Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Geomorphology Related Abstracts

5 Pre-Industrial Local Architecture According to Natural Properties

Authors: Selin Küçük

Abstract:

Pre-industrial architecture is integration of natural and subsequent properties by intelligence and experience. Since various settlements relatively industrialized or non-industrialized at any time, ‘pre-industrial’ term does not refer to a definite time. Natural properties, which are existent conditions and materials in natural local environment, are climate, geomorphology and local materials. Subsequent properties, which are all anthropological comparatives, are culture of societies, requirements of people and construction techniques that people use. Yet, after industrialization, technology took technique’s place, cultural effects are manipulated, requirements are changed and local/natural properties are almost disappeared in architecture. Technology is universal, global and expands simply; conversely technique is time and experience dependent and should has a considerable cultural background. This research is about construction techniques according to natural properties of a region and classification of these techniques. Understanding local architecture is only possible by searching its background which is hard to reach. There are always changes in positive and negative in architectural techniques through the time. Archaeological layers of a region sometimes give more accurate information about transformation of architecture. However, natural properties of any region are the most helpful elements to perceive construction techniques. Many international sources from different cultures are interested in local architecture by mentioning natural properties separately. Unfortunately, there is no literature deals with this subject as far as systematically in the correct way. This research aims to improve a clear perspective of local architecture existence by categorizing archetypes according to natural properties. The ultimate goal of this research is generating a clear classification of local architecture independent from subsequent (anthropological) properties over the world such like a handbook. Since local architecture is the most sustainable architecture with refer to its economic, ecologic and sociological properties, there should be an excessive information about construction techniques to be learned from. Constructing the same buildings in all over the world is one of the main criticism of modern architectural system. While this critics going on, the same buildings without identity increase incrementally. In post-industrial term, technology widely took technique’s place, yet cultural effects are manipulated, requirements are changed and natural local properties are almost disappeared in architecture. These study does not offer architects to use local techniques, but it indicates the progress of pre-industrial architectural evolution which is healthier, cheaper and natural. Immigration from rural areas to developing/developed cities should be prohibited, thus culture and construction techniques can be preserved. Since big cities have psychological, sensational and sociological impact on people, rural settlers can be convinced to not to immigrate by providing new buildings designed according to natural properties and maintaining their settlements. Improving rural conditions would remove the economical and sociological gulf between cities and rural. What result desired to arrived in, is if there is no deformation (adaptation process of another traditional buildings because of immigration) or assimilation in a climatic region, there should be very similar solutions in the same climatic regions of the world even if there is no relationship (trade, communication etc.) among them.

Keywords: Geomorphology, Local Materials, climate zones, local architecture

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4 Geomorphology and Flood Analysis Using Light Detection and Ranging

Authors: George R. Puno, Eric N. Bruno

Abstract:

The natural landscape of the Philippine archipelago plus the current realities of climate change make the country vulnerable to flood hazards. Flooding becomes the recurring natural disaster in the country resulting to lose of lives and properties. Musimusi is among the rivers which exhibited inundation particularly at the inhabited floodplain portion of its watershed. During the event, rescue operations and distribution of relief goods become a problem due to lack of high resolution flood maps to aid local government unit identify the most affected areas. In the attempt of minimizing impact of flooding, hydrologic modelling with high resolution mapping is becoming more challenging and important. This study focused on the analysis of flood extent as a function of different geomorphologic characteristics of Musimusi watershed. The methods include the delineation of morphometric parameters in the Musimusi watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and geometric calculations tools. Digital Terrain Model (DTM) as one of the derivatives of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology was used to determine the extent of river inundation involving the application of Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) and Hydrology Modelling System (HEC-HMS) models. The digital elevation model (DEM) from synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was used to delineate watershed boundary and river network. Datasets like mean sea level, river cross section, river stage, discharge and rainfall were also used as input parameters. Curve number (CN), vegetation, and soil properties were calibrated based on the existing condition of the site. Results showed that the drainage density value of the watershed is low which indicates that the basin is highly permeable subsoil and thick vegetative cover. The watershed’s elongation ratio value of 0.9 implies that the floodplain portion of the watershed is susceptible to flooding. The bifurcation ratio value of 2.1 indicates higher risk of flooding in localized areas of the watershed. The circularity ratio value (1.20) indicates that the basin is circular in shape, high discharge of runoff and low permeability of the subsoil condition. The heavy rainfall of 167 mm brought by Typhoon Seniang last December 29, 2014 was characterized as high intensity and long duration, with a return period of 100 years produced 316 m3s-1 outflows. Portion of the floodplain zone (1.52%) suffered inundation with 2.76 m depth at the maximum. The information generated in this study is helpful to the local disaster risk reduction management council in monitoring the affected sites for more appropriate decisions so that cost of rescue operations and relief goods distribution is minimized.

Keywords: Geomorphology, Mapping, watershed, Flooding

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3 Hydrographic Mapping Based on the Concept of Fluvial-Geomorphological Auto-Classification

Authors: Jesús Horacio, Alfredo Ollero, Víctor Bouzas-Blanco, Augusto Pérez-Alberti

Abstract:

Rivers have traditionally been classified, assessed and managed in terms of hydrological, chemical and / or biological criteria. Geomorphological classifications had in the past a secondary role, although proposals like River Styles Framework, Catchment Baseline Survey or Stroud Rural Sustainable Drainage Project did incorporate geomorphology for management decision-making. In recent years many studies have been attracted to the geomorphological component. The geomorphological processes and their associated forms determine the structure of a river system. Understanding these processes and forms is a critical component of the sustainable rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems. The fluvial auto-classification approach suggests that a river is a self-built natural system, with processes and forms designed to effectively preserve their ecological function (hydrologic, sedimentological and biological regime). Fluvial systems are formed by a wide range of elements with multiple non-linear interactions on different spatial and temporal scales. Besides, the fluvial auto-classification concept is built using data from the river itself, so that each classification developed is peculiar to the river studied. The variables used in the classification are specific stream power and mean grain size. A discriminant analysis showed that these variables are the best characterized processes and forms. The statistical technique applied allows to get an individual discriminant equation for each geomorphological type. The geomorphological classification was developed using sites with high naturalness. Each site is a control point of high ecological and geomorphological quality. The changes in the conditions of the control points will be quickly recognizable, and easy to apply a right management measures to recover the geomorphological type. The study focused on Galicia (NW Spain) and the mapping was made analyzing 122 control points (sites) distributed over eight river basins. In sum, this study provides a method for fluvial geomorphological classification that works as an open and flexible tool underlying the fluvial auto-classification concept. The hydrographic mapping is the visual expression of the results, such that each river has a particular map according to its geomorphological characteristics. Each geomorphological type is represented by a particular type of hydraulic geometry (channel width, width-depth ratio, hydraulic radius, etc.). An alteration of this geometry is indicative of a geomorphological disturbance (whether natural or anthropogenic). Hydrographic mapping is also dynamic because its meaning changes if there is a modification in the specific stream power and/or the mean grain size, that is, in the value of their equations. The researcher has to check annually some of the control points. This procedure allows to monitor the geomorphology quality of the rivers and to see if there are any alterations. The maps are useful to researchers and managers, especially for conservation work and river restoration.

Keywords: Geomorphology, Mapping, river, fluvial auto-classification concept

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2 Flood Hazards, Vulnerability and Adaptations in Upper Imo River Basin of South Eastern Nigera Introduction

Authors: Christian N. Chibo

Abstract:

Imo River Basin is located in South Eastern Nigeria comprising of 11 states of Imo, Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, Edo, Rivers, Cross river, AkwaIbom, Bayelsa, Delta, and Bayelsa states. The basin has a fluvial erosional system dominated by powerful rivers coming down from steep slopes in the area. This research investigated various hazards associated with flood, the vulnerable areas, elements at risk of flood and various adaptation strategies adopted by local inhabitants to cope with the hazards. The research aim is to identify, examine and assess flood hazards, vulnerability and adaptations in the Upper Imo River Basin. The study identified the role of elevation in cause of flood, elements at risk of flood as well as examine the effectiveness or otherwise of the adaptation strategies for coping with the hazards. Data for this research is grouped as primary and secondary. Their various methods of generation are field measurement, questionnaire, library websites etc. Other types of data were generated from topographical, geological, and Digital Elevation model (DEM) maps, while the hydro meteorological data was sourced from Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Meteorological stations of Geography and Environmental Management Departments of Imo State University and Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education. 800 copies of questionnaire were distributed using systematic sampling to 8 locations used for the pilot survey. About 96% of the questionnaire were retrieved and used for the study. 13 flood events were identified in the study area. Their causes, years and dates of events were documented in the text, and the damages they caused were evaluated. The study established that for each flood event, there is over 200mm of rain observed on the day of the flood and the day before the flood. The study also observed that the areas that situate at higher elevation (See DEM) are less prone to flood hazards while areas at low elevations are more prone to flood hazards. Elements identified to be at risk of flood are agricultural land, residential dwellings, retail trading and related services, public buildings and community services. The study thereby recommends non settlement at flood plains and flood prone areas and rearrangement of land use activities in the upper Imo River Basin among others

Keywords: Geomorphology, flood hazard, flood plain, Imo River Basin

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1 Color Fusion of Remote Sensing Images for Imparting Fluvial Geomorphological Features of River Yamuna and Ganga over Doon Valley

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Tracy Lin Huan, Xianpei Li, Yanmin Yuan, Rebecca K. Rossi

Abstract:

The fiscal growth of any country hinges on the prudent administration of water resources. The river Yamuna and Ganga are measured as the life line of India as it affords the needs for life to endure. Earth observation over remote sensing images permits the precise description and identification of ingredients on the superficial from space and airborne platforms. Multiple and heterogeneous image sources are accessible for the same geographical section; multispectral, hyperspectral, radar, multitemporal, and multiangular images. In this paper, a taxonomical learning of the fluvial geomorphological features of river Yamuna and Ganga over doon valley using color fusion of multispectral remote sensing images was performed. Experimental results exhibited that the segmentation based colorization technique stranded on pattern recognition, and color mapping fashioned more colorful and truthful colorized images for geomorphological feature extraction.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Geomorphology, Fluvial Processes, color fusion, multispectral images

Procedia PDF Downloads 156