Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Geopolymer Concrete Related Abstracts

11 Assessment of the Performance of Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete under Sulphate and Acid Attack

Authors: Talakokula Visalakshi

Abstract:

Concrete is the most commonly used construction material across the globe, its usage is second only to water. It is prepared using ordinary Portland cement whose production contributes to 5-8% of total carbon emission in the world. On the other hand the fly ash by product from the power plants is produced in huge quantities is termed as waste and disposed in landfills. In order to address the above issues mentioned, it is essential that other forms of binding material must be developed in place of cement to make concrete. The geo polymer concrete is one such alternative developed by Davidovits in 1980’s. Geopolymer do not form calcium-silicate hydrates for matrix formation and strength but undergo polycondensation of silica and alumina precursors to attain structural strength. Its setting mechanism depends upon polymerization rather than hydration. As a result it is able to achieve its strength in 3-5 days whereas concrete requires about a month to do the same. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of geopolymer concrete under sulphate and acid attack. The assessment is done based on the experiments conducted on geopolymer concrete. The expected outcomes include that if geopolymer concrete is more durable than normal concrete, then it could be a competitive replacement option of concrete and can lead to significant reduction of carbon foot print and have a positive impact on the environment. Fly ash based geopolymer concrete offers an opportunity to completely remove the cement content from concrete thereby making the concrete a greener and future construction material.

Keywords: fly ash, Geopolymer Concrete, geo polymer, construction material

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10 An Experimental Investigation of Bond Properties of Reinforcements Embedded in Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Jee-Sang Kim, Jong Ho Park

Abstract:

Geopolymer concretes are a new class of construction materials that have emerged as an alternative to Ordinary Portland cement concrete. Considerable researches have been carried out on material development of geopolymer concrete, however, a few studies have been reported on the structural use of them. This paper presents the bond behaviors of reinforcement embedded in fly ash based geopolymer concrete. The development lengths of reinforcement for various compressive strengths of concrete, 20, 30 and 40 MPa, and reinforcement diameters, 10, 16, and 25 mm are investigated. Total 27 specimens were manufactured and pull-out test according to EN 10080 was applied to measure bond strength and slips between concrete and reinforcements. The average bond strengths decreased from 23.06MPa to 17.26 MPa, as the diameters of reinforcements increased from 10mm to 25mm. The compressive strength levels of geopolymer concrete showed no significant influence on bond strengths in this study. Also, the bond-slip relations between geopolymer concrete and reinforcement are derived using non-linear regression analysis for various experimental conditions.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, bond strength, pull-out test, bond-slip relation

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9 Geopolymer Concrete: A Review of Properties, Applications and Limitations

Authors: Abbas Ahmed Albu Shaqraa

Abstract:

The concept of a safe environment and low greenhouse gas emissions is a common concern especially in the construction industry. The produced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are nearly a ton in producing only one ton of Portland cement, which is the primary ingredient of concrete. Current studies had investigated the utilization of several waste materials in producing a cement free concrete. The geopolymer concrete is a green material that results from the reaction of aluminosilicate material with an alkaline liquid. A summary of several recent researches in geopolymer concrete will be presented in this manuscript. In addition, the offered presented review considers the use of several waste materials including fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, cement kiln dust, kaolin, metakaolin, and limestone powder as binding materials in making geopolymer concrete. Moreover, the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of geopolymer concrete will be reviewed. In addition, the geopolymer concrete applications and limitations will be discussed as well. The results showed a high early compressive strength gain in geopolymer concrete when dry- heating or steam curing was performed. Also, it was stated that the outstanding acidic resistance of the geopolymer concrete made it possible to be used where the ordinary Portland cement concrete was doubtable. Thus, the commercial geopolymer concrete pipes were favored for sewer system in case of high acidic conditions. Furthermore, it was reported that the geopolymer concrete could stand up to 1200 °C in fire without losing its strength integrity whereas the Portland cement concrete was losing its function upon heating to some 100s °C only. However, the geopolymer concrete still considered as an emerging field and occupied mainly by the precast industries.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, compressive strength, Portland cement concrete, alkaline liquid

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8 Bulk Electrical Resistivity of Geopolymer Mortars: The Effect of Binder Composition and Alkali Concentration

Authors: Mahdi Babaee, Arnaud Castel

Abstract:

One of the main hurdles for commercial adaptation of geopolymer concrete (GPC) as a low-embodied-carbon alternative for Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the durability aspects and its long-term performance in aggressive/corrosive environments. GPC is comparatively a new engineering material and in the absence of a track record of successful durability performance, proper experimental studies to investigate different durability-related characteristics of GPC seem inevitable. In this context, this paper aims to study the bulk electrical resistivity of geopolymer mortars fabricated of blends of low-calcium fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). Bulk electrical resistivity is recognized as one of the most important parameters influencing the rate of corrosion of reinforcing bars during the propagation phase of corrosion. To investigate the effect of alkali concentration on the resistivity of the samples, 100x200 mm mortar cylinders were cast at different alkali concentration levels, whereas the modulus ratio (the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O) was fixed for the mixes, and the bulk electrical resistivity was then measured. Also, the effect of the binder composition was assessed with respect to the ratio of FA to GGBS used. Results show a superior performance of samples with higher GGBS content. Lower concentration of the solution has increased the resistivity by reducing the amount of mobile alkali ions in the pore solution. Moreover, GGBS-based samples showed a much sharper increase in the electrical resistivity with decreasing the moisture content.

Keywords: Durability, Corrosion, Geopolymer Concrete, bulk resistivity

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7 The Influence of Microcapsulated Phase Change Materials on Thermal Performance of Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Vinh Duy Cao, Anna M. Szczotok, Anna-Lena Kjøniksen, Shima Pilehvar

Abstract:

The total energy consumption is dramatically increasing on over the world, especially for building energy consumption where a significant proportion of energy is used for heating and cooling purposes. One of the solutions to reduce the energy consumption for the building is to improve construction techniques and enhance material technology. Recently, microcapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) with high energy storage capacity within the phase transition temperature of the materials is a potential method to conserve and save energy. A new composite materials with high energy storage capacity by mixing MPCM into concrete for passive building technology is the promising candidate to reduce the energy consumption. One of the most untilized building materials for mixing with MPCM is Portland cement concrete. However, the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to producing cement which plays the important role in the global warming is the main drawback of PCC. Accordingly, an environmentally friendly building material, geopolymer, which is synthesized by the reaction between the industrial waste material (aluminosilicate) and a strong alkali activator, is a potential materials to mixing with MPCM. Especially, the effect of MPCM on the thermal and mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete (GPC) is very limited. In this study, high thermal energy storage capacity materials were fabricated by mixing MPCM into geopolymer concrete. This article would investigate the effect of MPCM concentration on thermal and mechanical properties of GPC. The target is to balance the effect of MPCM on improving the thermal performance and maintaining the compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete at an acceptable level for building application.

Keywords: Thermal Performance, Geopolymer Concrete, microencapsulated phase change materials, energy storage capacity

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6 A Study on Marble Based Geopolymer Mortar / Concrete

Authors: Wei-Hao Lee, Ta-Wui Cheng, Yung-Chin Ding, Tai-Tien Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is trying to use marble wastes as the raw material to fabricate geopolymer green mortar / concrete. Experiment results show that using marble to make geopolymer mortar and concrete, the compressive strength after 28 days curing can reach 35 MPa and 25 MPa, respectively. The characteristics of marble-based geopolymer green mortar and concrete will keep testing for a long term in order to understand the effect parameters. The study is based on resource recovery and recycling. Its basic characteristics are low consumption, low carbon dioxide emission and high efficiency that meet the international tendency 'Circular Economy.' By comparing with Portland cement mortar and concrete, production 1 ton of marble-based geopolymer mortar and concrete, they can be saved around 50.3% and 49.6% carbon dioxide emission, respectively. Production 1 m3 of marble-based geopolymer concrete costs about 62 USD that cheaper than that of traditional Portland concrete. It is proved that the marble-based geopolymer concrete has great potential for further engineering development.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, Geopolymer, CO2 emission, marble

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5 An Approach to Make Low-Cost Self-Compacting Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Ankit Chakraborty, Raj Shah, Prayas Variya

Abstract:

Self-compacting geo-polymer concrete is a blended version of self-compacting concrete developed in Japan by Okamura. H. in 1986 and geo-polymer concrete proposed by Davidovits in 1999. This method is eco-friendly as there is low CO₂ emission and reduces labor cost due to its self-compacting property and zero percent cement content. We are making an approach to reduce concreting cost and make concreting eco-friendly by replacing cement fully and sand by a certain amount of industrial waste. It will reduce overall concreting cost due to its self-compatibility and replacement of materials, forms eco-friendly concreting technique and gives better fresh property and hardened property results compared to self-compacting concrete and geo-polymer concrete.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, low carbon emission, low cost concreting, self compactability

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4 Performance Study of Geopolymer Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fly Ash with Cement and Full Replacement of River Sand by Crushed Sand

Authors: Asis Kumar Khan, Rajeev Kumar Goel

Abstract:

Recent infrastructure growth all around the world lead to increase in demand for concrete day by day. Cement being binding material for concrete the usage of cement also gone up significantly. Cement manufacturing utilizes abundant natural resources and causes environment pollution by releasing a huge quantity of CO₂ into the atmosphere. So, it is high time to look for alternates to reduce the cement consumption in concrete. Geopolymer concrete is one such material which utilizes the industrial waste such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and low-cost alkaline liquids such as sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate to produce the concrete. On the other side, river sand is becoming very expensive due to its large-scale depletion at source and the high cost of transportation. In this view, river sand is replaced by crushed sand in this study. In this work, an attempt has been made to understand the durability parameters of geopolymer concrete by partially replacing fly ash with cement. Fly ash is replaced by cement at various levels e.g., from 0 to 50%. Concrete cubes of 100x100x100mm were used for investigating different durability parameters. The various parameters studied includes compressive strength, split tensile strength, drying shrinkage, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance and chloride permeability. Highest compressive strength & highest split tensile strength is observed in 30% replacement level. Least drying is observed with 30% replacement level. Very good resistance for sulphuric acid & sodium sulphate is found with 30% replacement. However, it was not possible to find out the chloride permeability due to the high conductivity of geopolymer samples of all replacement levels.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, compressive strength, crushed sand, drying shrinkage, split tensile strength, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance

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3 Process Modified Geopolymer Concrete: A Sustainable Material for Green Construction Technology

Authors: Dibyendu Adak, Saroj Mandal

Abstract:

The fly ash based geopolymer concrete generally requires heat activation after casting, which has been considered as an important limitation for its practical application. Such limitation can be overcome by a modification in the process at the time of mixing of ingredients (fly and activator fluid) for geopolymer concrete so that curing can be made at ambient temperature. This process modified geopolymer concrete shows an appreciable improvement in structural performance compared to conventional heat cured geopolymer concrete and control cement concrete. The improved durability performance based on water absorption, sulphate test, and RCPT is also noted. The microstructural properties analyzed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques show the better interaction of fly ash and activator solution at early ages for the process modified geopolymer concrete. This accelerates the transformation of the amorphous phase of fly ash to the crystalline phase.

Keywords: Durability, fly ash, Geopolymer Concrete, structural properties, process modification, micro-structures

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2 Accessing Properties of Alkali Activated Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Based Self Compacting Geopolymer Concrete Incorporating Nano Silica

Authors: Guneet Saini, Uthej Vattipalli

Abstract:

In a world with increased demand for sustainable construction, waste product of one industry could be a boon to the other in reducing the carbon footprint. Usage of industrial waste such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag have become the epicenter of curbing the use of cement, one of the major contributors of greenhouse gases. In this paper, empirical studies have been done to develop alkali activated self-compacting geopolymer concrete (GPC) using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), incorporated with 2% nano-silica by weight, through evaluation of its fresh and hardening properties. Experimental investigation on 6 mix designs of varying molarity of 10M, 12M and 16M of the alkaline solution and a binder content of 450 kg/m³ and 500 kg/m³ has been done and juxtaposed with GPC mix design composed of 16M alkaline solution concentration and 500 kg/m³ binder content without nano-silica. The sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide ratio (SS/SH), alkaline activator liquid to binder ratio (AAL/B) and water to binder ratio (W/B), which significantly affect the performance and mechanical properties of GPC, were fixed at 2.5, 0.45 and 0.4 respectively. To catalyze the early stage geopolymerisation, oven curing is done maintaining the temperature at 60˚C. This paper also elucidates the test results for fresh self-compacting concrete (SCC) done as per EFNARC guidelines. The mechanical properties tests conducted were: compressive strength test after 7 days, 28 days, 56 days and 90 days; flexure test; split tensile strength test after 28 days, 56 days and 90 days; X-ray diffraction test to analyze the mechanical performance and sorptivity test for testing of permeability. The study revealed that the sample of 16M concentration of alkaline solution with 500 Kg/m³ binder content containing 2% nano silica produced the highest compressive, flexural and split tensile strength of 81.33 MPa, 7.875 MPa, and 6.398 MPa respectively, at the end of 90 days.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, nano silica, ground granulated blast furnace slag, alkaline activator liquid, self compacting

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1 Mechanical and Durability Characteristics of Roller Compacted Geopolymer Concrete Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Authors: Syfur Rahman, Mohammad J. Khattak

Abstract:

Every year a huge quantity of recycling concrete aggregate (RCA) is generated in the United States of America. Utilization of RCA can solve the storage problem, prevent environmental pollution, and reduce the construction cost. However, due to the overall low strength and durability characteristics of RCA, its usages are limited to a certain area like a landfill, low strength base material, replacement of a few percentages of virgin aggregates in Portland cement concrete, etc. This study focuses on the improvement of the strength and durability characteristics of RCA by introducing the concept of roller-compacted geopolymer concrete. In this research, developed roller-compacted geopolymer concrete (RCGPC) and roller-compacted cement concrete (RCC) mixtures containing 100% recycled concrete aggregate were evaluated and compared. Several selected RCGPC mixtures were investigated to find out the effect of mixture variables, including sodium hydroxide (NaOH) molar concentration, sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃), to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) ratio on the strength, stiffness and durability characteristics of the developed RCGPC. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃) were mixed in different ratios to synthesize the alkali activator. American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA) recommended RCC gradation was used with a maximum nominal aggregate size of 19 mm with a 4% fine particle passing 0.075 mm sieve. The mixtures were made using NaOH molar concentration of 8M and 10M along with, Na₂SiO₃ to NaOH ratio of 0 and 1 by mass and 15% class F fly ash. Optimum alkali content and moisture content were determined for each RCGPC and RCC mixtures, respectively, using modified proctor test. Compressive strength, semi-circular bending beam strength, and dynamic modulus test were conducted to evaluate the mechanistic characteristics of both mixtures. To determine the optimum curing conditions for RCGPC, effects of different curing temperature and curing duration on compressive strength were also studied. Sulphate attack and freeze-thaw tests were also carried out to assess the durability properties of the developed mixtures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for morphology and microstructure analysis. From the optimum moisture content results, it was found that RCGPC has high alkali content, which was mainly due to the high absorption capacity of RCA. It was found that the mixtures with Na₂SiO₃ to NaOH ratio of 1 yielded about 60% higher compressive strength than the ratio of 0. Further, the mixtures using 10M NaOH concentrations and alkali ratio of 1 produced about 28 MPa of compressive strength, which was around 33% higher than 8M NaOH mixtures. Similar results were obtained for elastic and dynamic modulus of the mixtures. On the other hand, the semi-circular bending beam strength remained the same for both 8 and 10 molar NaOH geopolymer mixtures. Formation of new geopolymeric compounds and chemical bonds in the newly formed novel RCGPC mixtures were also discovered using XRD analysis. The results of mechanical and durability testing further revealed that RCGPC performed similarly to that of RCC mixtures. Based on the results of mechanical and durability testing, the developed RCGPC mixtures using 100% recycled concrete could be used as a cost-effective solution for the construction of pavement structures.

Keywords: fly ash, Geopolymer Concrete, Concrete Pavement, recycled concrete aggregate, roller compacted concrete

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