo


In this work, geothermal energy resource maps of the Niger Delta Basin were constructed using borehole thermal log data from over 300 deep wells. Three major geothermal anomalies were delineated and quantitatively interpreted in both onshore and offshore parts of the Niger Delta. The geothermal maps present the distribution of geothermal energy stored in the sedimentary rock mass in two ways: the accessible resources in depth interval 0-4000 m and static geothermal energy resources stored in the complete sedimentary infill of the basin (from the ground surface to the basement). The first map shows two major onshore anomalies, one in the north (with maximum energy values, 800 GJ/m2), another in the east to northeastern part (maximum energy values of 1250–1500 GJ/m2). Another two major anomalies occur offshore, one in the south with values of 750-1000 GJ/m2, occurring at about 100 km seawards and the other, in the southwest offshore with values 750-1250 GJ/m2, still at about 100 km from the shore. A second map of the Niger Delta shows a small anomaly in the northern part with the maximum value of 1500 GJ/m2 and a major anomaly occurring in the eastern part of the basin, onshore, with values of 2000-3500 GJ/m2. Offshore in the south and southwest anomalies in the total sedimentary rock mass occur with highest values up to 4000GJ/m2, with the southwestern anomaly extending west to the shore. It is much of interest to note the seaward–westward extension of these anomalies both in size, configuration, and magnitude for the geothermal energy in the total sedimentary thickness to the underlying basement. These anomalous fields show the most favourable locations and areas for further work on geothermal energy resources.

Keywords: geothermal energy, Offshore, Niger Delta, basin

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3 Willingness to Pay for the Preservation of Geothermal Areas in Iceland: The Contingent Valuation Studies of Eldvörp and Hverahlíð

Authors: David Cook, Brynhildur Davidsdottir, Dadi. M. Kristofersson


The approval of development projects with significant environmental impacts implies that the economic costs of the affected environmental resources must be less than the financial benefits, but such irreversible decisions are frequently made without ever attempting to estimate the monetary value of the losses. Due to this knowledge gap in the processes informing decision-making, development projects are commonly approved despite the potential for social welfare to be undermined. Heeding a repeated call by the OECD to commence economic accounting of environmental impacts as part of the cost-benefit analysis process for Icelandic energy projects, this paper sets out the results pertaining to the nation’s first two contingent valuation studies of geothermal areas likely to be developed in the near future. Interval regression using log-transformation was applied to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for the preservation of the high-temperature Eldvörp and Hverahlíð fields. The estimated mean WTP was 8,333 and 7,122 ISK for Eldvörp and Hverahlíð respectively. Scaled up to the Icelandic population of national taxpayers, this equates to estimated total economic value of 2.10 and 1.77 billion ISK respectively. These results reinforce arguments in favour of accounting for the environmental impacts of Iceland’s future geothermal power projects as a mandatory component of the exploratory and production license application process. Further research is necessary to understand the economic impacts to specific ecosystem services associated with geothermal environments, particularly connected to changes in recreational amenity. In so doing, it would be possible to gain greater comprehension of the various components of total economic value, evolving understanding of why one geothermal area – in this case, Eldvörp – has a higher preservation value than another.

Keywords: geothermal energy, Preservation, Decision-making, contingent valuation

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2 New Gas Geothermometers for the Prediction of Subsurface Geothermal Temperatures: An Optimized Application of Artificial Neural Networks and Geochemometric Analysis

Authors: Mirna Guevara, Edgar Santoyo, Daniel Perez-Zarate, Agustin Acevedo, Lorena Diaz-Gonzalez


Four new gas geothermometers have been derived from a multivariate geo chemometric analysis of a geothermal fluid chemistry database, two of which use the natural logarithm of CO₂ and H2S concentrations (mmol/mol), respectively, and the other two use the natural logarithm of the H₂S/H₂ and CO₂/H₂ ratios. As a strict compilation criterion, the database was created with gas-phase composition of fluids and bottomhole temperatures (BHTM) measured in producing wells. The calibration of the geothermometers was based on the geochemical relationship existing between the gas-phase composition of well discharges and the equilibrium temperatures measured at bottomhole conditions. Multivariate statistical analysis together with the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) was successfully applied for correlating the gas-phase compositions and the BHTM. The predicted or simulated bottomhole temperatures (BHTANN), defined as output neurons or simulation targets, were statistically compared with measured temperatures (BHTM). The coefficients of the new geothermometers were obtained from an optimized self-adjusting training algorithm applied to approximately 2,080 ANN architectures with 15,000 simulation iterations each one. The self-adjusting training algorithm used the well-known Levenberg-Marquardt model, which was used to calculate: (i) the number of neurons of the hidden layer; (ii) the training factor and the training patterns of the ANN; (iii) the linear correlation coefficient, R; (iv) the synaptic weighting coefficients; and (v) the statistical parameter, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) to evaluate the prediction performance between the BHTM and the simulated BHTANN. The prediction performance of the new gas geothermometers together with those predictions inferred from sixteen well-known gas geothermometers (previously developed) was statistically evaluated by using an external database for avoiding a bias problem. Statistical evaluation was performed through the analysis of the lowest RMSE values computed among the predictions of all the gas geothermometers. The new gas geothermometers developed in this work have been successfully used for predicting subsurface temperatures in high-temperature geothermal systems of Mexico (e.g., Los Azufres, Mich., Los Humeros, Pue., and Cerro Prieto, B.C.) as well as in a blind geothermal system (known as Acoculco, Puebla). The last results of the gas geothermometers (inferred from gas-phase compositions of soil-gas bubble emissions) compare well with the temperature measured in two wells of the blind geothermal system of Acoculco, Puebla (México). Details of this new development are outlined in the present research work. Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge the funding received from CeMIE-Geo P09 project (SENER-CONACyT).

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, geothermal energy, gas geochemistry, geochemometrics

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1 Optimization of Hydraulic Fracturing for Horizontal Wells in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs

Authors: Qudratullah Muradi


Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that can be found in abundance on our planet. Only a small fraction of it is currently converted to electrical power, though in recent years installed geothermal capacity has increased considerably all over the world. In this paper, we assumed a model for designing of Enhanced Geothermal System, EGS. We used computer modeling group, CMG reservoir simulation software to create the typical Hot Dry Rock, HDR reservoir. In this research two wells, one injection of cold water and one production of hot water are included in the model. There are some hydraulic fractures created by the mentioned software. And cold water is injected in order to produce energy from the reservoir. The result of injecting cold water to the reservoir and extracting geothermal energy is defined by some graphs at the end of this research. The production of energy is quantified in a period of 10 years.

Keywords: geothermal energy, hydraulic fracturing, HDR, EGS

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