Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

geometrical parameters Related Abstracts

5 Optimum Er: YAG Laser Parameters for Orthodontic Composite Debonding: An in vitro Study

Authors: Mohammad Zamzam, Wesam Bachir, Imad Asaad


Several studies have produced estimates of Er:YAG laser parameters and specifications but there is still insufficient data for reliable selection of laser parameters. As a consequence, there is a heightened need for ideal specifications of Er:YAG laser to reduce the amount of enamel ablation. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of Er:YAG laser parameters, energy level and pulse duration, on orthodontic composite removal after bracket debonding. The sample consisted of 45 cuboids of orthodontic composite made by plastic moulds. The samples were divided into three groups, each was irradiated with Er:YAG laser set at different energy levels and three values for pulse durations (50 µs, 100 µs, and 300 µs). Geometrical parameters (depth and area) of cavities formed by laser irradiation were determined. ANCOVA test showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.0.5) between the groups indicating a potential effect of laser pulse duration on the geometrical parameters after controlling laser energy level. A post-hoc Bonferroni test ranked the 50µ Er:YAG laser pulse as the most influential factor for all geometrical parameters in removing remnant composite from enamel surface. Also, 300 mJ laser pulses caused the largest removal of the composite. The results of the present study demonstrated the efficacy of 50 µs and 300 mJ Er:YAG laser pulse for removal of remnant orthodontic composite.

Keywords: enamel, Er:YAG, geometrical parameters, orthodontic composite, remnant composite

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4 Wicking and Evaporation of Liquids in Knitted Fabrics: Analytic Solution of Capillary Rise Restrained by Gravity and Evaporation

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah


Wicking and evaporation of water in porous knitted fabrics is investigated by combining experimental and analytical approaches: The standard wicking model from Lucas and Washburn is enhanced to account for evaporation and gravity effects. The goal is to model the effect of gravity and evaporation on wicking using simple analytical expressions and investigate the influence of fabrics geometrical parameters, such as porosity and thickness on evaporation impact on maximum reachable height values. The results show that fabric properties have a significant influence on evaporation effect. In this paper, an experimental study of determining water kinetics from different knitted fabrics were gravimetrically investigated permitting the measure of the mass and the height of liquid rising in fabrics in various atmospheric conditions. From these measurements, characteristic pore parameters (capillary radius and permeability) can be determined.

Keywords: model, experimental study, evaporation, geometrical parameters, porous knitted fabrics, wicking

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3 Theoretical Studies on the Formation Constant, Geometry, Vibrational Frequencies and Electronic Properties Dinuclear Molybdenum Complexes

Authors: Mahboobeh Mohadeszadeh, Behzad Padidaran Moghaddam


In order to measuring dinuclear molybdenum complexes formation constant First,the reactants and the products were optimized separately and then, their frequencies were measured. In next level , with using Hartree-fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods ,Theoretical studies on the geometrical parameters, electronic properties and vibrational frequencies of dinuclear molybdenum complexes [C40H44Mo2N2O20] were investigated . These calculations were performed with the B3LYP, BPV86, B3PW91 and HF theoretical method using the LANL2DZ (for Mo’s) + 6-311G (for others) basis sets. To estimate the error rate between theoretical data and experimental data, RSquare , SError and RMS values that according with the theoretical and experimental parameters found out DFT methods has more integration with experimental data compare to HF methods. In addition, through electron specification of compounds, the percentage of atomic orbital’s attendance in making molecular orbital’s, atoms electrical charge, the sustainable energy resulting and also HOMO and LUMO orbital’s energy achieved.

Keywords: Electronic Properties, geometrical parameters, hydrogen bonding, vibrational frequencies

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2 Software Improvements of the Accuracy in the Air-Electronic Measurement Systems for Geometrical Dimensions

Authors: Miroslav H. Hristov, Velizar A. Vassilev, Georgi K. Dukendjiev


Due to the constant development of measurement systems and the aim for computerization, unavoidable improvements are made for the main disadvantages of air gauges. With the appearance of the air-electronic measuring devices, some of their disadvantages are solved. The output electrical signal allows them to be included in the modern systems for measuring information processing and process management. Producer efforts are aimed at reducing the influence of supply pressure and measurement system setup errors. Increased accuracy requirements and preventive error measures are due to the main uses of air electronic systems - measurement of geometric dimensions in the automotive industry where they are applied as modules in measuring systems to measure geometric parameters, form, orientation and location of the elements.

Keywords: Measurement systems, Improvement, geometrical parameters, air-electronic

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1 Experimental Study of Energy Absorption Efficiency (EAE) of Warp-Knitted Spacer Fabric Reinforced Foam (WKSFRF) Under Low-Velocity Impact

Authors: Amirhossein Dodankeh, Hadi Dabiryan, Saeed Hamze


Using fabrics to reinforce composites considerably leads to improved mechanical properties, including resistance to the impact load and the energy absorption of composites. Warp-knitted spacer fabrics (WKSF) are fabrics consisting of two layers of warp-knitted fabric connected by pile yarns. These connections create a space between the layers filled by pile yarns and give the fabric a three-dimensional shape. Today because of the unique properties of spacer fabrics, they are widely used in the transportation, construction, and sports industries. Polyurethane (PU) foams are commonly used as energy absorbers, but WKSF has much better properties in moisture transfer, compressive properties, and lower heat resistance than PU foam. It seems that the use of warp-knitted spacer fabric reinforced PU foam (WKSFRF) can lead to the production and use of composite, which has better properties in terms of energy absorption from the foam, its mold formation is enhanced, and its mechanical properties have been improved. In this paper, the energy absorption efficiency (EAE) of WKSFRF under low-velocity impact is investigated experimentally. The contribution of the effect of each of the structural parameters of the WKSF on the absorption of impact energy has also been investigated. For this purpose, WKSF with different structures such as two different thicknesses, small and large mesh sizes, and position of the meshes facing each other and not facing each other were produced. Then 6 types of composite samples with different structural parameters were fabricated. The physical properties of samples like weight per unit area and fiber volume fraction of composite were measured for 3 samples of any type of composites. Low-velocity impact with an initial energy of 5 J was carried out on 3 samples of any type of composite. The output of the low-velocity impact test is acceleration-time (A-T) graph with a lot deviation point, in order to achieve the appropriate results, these points were removed using the FILTFILT function of MATLAB R2018a. Using Newtonian laws of physics force-displacement (F-D) graph was drawn from an A-T graph. We know that the amount of energy absorbed is equal to the area under the F-D curve. Determination shows the maximum energy absorption is 2.858 J which is related to the samples reinforced with fabric with large mesh, high thickness, and not facing of the meshes relative to each other. An index called energy absorption efficiency was defined, which means absorption energy of any kind of our composite divided by its fiber volume fraction. With using this index, the best EAE between the samples is 21.6 that occurs in the sample with large mesh, high thickness, and meshes facing each other. Also, the EAE of this sample is 15.6% better than the average EAE of other composite samples. Generally, the energy absorption on average has been increased 21.2% by increasing the thickness, 9.5% by increasing the size of the meshes from small to big, and 47.3% by changing the position of the meshes from facing to non-facing.

Keywords: Composites, Low-Velocity Impact, geometrical parameters, foam, energy absorption efficiency, warp-knitted spacer fabric

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