Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Georgia Related Abstracts

19 Speech Acts and Politeness Strategies in an EFL Classroom in Georgia

Authors: Tinatin Kurdghelashvili


The paper deals with the usage of speech acts and politeness strategies in an EFL classroom in Georgia (Rep of). It explores the students’ and the teachers’ practice of the politeness strategies and the speech acts of apology, thanking, request, compliment/encouragement, command, agreeing/disagreeing, addressing and code switching. The research method includes observation as well as a questionnaire. The target group involves the students from Georgian public schools and two certified, experienced local English teachers. The analysis is based on Searle’s Speech Act Theory and Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies. The findings show that the students have certain knowledge regarding politeness yet they fail to apply them in English communication. In addition, most of the speech acts from the classroom interaction are used by the teachers and not the students. Thereby, it is suggested that teachers should cultivate the students’ communicative competence and attempt to give them opportunities to practice more English speech acts than they do today.

Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, Speech Acts, Georgia, politeness principles

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18 Thorium Resources of Georgia – Is It Its Future Energy ?

Authors: Avtandil Okrostsvaridze, Salome Gogoladze


In the light of exhaustion of hydrocarbon reserves of new energy resources, its search is of vital importance problem for the modern civilization. At the time of energy resource crisis, the radioactive element thorium (232Th) is considered as the main energy resource for the future of our civilization. Modern industry uses thorium in high-temperature and high-tech tools, but the most important property of thorium is that like uranium it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors. However, thorium has a number of advantages compared to this element: Its concentration in the earth crust is 4-5 times higher than uranium; extraction and enrichment of thorium is much cheaper than of uranium; it is less radioactive; its waste products complete destruction is possible; thorium yields much more energy than uranium. Nowadays, developed countries, among them India and China, have started intensive work for creation of thorium nuclear reactors and intensive search for thorium reserves. It is not excluded that in the next 10 years these reactors will completely replace uranium reactors. Thorium ore mineralization is genetically related to alkaline-acidic magmatism. Thorium accumulations occur as in endogen marked as in exogenous conditions. Unfortunately, little is known about the reserves of this element in Georgia, as planned prospecting-exploration works of thorium have never been carried out here. Although, 3 ore occurrences of this element are detected: 1) In the Greater Caucasus Kakheti segment, in the hydrothermally altered rocks of the Lower Jurassic clay-shales, where thorium concentrations varied between 51 - 3882g/t; 2) In the eastern periphery of the Dzirula massif, in the hydrothermally alteration rocks of the cambrian quartz-diorite gneisses, where thorium concentrations varied between 117-266 g/t; 3) In active contact zone of the Eocene volcanites and syenitic intrusive in Vakijvari ore field of the Guria region, where thorium concentrations varied between 185 – 428 g/t. In addition, geological settings of the areas, where thorium occurrences were fixed, give a theoretical basis on possible accumulation of practical importance thorium ores. Besides, the Black Sea Guria region magnetite sand which is transported from Vakijvari ore field, should contain significant reserves of thorium. As the research shows, monazite (thorium containing mineral) is involved in magnetite in the form of the thinnest inclusions. The world class thorium deposit concentrations of this element vary within the limits of 50-200 g/t. Accordingly, on the basis of these data, thorium resources found in Georgia should be considered as perspective ore deposits. Generally, we consider that complex investigation of thorium should be included into the sphere of strategic interests of the state, because future energy of Georgia, will probably be thorium.

Keywords: Future Energy, Georgia, ore field, thorium

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17 Urban and Rural Population Pyramids in Georgia Since 1950’s

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri, Avtandil Sulaberidze, Nino Gomelauri


In the years followed independence, an economic crisis and some conflicts led to the displacement of many people inside Georgia. The growing poverty, unemployment, low income and its unequal distribution limited access to basic social service have had a clear direct impact on Georgian population dynamics and its age-sex structure. Factors influencing the changing population age structure and urbanization include mortality, fertility, migration and expansion of urban. In this paper presents the main factors of changing the distribution by urban and rural areas. How different are the urban and rural age and sex structures? Does Georgia have the same age-sex structure among their urban and rural populations since 1950s?

Keywords: Migration, Georgia, age and sex structure of population, urban-rural population

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16 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri


Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: Migration, Methodology, Data Quality, Georgia

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15 The Georgians’ Discourses of National Identity in the Context of Europeanisation

Authors: Lia Tsuladze


The paper discusses the Georgians’ online discourses of national identity in the context of Europeanisation focusing on two periods - initialing of the EU-Georgia Association Agreement in November 2013 and signing it in June 2014. Discussing how the Georgians’ aspiration to integrate with the EU is combined with their perception of Europeanisation as a threat to the national identity, the author explores how the national sentiment is expressed in the above discourses while performed for the local vs. international audiences.

Keywords: National Identity, Georgia, Europeanisation, frontstage, backstage discourses

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14 Imperial/Royal Renewal in Byzantium and Medieval Georgia: Case of Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and Davit IV the Builder (r. 1089–1125)

Authors: Sandro Nikolaishvili


The end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century was a transitional period for the Byzantine empire as well as for the Caucasus. The empire was struggling for its survival under Alexios I Komnenos while Medieval Georgia was emerging as a dominant player in the Caucasus under Davit IV the Builder. The reigns of these two rulers were periods of renewal and transformation. I aim to compare the imperial image of Alexios I Komnenos with the renewed kingship ideology under Davit IV. I will hypothesize about the possible translation of the Byzantine political culture into the Medieval Georgia.

Keywords: Image, Byzantium, Georgia, imperial

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13 Music in Religion Culture of the Georgian Pentecostals

Authors: Nino Naneishvili


The study of religious minorities and their musical culture has attracted scant academic attention in Georgia. Within wider Georgian society, it would seem that the focus of discourse to date has been on the traditional orthodox religion and its musical expression, with other forms of religious expression regarded as intrinsically less valuable. The goal of this article is to study Georgia's different religious and musical picture which, this time, is presented on the example of the Pentecostals. The first signs of the Pentecostal movement originated at the end of the 19th Century in the USA, and first appeared in Georgia as early as 1914. An ethnomusicological perspective allows the use of anthropological and sociological approaches. The basic methodology is an ethnographic method. This involved attending religious services, observation, in-depth interviews and musical material analysis. This analysis, based on a combined use of various theoretical and methodological approaches, reveals that Georgian Pentecostals, apart from polyphonic singing, are characterised by “ bi-musicality.“ This phenomenon together with Georgian three part polyphony combines vocalisation within “social polyphony.“ The concept of back stage and front stage is highlighted. Chanters also try to express national identity. In some cases however it has been observed that they abandon or conceal certain musical forms of expression which are considered central to Georgian identity. The famous hymn “Thou art a Vineyard” is a case in point. The reason given for this omission within the Georgian Pentecostal church is that within Pentecostal doctrine, God alone is the object of worship. Therefore there is no veneration of Saints as representatives of the Divine. In some cases informants denied the existence of this hymn, and others explain that the meaning conveyed to the Vineyard is that of Jesus Christ and not the Virgin Mary. Others stated that they loved Virgin Mary and were therefore free to sing this song outside church circles. The results of this study illustrates that one of the religious minorities in Georgia, the Pentecostals, are characterised by a deviation in musical thinking from Homo Polyphonicus. They actively change their form of musical worship to secondary ethno hearing – bi-musicality. This outcome is determined by both new religious thinking and the process of globalization. A significant principle behind this form of worship is the use of forms during worship which are acceptable and accessible to all. This naturally leads to the development of modern forms. Obtained material does not demonstrate a connection between traditional religious music in general. Rather, it constitutes an independent domain.

Keywords: Music, Globalization, Georgia, pentecostal

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12 Small Farm Diversification Opportunities in Viticulture-Winemaking Sector of Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili


The paper analyses the role of small farms in socio-economic development of agriculture in Georgia and evaluates modern concepts regarding the development of the farms of this size. The scale of farms in Georgia is studied and the major problems are revealed. Opportunities and directions of diversification are discussed from the point of increasing the share of Georgian grapes and wine both on domestic and international markets. It’s shown that the size of vineyard areas is directly reflected on the grape and wine production potential. Accordingly, vineyard area and grape production dynamics is discussed. Comparative analysis of small farms in Georgia and Italy is made and the major differences are identified. Diversification is evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis on the one hand and on the other hand, from the point of promoting economic activities, protecting nature and rural area development. The paper provides proofs for the outcomes of diversification. The key hindering factors for the development of small farms are identified and corresponding conclusions are made, based on which recommendations for diversification of the farms of this size are developed.

Keywords: Small Farms, diversification, Georgia, scale of farms

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11 Problems concerning Legal Regulation of Electronic Governance in Georgia

Authors: Giga Phartenadze


In the legal framework of regulation of electronic governance, those norms are considered which include measures for improvement of functions of public institutions and a complex of actions for raising their standard such as websites of public institutions, online services, some forms of internet interactions and higher level of internet services. An important legal basis for electronic governance in Georgia is Georgian Law about Electronic Communications which defines legal and economic basis for utilizing electronic communication systems in Georgia. As for single electronic basis for e-governance regulation, it can be said that it does not exist at all. The official websites of public institutions do not have standards for proactive spreading of information. At the same time, there is no common legal norm which would make all public institutions have an official website for public relations, accountability, publicity, and raising information quality. Electronic governance in Georgia needs comprehensive legal regulation. Public administration in electronic form is on the initial stage of development. Currently existing legal basis has a low quality for public institutions and officials as well as citizens and business. Services of e-involvement and e-consultation have also low quality. So far there is no established legal framework for e-governance. Therefore, a single legislative system of e-governance should be created which will help develop effective, comprehensive and multi component electronic systems in the country (central, regional, local levels). Such comprehensive legal framework will provide relevant technological, institutional, and informational conditions.

Keywords: e-Government, Public Administration, Law, Georgia

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10 Cultural and Historical Roots of Plagiarism in Georgia

Authors: Lali Khurtsia, Vano Tsertsvadze


The purpose of the study was to find out incentives and expectations, methods and ways, which are influential to students during working with their thesis. Research findings shows that the use of plagiarism has cultural links deep in the history - on the one hand, the tradition of sharing knowledge in the oral manner, with its different interpretations, and on the other hand the lack of fair and honest methods in the academic process. Research results allow us to determine general ideas about preventive policy to reduce the use of plagiarism. We conducted surveys in three different groups – we interviewed so-called diploma writers, students on bachelors and masters level and the focus group of lecturers. We found that the problem with plagiarism in Georgia has cultural-mental character. We think that nearest years’ main task should be breaking of barriers existed between lecturers and students and acknowledgement of honest principals of study process among students and pupils.

Keywords: Education, Plagiarism, School, University, Georgia, study process

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9 Macroinvertebrates of Paravani and Saghamo Lakes, South Georgia

Authors: Bella Japoshvili, Zhanetta Shubitidze, Ani Bikashvili, Sophio Gabelashvili, Marina Gioshvili, Levan Mumladze


Paravani and Saghamo Lakes are oligotrophic lentic systems located in Javakheti plateau (South Georgia) at 2073 m and 1996 m a.s.l. respectively. Javakheti plateau is known as a lakes region as there are located almost 60 small and medium size lakes. Paravani Lake is the biggest lake by its surface area in Georgia, 37 km 2. The Saghamo Lake is smaller and its surface area consists 4.58 km2. These two lakes are connected with Paravani River, because of this the main hydrobiological and ichthyological features are the same. More than 15-30 years were not studied macroinvertebrates of these lakes. Even the existing information is lack and very limited. The aim of our study was to identify main macroinvertebrate groups inhabiting both lakes and to compare obtaining results to existing information. Our investigation was carried out during 2014 and 2015, in 3 seasons of the year, in winter because of severe condition samples were not taken. Kick-net and Petersen grab were used for material collecting, 4 sites from Paravani Lake and 3–from Saghamo Lake were sampled. Collected invertebrates were fixed in ethanol and late taken to the laboratory, where organisms were identified to the lowest taxon possible, usually family. By our results identified 14 taxa for Paravani Lake and 12 taxa for Saghamo Lake. Our results differ from previous information; for Saghamo Lake previously 13 taxa and for Paravani Lake 12 taxa were described. The percentage of the groups also differ from existing information. Our investigation showed that in Paravani Lake most abundant are Apmhipoda, Hydrachnidae, and Hemiptera, in our samples the number of individuals for those 3 taxa was more than thousand, in each. For Saghamo Lake numerous taxon was Amphipoda-36.3%, following by Ephemeroptera-11.37%, Chironomidae-10.5% and Hydrachnidae-7.03% respectively. We also identified the dominant taxon for all studied seasons. Autumn is the period when the diversity of macroinvertebrates are higher in both lakes.

Keywords: monitoring, Lakes, Georgia, macroinvertebrates

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8 Assessment of Rainfall Erosivity, Comparison among Methods: Case of Kakheti, Georgia

Authors: Mariam Tsitsagi, Ana Berdzenishvili


Rainfall intensity change is one of the main indicators of climate change. It has a great influence on agriculture as one of the main factors causing soil erosion. Splash and sheet erosion are one of the most prevalence and harmful for agriculture. It is invisible for an eye at first stage, but the process will gradually move to stream cutting erosion. Our study provides the assessment of rainfall erosivity potential with the use of modern research methods in Kakheti region. The region is the major provider of wheat and wine in the country. Kakheti is located in the eastern part of Georgia and characterized quite a variety of natural conditions. The climate is dry subtropical. For assessment of the exact rate of rainfall erosion potential several year data of rainfall with short intervals are needed. Unfortunately, from 250 active metro stations running during the Soviet period only 55 of them are active now and 5 stations in Kakheti region respectively. Since 1936 we had data on rainfall intensity in this region, and rainfall erosive potential is assessed, in some old papers, but since 1990 we have no data about this factor, which in turn is a necessary parameter for determining the rainfall erosivity potential. On the other hand, researchers and local communities suppose that rainfall intensity has been changing and the number of haily days has also been increasing. However, finding a method that will allow us to determine rainfall erosivity potential as accurate as possible in Kakheti region is very important. The study period was divided into three sections: 1936-1963; 1963-1990 and 1990-2015. Rainfall erosivity potential was determined by the scientific literature and old meteorological stations’ data for the first two periods. And it is known that in eastern Georgia, at the boundary between steppe and forest zones, rainfall erosivity in 1963-1990 was 20-75% higher than that in 1936-1963. As for the third period (1990-2015), for which we do not have data of rainfall intensity. There are a variety of studies, where alternative ways of calculating the rainfall erosivity potential based on lack of data are discussed e.g.based on daily rainfall data, average annual rainfall data and the elevation of the area, etc. It should be noted that these methods give us a totally different results in case of different climatic conditions and sometimes huge errors in some cases. Three of the most common methods were selected for our research. Each of them was tested for the first two sections of the study period. According to the outcomes more suitable method for regional climatic conditions was selected, and after that, we determined rainfall erosivity potential for the third section of our study period with use of the most successful method. Outcome data like attribute tables and graphs was specially linked to the database of Kakheti, and appropriate thematic maps were created. The results allowed us to analyze the rainfall erosivity potential changes from 1936 to the present and make the future prospect. We have successfully implemented a method which can also be use for some another region of Georgia.

Keywords: GIS, Rainfall, Georgia, erosivity potential, Kakheti

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7 Petrology of the Post-Collisional Dolerites, Basalts from the Javakheti Highland, South Georgia

Authors: Bezhan Tutberidze


The Neogene-Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Javakheti Highland are products of post-collisional continental magmatism and are related to divergent and convergent margins of Eurasian-Afroarabian lithospheric plates. The studied area constitutes an integral part of the volcanic province of Central South Georgia. Three cycles of volcanic activity are identified here: 1. Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, 2. Late Pliocene-Early /Middle/ Pleistocene and 3. Late Pleistocene. An intense basic dolerite magmatic activity occurred within the time span of the Late Pliocene and lasted until at least Late /Middle/ Pleistocene. The age of the volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary formation was dated by geomorphological, paleomagnetic, paleontological and geochronological methods /1.7-1.9 Ma/. The volcanic area of the Javakheti Highland contains multiple dolerite Plateaus: Akhalkalaki, Gomarethi, Dmanisi, and Tsalka. Petrographic observations of these doleritic rocks reveal fairly constant mineralogical composition: olivine / Fo₈₇.₆₋₈₂.₇ /, plagioclase / Ab₂₂.₈ An₇₅.₉ Or₁.₃; Ab₄₅.₀₋₃₂.₃ An₅₂.₉₋₆₂.₃ Or₂.₁₋₅.₄/. The pyroxene is an augite and may exhibit a visible zoning: / Wo 39.7-43.1 En 43.5-45.2 Fs 16.8-11.7/. Opaque minerals /magnetite, titanomagnetite/ is abundant as inclusions within olivine and pyroxene crystals. The texture of dolerites exhibits intergranular, holocrystalline to ophitic to sub ophitic granular. Dolerites are most common vesicular rocks. Vesicles range in shape from spherical to elongated and in size from 0.5 mm to than 1.5-2 cm and makeup about 20-50 % of the volume. The dolerites have been subjected to considerable alteration. The secondary minerals in the geothermal field are: zeolite, calcite, chlorite, aragonite, clay-like mineral /dominated by smectites/ and iddingsite –like mineral; rare quartz and pumpellyite are present. These vesicles are filled by secondary minerals. In the chemistry, dolerites are the calc-alkalic transition to sub-alkaline with a predominance of Na₂O over K₂O. Chemical analyses indicate that dolerites of all plateaus of the Javakheti Highland have similar geochemical compositions, signifying that they were formed from the same magmatic source by crystallization of olivine basalis magma which less differentiated / ⁸⁷Sr \ ⁸⁶Sr 0.703920-0704195/. There is one argument, which is less convincing, according to which the dolerites/basalts of the Javakheti Highland are considered to be an activity of a mantle plume. Unfortunately, there does not exist reliable evidence to prove this. The petrochemical peculiarities and eruption nature of the dolerites of the Javakheti Plateau point against their plume origin. Nevertheless, it is not excluded that they influence the formation of dolerite producing primary basaltic magma.

Keywords: Georgia, dolerite, calc-alkalic, Javakheti Highland

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6 Territorial Disputes behind the Declaration of Independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Some Latin American States

Authors: Besik Goginava


Several days later after the end of 2008 Russo-Georgian War, Venezuela and Nicaragua formally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In 2009-10 both countries established diplomatic relations with self-declared republics. It is a paradoxical fact that after neighboring Russia-Georgian conflict territories were internationally recognized by two Latin American states with ongoing territorial disputes. The Venezuela-Guyana territorial dispute which officially began in the early XIX century became conflict-ridden again in the late 1990s and 2000s. Venezuela has long claimed the land which comprises 40% of Guyana’s current territory. Territorial disputes of Nicaragua include dispute with Colombia over Caribbean Islands, with Costa Rica over the San Juan River and maritime dispute with Honduras. Based on historical and analytical research methods the purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Venezuela and Nicaragua and Venezuela’s territorial dispute with Guyana, as well as Nicaragua’s with Colombia, Costa Rica and Honduras. The objective of the study is to investigate the factors that led Venezuela and Nicaragua to formally recognize Georgian conflict territories and how could their own territorial disputes affect on their decision.

Keywords: Latin America, Georgia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Abkhazia, South Ossetia

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5 Islam, Gender and Education in Contemporary Georgia: The Example of Kvemo Kartli

Authors: N. Gelovani, D. Ismailov, S. Bochorishvili


Religious minorities of Georgia include Muslims. Their composition is sufficiently miscellaneous, enclosing both ethnical viewpoint and belonging to the inner Islamic denomination. A majority of Muslims represent Azerbaijanis, who chiefly live in Kvemo Kartli (Bolnisi, Gardabani, Dmanisi, Tetri Tskaro, Marneuli and Tsalka). The catalyst for researchers of Islamic History is the geopolitical interests of Georgia, centuries-old contacts with the Islamic world, the not entirely trivial portion of Islam confessor population, the increasing influence of the Islamic factor in current religious-political processes in the world, the elevating procedure of Muslim religious self-consciousness in the Post-Soviet states, significant challenges of international terrorism, and perspectives of rapid globalization. The rise in the level of religious identity of Muslim citizens of Georgia (first of all of those who are not ethnic Georgians) is noticeable. New mosques have been constructed and, sometimes, even young people are being sent to the religious educational institutions of Muslim countries to gain a higher Islamic education. At a time when gender studies are substantive, the goal of which is to eliminate gender-based discrimination and violence in societies, it is essential in Georgia to conduct researches around the concrete problem – Islamic tradition, woman and education in Georgia. A woman’s right to education is an important indicator of women’s general status in a society. The appropriate resources, innovative analysis of Georgian ethnological materials, and surveying of the population (quantitative and qualitative research reports, working papers), condition the success of these researches. In the presented work, interrelation matters of Islam, gender and education in contemporary Georgia by the example of the Azerbaijani population in Kvemo Kartli during period 1992-2016 are studied. We researched the history of Muslim religious education centers in Tbilisi and Kvemo Kartli (Bolnisi, Gardabani, Dmanisi, Tetri Tskaro, Marneuli and Tsalka) in 1992-2016, on the one hand, and the results of sociological interrogation, on the other. As a result of our investigation, we found that Azeri women in the Kvemo Kartli (Georgia) region mostly receive their education in Georgia and Azerbaijan. Educational and Cultural Institutions are inaccessible for most Azeri women. The main reasons are the absence of educational and religious institutions at their places of residence and state policies towards Georgia’s Muslims. 

Keywords: Education, Gender, Islam, Georgia

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4 Investment Development Path and Motivations for Foreign Direct Investment in Georgia

Authors: Vakhtang Charaia, Mariam Lashkhi


Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays a vital role in global business. It provides firms with new markets and advertising channels, cheaper production facilities, admission to new technology, products, skills and financing. FDI can provide a recipient country/company with a source of new technologies, capital, practice, products, management skills, and as such can be a powerful drive for economic development. It is one of the key elements of stable economic development in many countries, especially in developing ones. Therefore the size of FDI inflow is one of the most crustal factors for economic perfection in small economy countries (like, Georgia), while most of developed ones are net exporters of FDI. Since, FDI provides firms with new markets; admission to new technologies, products and management skills; marketing channels; cheaper production facilities, and financing opportunities. It plays a significant role in Georgian economic development. Increasing FDI inflows from all over the world to Georgia in last decade was achieved with the outstanding reforms managed by the Georgian government. However, such important phenomenon as world financial crisis and Georgian-Russian war put its consequence on the over amount of FDI inflow in Georgia in the last years. It is important to mention that the biggest investor region for Georgia is EU, which is interested in Georgia not only from the economic points of view but from political. The case studies from main EU investor countries show that Georgia has a big potential of investment in different areas, such as; financial sector, energy, construction, tourism industry, transport and communications. Moreover, signing of Association Agreement between Georgia and EU will further boost all the fields of economy in Georgia in both short and long terms. It will attract more investments from different countries and especially from EU. The last, but not least important issue is the calculation of annual FDI inflow to Georgia, which it is calculated differently by different organizations, based on different methodologies, but what is more important is that all of them show significant increase of FDI in last decade, which gives a positive signal to investors and underlines necessity of further improvement of investment climate in the same direction.

Keywords: Georgia, foreign direct investment (FDI), investment development path, investment climate

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3 Retrospective Analysis of the Damage of Agricultural Crops from Hail in Eastern Georgia

Authors: Valerian Omsarashvili, Nino Jamrishvili


Georgia is one of the hail-dangerous countries of world. The work on action on hail processes in Georgia was conducted in 1960-1989 (East Georgia) over the total area of approximately 1.2 million hectares with average positive economic effect near 75 %. In 2015 in East Georgia, the anti-hail service was restored. Therefore, for the estimation of the effectiveness of action on the hail processes at present, arose the need for the detailed analysis of damage from the hail in the past. The work presents the analysis of the data about the number of days with the hail, the areas of damage of agricultural crops (general and to 100 %), and also the economic damage from the hail, of the caused loss to agricultural crops on the territories land of 123 separate populated areas of into 1982 and 1984-1989. In particular, on the average to one populated area, the total area of agricultural crops damaged from the hail was approximately 140 hectares, to 100% damage - 60 hectares, economic damage - 120 thousand US dollars. The corresponding maps of the distribution of the damaged areas on the investigated territory with the use of GIS-technologies are obtained.

Keywords: Georgia, hail, damage to agricultural crops, economic damage

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2 The Cartometric-Geographical Analysis of Ivane Javakhishvili 1922: The Map of the Republic of Georgia

Authors: Manana Kvetenadze, Dali Nikolaishvili


The study revealed the territorial changes of Georgia before the Soviet and Post-Soviet periods. This includes the estimation of the country's borders, its administrative-territorial arrangement change as well as the establishment of territorial losses. Georgia’s old and new borders marked on the map are of great interest. The new boundary shows the condition of 1922 year, following the Soviet period. Neither on this map nor in other works Ivane Javakhishvili talks about what he implies in the old borders, though it is evident that this is the Pre-Soviet boundary until 1921 – i.e., before the period when historical Tao, Zaqatala, Lore, Karaia represented the parts of Georgia. According to cartometric-geographical terms, the work presents detailed analysis of Georgia’s borders, along with this the comparison of research results has been carried out: 1) At the boundary line on Soviet topographic maps, the maps of 100,000; 50,000 and 25,000 scales are used; 2) According to Ivane Javakhishvili’s work ('The borders of Georgia in terms of historical and contemporary issues'). During that research, we used multi-disciplined methodology and software. We used Arc GIS for Georeferencing maps, and after that, we compare all post-Soviet Union maps, in order to determine how the borders have changed. During this work, we also use many historical data. The features of the spatial distribution of the territorial administrative units of Georgia, as well as the distribution of administrative-territorial units of the objects depicted on the map, have been established. The results obtained are presented in the forms of thematic maps and diagrams.

Keywords: GIS, Georgia, border, old maps, historical cartography

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1 An Overview of Georgia’s Economic Growth Since 2012: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities for Future Development

Authors: V. Benidze


After the Rose Revolution of 2003, Georgia has achieved an unparalleled socioeconomic success. However, economic growth since 2012 has been sluggish and certainly not enough to rapidly improve the county’s standard of living that still remains substantially low compared to that in developed nations. Recent poor economic performance has shown that some key challenges need to be addressed if Georgia is to achieve high future economic growth that will decrease the poverty rate and create a middle class in the country. This paper offers in detail analysis of the economic performance of Georgia since 2012 and identifies key challenges facing the country’s economy. The main challenge going forward will be transforming Georgia from a consumption-driven to a production-oriented economy. It is identified that mobilizing domestic investment through savings, attracting foreign investment in tradable sectors and expanding the country’s export base will be crucial in the facilitation of the above-mentioned structural transformation. As the outcome of the research, the paper suggests a strategy for accelerating Georgia’ future economic growth and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.

Keywords: Development, Challenges, Economic Policy, Economic growth, Georgia

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