Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Geopolymer Related Abstracts

29 Effects of Elevated Temperatures on the Pumice Based Geoplymer Microstructure

Authors: Mehrzad Mohabbi Yadollahi, Pouneh Abdollahifard, Behzad Mokhtare, Majid Atashafrazeh

Abstract:

Geopolymers are believed to provide good fire resistance. The effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical and microstructural properties of pumice-based geopolymer were investigated in this study. Pumice based geopolymer was exposed to elevated temperatures of 200, 400, 600, and 800 ºC for 3 hours. The residual strength of these specimens was determined after cooling at room temperature and microstructures of these samples were investigated by FTIR and SEM analyses. Specimens which were initially grey turned reddish accompanied by the appearance of cracks as temperatures increased to 600 and 800 ºC.

Keywords: Geopolymer, SEM, FTIR, pumice, elevated temperature

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28 Prediction of Compressive Strength in Geopolymer Composites by Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: Mehrzad Mohabbi Yadollahi, Majid Atashafrazeh, Ramazan Demirboğa

Abstract:

Geopolymers are highly complex materials which involve many variables which makes modeling its properties very difficult. There is no systematic approach in mix design for Geopolymers. Since the amounts of silica modulus, Na2O content, w/b ratios and curing time have a great influence on the compressive strength an ANFIS (Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) method has been established for predicting compressive strength of ground pumice based Geopolymers and the possibilities of ANFIS for predicting the compressive strength has been studied. Consequently, ANFIS can be used for geopolymer compressive strength prediction with acceptable accuracy.

Keywords: Geopolymer, compressive strength, ANFIS, mix design

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27 High Performance Fibre Reinforced Alkali Activated Slag Concrete

Authors: K. Srinivasan, A. Sivakumar

Abstract:

The main objective of the study is focused in producing slag based geopolymer concrete obtained with the addition of alkali activator. Test results indicated that the reaction of silicates in slag is based on the reaction potential of sodium hydroxide and the formation of alumino-silicates. The study also comprises on the evaluation of the efficiency of polymer reaction in terms of the strength gain properties for different geopolymer mixtures. Geopolymer mixture proportions were designed for different binder to total aggregate ratio (0.3 & 0.45) and fine to coarse aggregate ratio (0.4 & 0.8). Geopolymer concrete specimens casted with normal curing conditions reported a maximum 28 days compressive strength of 54.75 MPa. The addition of glued steel fibres at 1.0% Vf in geopolymer concrete showed reasonable improvements on the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural properties of different geopolymer mixtures. Further, comparative assessment was made for different geopolymer mixtures and the reinforcing effects of steel fibres were investigated in different concrete matrix.

Keywords: slag, Accelerators, Geopolymer, steam curing, alkali activators, hot air oven curing, polypropylene fibres, steel fibres

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26 Mechanical and Micro-Structural Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer with High-Temperature Exposure

Authors: Young-Cheol Choi, Joo-Hyung Kim, Gyu-Don Moon

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effect of Na2O (alkali) content, SiO2/Na2O mole ratio, and elevated temperature on the mechanical performance of fly-ash-based inorganic green geopolymer composites. Fly-ash-based geopolymers, which were manufactured with varying alkali contents (4–8 % of fly ash weight) and SiO2/Na2O mole ratios (0.6–1.4), were subjected to elevated temperatures up to 900 ºC ; the geopolymer composites and their performance were evaluated on the basis of weight loss and strength loss after temperature exposure. In addition, mineralogical changes due to the elevated temperature exposure were studied using x-ray diffraction. Investigations of microstructures and microprobe analysis were performed using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results showed that the fly-ash-based geopolymer responded significantly to high-temperature conditions.

Keywords: fly ash, Geopolymer, High-temperature, micro-structure, mechanical structural

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25 Effect of Glass Powder and GGBS on Strength of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: I. Ramesha Mithanthaya, N. Bhavanishankar Rao

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of glass powder (GP) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) on the compressive strength of Fly ash based geopolymer concrete has been investigated. The mass ratio of fine aggregate (fA) to coarse aggregate (CA) was maintained constant. NAOH flakes dissolved in water was used as activating liquid and mixed with fly ash (FA) to produce geopolymer paste or cementing material. This paste was added to mixture of CA and fA to obtain geopolymer concrete. Cube samples were prepared from this concrete. The ranges of investigation parameters include GP/FA from 0% to 20%, and GGBS/ FA from 0% to 20% with constant amount of GP. All the samples were air cured inside laboratory under room temperature. Compressive strength of cube samples after 7 days and 28 days curing were determined. The test results are presented and discussed. Based on the results of limited tests a suitable composition of FA, GP and GGBS for constant quantity of CA and fA has been obtained to produce geopolymer concrete of M32. It is found that geopolymer concrete is 14% cheaper than concrete of same strength using OPC. The strength gain in the case of geo-polymer concrete is rather slow compared to that of Portland cement concrete. Tensile strength of this concrete was also determined by conducting flexure test on beam prepared using this concrete. During curing, up to 7days, greyish-white powder used to come out from all the surfaces of sample and it was found to be a mixture of Carbonates and Sulphides of Na, Mg and Fe. Detailed investigation is necessary to arrive at an optimum mixture composition for producing Geo-polymer concrete of required strength. Effect of greyish-white powder on the strength and durability of the concrete is to be studied.

Keywords: Geopolymer, Industrial Waste, Eco-Friendly Material, green material, cost effective material

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24 Effect of Crashed Stone on Properties of Fly Ash Based-Geopolymer Concrete with Local Alkaline Activator in Egypt

Authors: O. M. Omar, A. M. Heniegal, G. D. Abd Elhameed, H. A. Mohamadien

Abstract:

Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, efforts are needed to develop environmentally friendly construction materials. Using of fly ash based geopolymer as an alternative binder can help reduce CO2 emission of concrete. The binder of geopolymer concrete is different from the ordinary Portland cement concrete. Geopolymer Concrete specimens were prepared with different concentration of NaOH solution M10, M14, and, M16 and cured at 60 ºC in duration of 24 hours and 8 hours, in addition to the curing in direct sunlight. Thus, it is necessary to study the effects of the geopolymer binder on the behavior of concrete. Concrete is made by using geopolymer technology is environmental friendly and could be considered as part of the sustainable development. In this study the Local Alkaline Activator in Egypt and dolomite as coarse aggregate in fly ash based-geopolymer concrete was investigated. This paper illustrates the development of mechanical properties. Since the gained compressive strength for geopolymer concrete at 28 days was in the range of 22.5MPa – 43.9MPa.

Keywords: Geopolymer, sodium silicate, molarity, sodium hydroxide

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23 Effect of Local Steel Slag as a Coarse Aggregate in the Properties of Fly Ash Based-Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: O. M. Omar, A. M. Heniegal, G. D. Abd Elhameed, H. A. Mohamadien

Abstract:

Local steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. Using local steel slag waste as a hundred substitute of crushed stone in construction materials would resolve the environmental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of dolomite. This paper reports the experimental study to investigate the influence of a hundred replacement of dolomite as a coarse aggregate with local steel slag, on the fresh and hardened geopolymer concrete properties. The investigation includes traditional testing of hardening concrete, for selected mixes of cement and geopolymer concrete. It was found that local steel slag as a coarse aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh state of cement and geopolymer concretes. Nevertheless the unit weight of concretes was affected. Meanwhile, the good performance was observed when fly ash used as geopolymer concrete based.

Keywords: Geopolymer, steel slag, sodium silicate, molarity, sodium hydroxide

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22 Utilization of Nanoclay to Reinforce Flax Fabric-Geopolymer Composites

Authors: F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low, H. S. Assaedi

Abstract:

Geopolymer composites reinforced with flax fabrics and nano-clay are fabricated and studied for physical and mechanical properties using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Nanoclay platelets at a weight of 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% were added to geopolymer pastes. Nanoclay at 2.0 wt.% was found to improve density and decrease porosity while improving flexural strength and post-peak toughness. A microstructural analysis indicated that nanoclay behaves as filler and as an activator supporting geopolymeric reaction while producing a higher content geopolymer gel improving the microstructure of binders. The process enhances adhesion between the geopolymer matrix and flax fibres.

Keywords: Geopolymer, Mechanical Properties, nanoclay, flax fibres

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21 Characteristics of Nanosilica-Geopolymer Nanocomposites and Mixing Effect

Authors: H. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low

Abstract:

This paper presents the effects of mixing procedures on mechanical properties of flyash-based geopolymer matrices containing nanosilica (NS) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by wt.. Comparison is made with conventional mechanical dry-mixing of NS with flyash and wet-mixing of NS in alkaline solutions. Physical and mechanical properties are investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results show that generally the addition of NS particles enhanced the microstructure and improved flexural and compressive strengths of geopolymer nanocomposites. However, samples prepared using dry-mixing approach demonstrate better physical and mechanical properties than wet-mixing of NS.

Keywords: Physical Properties, Geopolymer, Mechanical Properties, nano-silica, dry mixing, wet mixing

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20 Mechanical Properties of Waste Clay Brick Based Geopolymer Cured at Various Temperature

Authors: Shihab Ibrahim

Abstract:

Geopolymer binders as an alternative binder system to ordinary Portland cement are the focus of the past 2 decades of researches. In order to eliminate CO2 emission by cement manufacturing and utilizing construction waste as a source material, clean waste clay bricks which are the waste from Levent Brick factory was activated with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide solution was used and the ratio of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide was 2.5. Alkaline solution to clay brick powder ratio of 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, and 0.5 was studied. Alkaline solution to powder ratio of 0.4 was found to be optimum ratio to have the same workability as ordinary Portland cement paste. Compressive strength of the clay brick based geopolymer paste samples was evaluated under different curing temperatures and curing durations. One day compressive strength of 57.3 MPa after curing at 85C for 24 hours was obtained which was higher than 7 days compressive strength of ordinary Portland cement paste. The highest compressive strength 71.4 MPa was achieved at seventh day age for the geopolymer paste samples cured at 85C for 24 hours. It was found that 8 hour curing at elevated temperature 85C, is sufficient to get 96% of total strength. 37.4 MPa strength at seventh day of clay brick based geopolymer sample cured at room temperature was achieved. Water absorption around 10% was found for clay brick based geopolymer samples cured at different temperatures with compare to 9.14% water absorption of ordinary Portland cement paste. The clay brick based geopolymer binder can have the potentiality to be used as an alternative binder to Portland cement in a case that the heat treatment provided. Further studies are needed in order to produce the binder in a way that can harden and gain strength without any elevated curing.

Keywords: Geopolymer, compressive strength, Construction and demolition waste, clay brick

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19 Effect of Alkaline Activator, Water, Superplasticiser and Slag Contents on the Compressive Strength and Workability of Slag-Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar Cured under Ambient Temperature

Authors: A. Cundy, A. Lampropoulos, M. Al-Majidi

Abstract:

Geopolymer (cement-free) concrete is the most promising green alternative to ordinary Portland cement concrete and other cementitious materials. While a range of different geopolymer concretes have been produced, a common feature of these concretes is heat curing treatment which is essential in order to provide sufficient mechanical properties in the early age. However, there are several practical issues with the application of heat curing in large-scale structures. The purpose of this study is to develop cement-free concrete without heat curing treatment. Experimental investigations were carried out in two phases. In the first phase (Phase A), the optimum content of water, polycarboxylate based superplasticizer contents and potassium silicate activator in the mix was determined. In the second stage (Phase B), the effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) incorporation on the compressive strength of fly ash (FA) and Slag based geopolymer mixtures was evaluated. Setting time and workability were also conducted alongside with compressive tests. The results showed that as the slag content was increased the setting time was reduced while the compressive strength was improved. The obtained compressive strength was in the range of 40-50 MPa for 50% slag replacement mixtures. Furthermore, the results indicated that increment of water and superplasticizer content resulted to retarding of the setting time and slight reduction of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the examined mixes was considerably increased as potassium silicate content was increased.

Keywords: slag, fly ash, Geopolymer, potassium silicate

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18 Long-Term Mechanical and Structural Properties of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers

Authors: Lenka Matulova

Abstract:

Geopolymers are alumosilicate materials that have long been studied. Despite this fact, little is known about the long-term stability of geopolymer mechanical and structural properties, so crucial for their successful industrial application. To improve understanding, we investigated the effect of four different types of environments on the mechanical and structural properties of a metakaolin-based geopolymer (MK GP). The MK GP samples were stored in laboratory conditions (control samples), in water at 20 °C, in water at 80 °C, and outside exposed to the weather. Compressive and tensile strengths were measured after 28, 56, 90, and 360 days. In parallel, structural properties were analyzed using XRD, SEM, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Whereas the mechanical properties of the samples in laboratory conditions and in 20 °C water were stable, the mechanical properties of the outdoor samples and the samples 80 °C water decreased noticeably after 360 days. Structural analyses were focused on changes in sample microstructure (developing microcrack network, porosity) and identifying zeolites, the presence of which would indicate detrimental processes in the structure that can change it from amorphous to crystalline. No zeolites were found during the 360-day period in MK GP samples, but the reduction in mechanical properties coincided with a developing network of microcracks and changes in pore size distribution.

Keywords: Geopolymer, Mechanical Properties, metakaolin, structural properties, long-term properties

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17 Utilization of Aluminium Dross as a Main Raw Material for Synthesize the Geopolymers via Mechanochemistry Method

Authors: Pimchanok Puksisuwan, Pitak Laorattanakul, Benya Cherdhirunkorn

Abstract:

The use of aluminium dross as a raw material for geopolymer synthesis via mechanochemistry method was studied. The geopolymers were prepared using aluminium dross from secondary aluminium industry, fly ash from a biomass power plant and liquid alkaline activators, which is a mixture of sodium silicate solution (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) (Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1). Aluminium dross consists mostly of alumina (Al2O3), silicon oxide (SiO2) and aluminium nitride (AlN). The raw materials were mixed and milled using the high energy ball milling method for 5, 10 and 15 minutes in order to reduce the particle size. The milled powders were uniaxially pressed into a cylinder die with the pressure of 2200 psi. The cylinder samples were cured in the sealed plastic bags for 3, 7 and 14 days at the room temperature and 60°C for 24 hour. The mechanical property of geopolymers was investigated. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out in order to study the microstructure and phase structures of the geopolymers, respectively. The results showed that aluminium dross could enhance the mechanical property of geopolymers product by mechanochemistry method and meet the TISI requirements.

Keywords: fly ash, mechanochemistry, Geopolymer, aluminium dross

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16 Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures

Authors: Olesia Mikhailova, Pavel Rovnanik

Abstract:

In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.

Keywords: Microstructure, Geopolymer, Mechanical Properties, porosity, metakaolin, polymer admixtures

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15 Characterization and Evaluation of LD Slag and Fly Ash Mixture for Their Possible Utilization in Different Sectors

Authors: Jagdeep Nayak, Biswajit Paul, Anup Gupta

Abstract:

Characterization of coal refuses to fly ash, and steel slag from steel industries have been performed to develop a mixture of both these materials to enhance strength properties of their utilization in other sectors like mine fill, construction work, etc. A large amount of Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag and fly ash waste are generated from steel and thermal power industries respectively. Management of these wastes is problematic, and their reutilization may provide a sustainable waste management option. LD slag and fly ash mixed in different proportions were tested to analyse the micro structural improvement and hardening rate of the matrix. Mixing of activators such as sodium hydroxide and potassium silicate with silica-alumina of LD slag-fly ash mixture, geopolymeric structure were found to be developed. The effect of geo-polymerization behaviour and subsequent structural rearrangement has been studied using compressibility; shear strength and permeability tests followed by micro-graphical analysis. Densification in the mixture was observed along with an improvement of geotechnical properties due to the addition of LD slag. Due to suitable strength characteristics of these two waste materials as mixture, it can be used in the various construction field or may be used as a filling material in mine voids.

Keywords: Geopolymer, compressibility, LD slag, fly-ash, strength property

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14 Properties of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Based Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Niragi Dave, Ruchika Lalit

Abstract:

Concrete is one of the most widely used materials across the globe mostly second to water and generating high carbon dioxide emission during its whole manufacturing due to the presence of cement as an ingredient. Therefore it is necessary to find an alternative material to the Portland cement. This study focused on the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as geopolymer binder. Geopolymer concrete can be an alternative material which is produced by the chemical reaction of inorganic molecules. On the other hand, waste generating from power plants and other industries like iron and steel industries can be effectively used which has disposal problems. Therefore in this study geopolymer concrete is manufactured by 100% replacement of cement content by ground granulated blast furnace slag and a combination of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide is used as an alkaline solution. The results have shown that the compressive strengths increased with increasing curing time and type of alkali activators. Naphthalene sulfonate-based superplasticizer performed better than other superplasticizers. All the specimens have been cast at ambient temperature.

Keywords: Concrete, Geopolymer, alkali activators, ground granulated blast furnace slag

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13 Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activation of fly ash (FA) to use in deep soil mixing (DSM) technology. The content of FA was 20% by dry mass of soil, and the alkaline activator was sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Samples were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days to evaluate the effect of curing time on strength development. To study the effect of adding slag (S) to the mixture on the strength development, 5% S was replaced with FA. In addition, the effect of the initial unit weight of samples on strength development was studied by preparing specimens with two different static compaction stresses. This was to replicate the field conditions where during implementing the DSM technique, the pressure on the soil while being mixed, increases with depth. Unconfined compression strength (UCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tests were conducted on the specimens. The results show that adding S to the FA based geopolymer activated by Na2SiO3 decreases the strength. Furthermore, samples prepared at a higher unit weight demonstrate greater strengths. Moreover, samples prepared at lower unit weight reached their final strength at about 14 days of curing, whereas the strength development continues to 56 days for specimens prepared at a higher unit weight.

Keywords: slag, fly ash, Geopolymer, alkaline activation, curing time

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12 Investigating the Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Concrete Containing Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

Authors: Vinh Duy Cao, Anna M. Szczotok, Anna-Lena Kjøniksen, Shima Pilehvar

Abstract:

Micro encapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) may be utilized to increase the energy efficiency of buildings by the addition of MPCM to concrete structures. However, addition of MPCM to Portland cement concrete is known to reduce the compressive strength of the concrete. Accordingly, it is interesting to also examine the effect of adding MPCM to geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer binder is synthesized by mixing aluminosilicate materials in amorphous form with a strong alkali activator, and have a much lower CO2 footprint than Portland cement concrete. In this study, the mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete with different types and contents of MPCM were investigated at different curing temperatures. The aim was to find the optimum amount of MPCM which still maintain the workability and compressive strength at an acceptable level. The results revealed that both workability and compressive strength of geopolymer concrete decrease after adding MPCM. Also, the percentage of strength reduction can be variable by different types of MPCM.

Keywords: Concrete, Geopolymer, compressive strength, curing, micro-encapsulated PCM

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11 A Study on Marble Based Geopolymer Mortar / Concrete

Authors: Wei-Hao Lee, Ta-Wui Cheng, Yung-Chin Ding, Tai-Tien Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is trying to use marble wastes as the raw material to fabricate geopolymer green mortar / concrete. Experiment results show that using marble to make geopolymer mortar and concrete, the compressive strength after 28 days curing can reach 35 MPa and 25 MPa, respectively. The characteristics of marble-based geopolymer green mortar and concrete will keep testing for a long term in order to understand the effect parameters. The study is based on resource recovery and recycling. Its basic characteristics are low consumption, low carbon dioxide emission and high efficiency that meet the international tendency 'Circular Economy.' By comparing with Portland cement mortar and concrete, production 1 ton of marble-based geopolymer mortar and concrete, they can be saved around 50.3% and 49.6% carbon dioxide emission, respectively. Production 1 m3 of marble-based geopolymer concrete costs about 62 USD that cheaper than that of traditional Portland concrete. It is proved that the marble-based geopolymer concrete has great potential for further engineering development.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, Geopolymer, CO2 emission, marble

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10 Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.

Keywords: slag, fly ash, Geopolymer, strength development, alkaline activation

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9 Influence of Variable Calcium Content on Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Synthesized at Different Temperature and Moisture Conditions

Authors: Suraj D. Khadka, Priyantha W. Jayawickrama

Abstract:

In search of a sustainable construction material, geopolymer has been investigated for past decades to evaluate its advantage over conventional products. Synthesis of geopolymer requires a source of aluminosilicate mixed with sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate at different proportions to maintain a Si/Al molar ratio of 1-3 and Na/Al molar ratio of unity. A comprehensive geopolymer study was performed with Metakaolin and Class C Fly ash as primary aluminosilicate sources. Synthesized geopolymer was analyzed for time-dependent viscosity, setting period and strength at varying initial moisture content, curing temperature and humidity. Different concentration of Ca(OH)₂ and CaSO₄.2H₂O were added to vary the amount of calcium contained in synthesized geopolymer. Influence of calcium content in unconfined compressive strength behavior of geopolymer were analyzed. Finally, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was performed to investigate the hardened product. It was observed that fly ash based geopolymer had shortened setting time and faster increase in viscosity as compared to geopolymer synthesized from metakaolin. This was primarily attributed to higher calcium content resulting in formation of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH). SEM-EDS was performed to verify the presence of CSH phases. Spectral analysis of geopolymer prepared by addition of Ca(OH)₂ and CaSO₄.2H₂O indicated higher CSH phases at higher concentration. It was observed that lower concentration of added calcium favored strength gain in geopolymer. However, at higher calcium concentration, decrease in strength was observed. Strength variation was also observed with humidity at initial curing condition. At 100% humidity, geopolymer with added calcium presented higher strength compared to samples cured at ambient humidity condition (40%). Reduction in strength in these samples at lower humidity was primarily attributed to reduction in moisture content in specimen due to the formation of CSH phases and loss of moisture through evaporation. For low calcium content geopolymers, with increase in temperature, gain in strength was observed with maximum strength observed at 200 ˚C. However, samples with higher calcium content demonstrated severe cracking resulting in low strength at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: Geopolymer, unconfined compressive strength, humidity, calcium silicate hydrates, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

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8 A Study on the Stabilization of the Swell Behavior of Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag by Using Geopolymer Technology

Authors: K. Y. Lin, W. H. Lee, T. W. Cheng, S. W. Huang

Abstract:

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Slag is a by-product of iron making. It has great engineering properties, such as, high hardness and density, high compressive strength, low abrasion ratio, and can replace natural aggregate for building materials. However, the main problem for BOF slag is expansion, due to it contains free lime or free magnesium. The purpose of this study was to stabilize the BOF slag by using geopolymeric technology, hoping can prevent BOF slag expansion. Geopolymer processes contain a large amount of free silicon. These free silicon can react with free-lime or free magnesium oxide in BOF slag, and thus to form stable compound, therefore inhibit the expansion of the BOF slag. In this study for the successful preparation of geopolymer mortar with BOF slag, and their main properties are analyzed with regard to their use as building materials. Autoclave is used to study the volume stability of these geopolymer mortar. Finally, the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar with BOF slag can be reached 33MPa in 28 days. After autoclave testing, the volume expansion does not exceed 0.2%. Even after the autoclave test, the compressive strength can increase to 35MPa. According to the research results can be proved that using geopolymer technology for stabilizing BOF slag is very effective.

Keywords: Geopolymer, BOF slag, autoclave test, swell behavior

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7 A Study on Marble-Slag Based Geopolymer Green Concrete

Authors: Wei-Hao Lee, Ta-Wui Cheng, Yung-Chin Ding, Zong-Xian Qiu

Abstract:

The greenhouse effect is an important issue since it has been responsible for global warming. Carbon dioxide plays an important part of role in the greenhouse effect. Therefore, human has the responsibility for reducing CO₂ emissions in their daily operations. Except iron making and power plants, another major CO₂ production industry is cement industry. According to the statistics by EPA of Taiwan, production 1 ton of Portland cement will produce 520.29 kg of CO₂. There are over 7.8 million tons of CO₂ produced annually. Thus, trying to development low CO₂ emission green concrete is an important issue, and it can reduce CO₂ emission problems in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is trying to use marble wastes and slag as the raw materials to fabricate geopolymer green concrete. The result shows the marble based geopolymer green concrete have good workability and the compressive strength after curing for 28 days and 365 days can be reached 44MPa and 53MPa in indoor environment, 28MPa and 40.43MPa in outdoor environment. The acid resistance test shows the geopolymer green concrete have good resistance for chemical attack. The coefficient of permeability of geopolymer green concrete is better than Portland concrete. By comparing with Portland cement products, the marble based geopolymer not only reduce CO₂ emission problems but also provides great performance in practices. According to the experiment results shown that geopolymer concrete has great potential for further engineering development in the future, the new material could be expected to replace the Portland cement products in the future days.

Keywords: slag, Geopolymer, Green Concrete, CO2 emission, marble

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6 Eco-Efficient Cementitious Materials for Construction Applications in Ireland

Authors: Eva Ujaczki, Rama Krishna Chinnam, Ronan Courtney, Syed A. M. Tofail, Lisa O'Donoghue

Abstract:

Concrete is the second most widely used material in the world and is made of cement, sand, and aggregates. Cement is a hydraulic binder which reacts with water to form a solid material. In the cement manufacturing process, the right mix of minerals from mined natural rocks, e.g., limestone is melted in a kiln at 1450 °C to form a new compound, clinker. In the final stage, the clinker is milled into a fine cement powder. The principal cement types manufactured in Ireland are: 1) CEM I – Portland cement; 2) CEM II/A – Portland-fly ash cement; 3) CEM II/A – Portland-limestone cement and 4) CEM III/A – Portland-round granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The production of eco-efficient, blended cement (CEM II, CEM III) reduces CO₂ emission and improves energy efficiency compared to traditional cements. Blended cements are produced locally in Ireland and more than 80% of produced cement is blended. These eco-efficient, blended cements are a relatively new class of construction materials and a kind of geopolymer binders. From a terminological point of view, geopolymer cement is a binding system that is able to harden at room temperature. Geopolymers do not require calcium-silicate-hydrate gel but utilize the polycondensation of SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ precursors to achieve a superior strength level. Geopolymer materials are usually synthesized using an aluminosilicate raw material and an activating solution which is mainly composed of NaOH or KOH and Na₂SiO₃. Cement is the essential ingredient in concrete which is vital for economic growth of countries. The challenge for the global cement industry is to reach to increasing demand at the same time recognize the need for sustainable usage of resources. Therefore, in this research, we investigated the potential for Irish wastes to be used in geopolymer cement type applications through a national stakeholder workshop with the Irish construction sector and relevant stakeholders. This paper aims at summarizing Irish stakeholder’s perspective for introducing new secondary raw materials, e.g., bauxite residue or increasing the fly ash addition into cement for eco-efficient cement production.

Keywords: cement, Geopolymer, blending, eco-efficient

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5 Using Geopolymer Technology on Stabilization and Reutilization the Expansion Behavior Slag

Authors: K. Y. Lin, W. H. Lee, T. W. Cheng, S. W. Huang, Y. C. Ding

Abstract:

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Slag and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag is the by-product of iron making and steel making. Each of slag with produced over 100 million tons annually in Taiwan. The type of slag has great engineering properties, such as, high hardness and density, high compressive strength, low abrasion ratio, and can replace natural aggregate for building materials. However, no matter BOF or EAF slag, both have the expansion problem, due to it contains free lime. The purpose of this study was to stabilize the BOF and EAF slag by using geopolymer technology, hoping can prevent and solve the expansion problem. The experimental results showed that using geopolymer technology can successfully solve and prevent the expansion problem. Their main properties are analyzed with regard to their use as building materials. Autoclave is used to study the volume stability of these specimens. Finally, the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar with BOF/FAF slag can be reached over 21MPa after curing for 28 days. After autoclave testing, the volume expansion does not exceed 0.2%. Even after the autoclave test, the compressive strength can be grown to over 35MPa. In this study have success using these results on ready-mixed concrete plant, and have the same experimental results as laboratory scale. These results gave encouragement that the stabilized and reutilized BOF/EAF slag could be replaced as a feasible natural fine aggregate by using geopolymer technology.

Keywords: Geopolymer, BOF slag, autoclave test, EAF slag

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4 Influence of Initial Curing Time, Water Content and Apparent Water Content on Geopolymer Modified Sludge Generated in Landslide Area

Authors: Minh Chien Vu, Tomoaki Satomi, Hiroshi Takahashi

Abstract:

As being lack of sufficient strength to support the loading of construction as well as service life cause the clay content and clay mineralogy, soft and highly compressible soils (sludge) constitute a major problem in geotechnical engineering projects. Geopolymer, a kind of inorganic polymer, is a promising material with a wide range of applications and offers a lower level of CO₂ emissions than conventional Portland cement. However, the feasibility of geopolymer in term of modified the soft and highly compressible soil has not been received much attention due to the requirement of heat treatment for activating the fly ash component and the existence of high content of clay-size particles in the composition of sludge that affected on the efficiency of the reaction. On the other hand, the geopolymer modified sludge could be affected by other important factors such as initial curing time, initial water content and apparent water content. Therefore, this paper describes a different potential application of geopolymer: soil stabilization in landslide areas to adapt to the technical properties of sludge so that heavy machines can move on. Sludge condition process is utilized to demonstrate the possibility for stabilizing sludge using fly ash-based geopolymer at ambient curing condition ( ± 20 °C) in term of failure strength, strain and bulk density. Sludge conditioning is a process whereby sludge is treated with chemicals or various other means to improve the dewatering characteristics of sludge before applying in the construction area. The effect of initial curing time, water content and apparent water content on the modification of sludge are the main focus of this study. Test results indicate that the initial curing time has potential for improving failure strain and strength of modified sludge with the specific condition of soft soil. The result further shows that the initial water content over than 50% total mass of sludge could significantly lead to a decrease of strength performance of geopolymer-based modified sludge. The optimum apparent water content of geopolymer modified sludge is strongly influenced by the amount of geopolymer content and initial water content of sludge. The solution to minimize the effect of high initial water content will be considered deeper in the future.

Keywords: fly ash, Sludge, Landslide, Geopolymer, sludge conditioning

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3 Effects of Different Calcination Temperature on the Geopolymerization of Fly Ash

Authors: Nurcan Tugrul, Funda Demir, Hilal Ozkan, Nur Olgun, Emek Derun

Abstract:

Geopolymers are aluminosilicate-containing materials. The raw materials of the geopolymerization can be natural material such as kaolinite, metakaolin (calcined kaolinite), clay, diatomite, rock powder or can also be industrial by-products such as fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, rice-husk ash, mine tailing, red mud, waste slag, etc. Reactivity of raw materials in geopolymer production is very important for achieving high reaction grade. Fly ash used in geopolymer production has been calcined to obtain tetrahedral SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ structures. In this study, fly ash calcined at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C), and Al₂O₃ addition (Al₂O₃ at min (0%) and max (100%)) were used to produce geopolymers. HCl dissolution method was applied to determine the geopolymerization percentage of samples and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was used to find out the optimum calcination temperature for geopolymerization. According to obtained results, the highest geopolymerization percentage (0% alumina added geopolymer equal to 35.789%; 100% alumina added geopolymer equal to 40.546%) was obtained in samples using fly ash calcined at 800 °C.

Keywords: fly ash, Geopolymer, calcination, Al₂O₃ addition

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2 Developing Sustainable Rammed Earth Material Using Pulp Mill Fly Ash as Cement Replacement

Authors: Amin Ajabi, Chinchu Cherian, Sumi Siddiqua

Abstract:

Rammed earth (RE) is a traditional soil-based building material made by compressing a mixture of natural earth and binder ingredients such as chalk or lime, in temporary formworks. However, the modern RE uses 5 to 10% cement as a binder in order to meet the strength and durability requirements as per the standard specifications and guidelines. RE construction is considered to be an energy-efficient and environmental-friendly approach when compared to conventional concrete systems, which use 20 to 30% cement. The present study aimed to develop RE mix designs by utilizing non-hazardous wood-based fly ash generated by pulp and paper mills as a partial replacement for cement. The pulp mill fly ash (PPFA)-stabilized RE is considered to be a sustainable approach keeping in view of the massive carbon footprints associated with cement production as well as the adverse environmental impacts due to disposal of PPFA in landfills. For the experimental study, as-received PPFA, as well as PPFA-based geopolymer (synthesized by alkaline activation method), were incorporated as cement substitutes in the RE mixtures. Initially, local soil was collected and characterized by index and engineering properties. The PPFA was procured from a pulp manufacturing mill, and its physicochemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization, as well as environmental impact assessment, was conducted. Further, the various mix designs of RE material incorporating local soil and different proportions of cement, PPFA, and alkaline activator (a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions) were developed. The compacted RE specimens were cured and tested for 7-day and 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) variations. Based on UCS results, the optimum mix design was identified corresponding to maximum strength improvement. Further, the cured RE specimens were subjected to freeze-thaw cycle testing for evaluating its performance and durability as a sustainable construction technique under extreme climatic conditions.

Keywords: Durability, Sustainability, Rammed Earth, Stabilization, Strength, Geopolymer, alkaline activation, pulp mill fly ash

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1 Laboratory Investigation of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Stabilized Recycled Asphalt Pavement as a Base Material

Authors: Arul Arulrajah, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Menglim Hoy

Abstract:

The results of laboratory investigation of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) – fly ash (FA) based geopolymer as a base material is presented in this paper. An alkaline activator, the mixture of NaOH and Na₂SiO₃, is used to synthesis RAP-FA based geopolymer. RAP-FA with water (RAP-FA blend) prepared as a control material. The strength develops and the strength against wet-dry was determined by the unconfined compression strength (UCS) test, then the microstructural properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test is conducted to measure its leachability of heavy metal. The results show both the RAP-FA blend and geopolymer can be used as a base course as its UCS values meet the minimum strength requirement specified by the Department of Highway, Thailand. The durability test results show the UCS of these materials increases with increasing the number of wet-dry cycles, reaching its peak at six wet-dry cycles. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate strength development of the RAP-FA blend occurs due to chemical reaction between a high Calcium in RAP with a high Silica and Alumina in FA led to producing calcium aluminate hydrate formation. The strength development of the RAP-FA geopolymer occurred resulted from the polymerization reaction. The TCLP results demonstrate there is no environmental risk of these stabilized materials. Furthermore, FA based geopolymer can reduce the leachability of heavy metal in the RAP-FA blend.

Keywords: Microstructure, Geopolymer, heavy metal, recycled asphalt pavement

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