Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

geogrid Related Abstracts

18 Numerical Modeling of a Retaining Wall in Soil Reinforced by Layers of Geogrids

Authors: M. Mellas, S. Baaziz, A. Mabrouki, D. Benmeddour


The reinforcement of massifs of backfill with horizontal layers of geosynthetics is an interesting economic solution, which ensures the stability of retaining walls. The mechanical behavior of reinforced soil by geosynthetic is complex, and requires studies and research to understand the mechanisms of rupture. The behavior of reinforcements in the soil and the behavior of the main elements of the system: reinforcement-wall-soil. The present study is interested in numerical modeling of a retaining wall in soil reinforced by horizontal layers of geogrids. This modeling makes use of the software FLAC3D. This work aims to analyze the effect of the length of the geogrid "L" where the soil massif is supporting a uniformly distributed surcharge "Q", taking into account the fixing elements rather than the layers of geogrids to the wall.

Keywords: numerical modeling, Reinforced Soil, Retaining Wall, geogrid, FLAC3D

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17 Some Studies on Prestressed Reinforced Granular Beds Overlying Weak Soil

Authors: J. Jayamohan, R. Shivashankar, Nileena Sureshkumar


The results of finite element analyses carried out to determine the stress distribution along the geogrid reinforcement and at the interface between Prestressed Reinforced Granular Bed (PRGB) and underlying weak soil are presented in this paper. The influence of parameters such as magnitude of prestress, direction of prestress, thickness of granular bed, strength of granular bed, etc. are studied. The results of finite element analyses are validated by carrying out laboratory scale load tests. Prestressing the reinforcement results in distributing the stresses on the underlying weak soil over a wider area, thereby reducing settlements. Results obtained from finite element analyses are found to be in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, geogrid, prestress, reinforced granular bed

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16 The Effect of Soil Reinforcement on Pullout Behaviour of Flat Under-Reamer Anchor Pile Placed in Sand

Authors: V. K. Arora, Amit Rastogi


To understand the anchor pile behaviour and to predict the capacity of piles under uplift loading are important concerns in foundation analysis. Experimental model tests have been conducted on single anchor pile embedded in cohesionless soil and subjected to pure uplift loading. A gravel-filled geogrid layer was located around the enlarged pile base. The experimental tests were conducted on straight-shafted vertical steel piles with an outer diameter of 20 mm in a steel soil tank. The tested piles have embedment depth-to-diameter ratios (L/D) of 2, 3, and 4. The sand bed is prepared at three different values of density of 1.67, 1.59, and 1.50gm/cc. Single piles embedded in sandy soil were tested and the results are presented and analysed in this paper. The influences of pile embedment ratio, reinforcement, relative density of soil on the uplift capacity of piles were investigated. The study revealed that the behaviour of single piles under uplift loading depends mainly on both the pile embedment depth-to-diameter ratio and the soil density. It is believed that the experimental results presented in this study would be beneficial to the professional understanding of the soil–pile-uplift interaction problem.

Keywords: soil reinforcement, geogrid, flat under-reamer anchor pile, pullout reinforcement

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15 Kinematic Behavior of Geogrid Reinforcements during Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim


Reinforced earth structures are generally subjected to cyclic loading generated from earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of the results and analyses of a testing program carried out in a large-scale multi-function geosynthetic testing apparatus that accommodates soil samples up to 1.0 m3. This apparatus performs different shear and pullout tests under both static and cyclic loading. The testing program was carried out to investigate the controlling factors affecting soil/geogrid interaction under cyclic loading. The extensibility of the geogrids, the applied normal stresses, the characteristics of the cyclic loading (frequency, and amplitude), and initial static load within the geogrid sheet were considered in the testing program. Based on the findings of the testing program, the effect of these parameters on the pullout resistance of geogrids, as well as the displacement mobility under cyclic loading were evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations for the design of reinforced earth walls under cyclic loading are presented.

Keywords: Soil, Interface, geogrid, cyclic loading, pullout, large scale testing

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14 Numerical Modelling of Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced Soil System

Authors: Soukat Kumar Das


Rapid industrialization and increase in population has resulted in the scarcity of suitable ground conditions. It has driven the need of ground improvement by means of reinforcement with geosynthetics with the minimum possible settlement and with maximum possible safety. Prestressing the geosynthetics offers an economical yet safe method of gaining the goal. Commercially available software PLAXIS 3D has made the analysis of prestressed geosynthetics simpler with much practical simulations of the ground. Attempts have been made so far to analyse the effect of prestressing geosynthetics and the effect of interference of footing on Unreinforced (UR), Geogrid Reinforced (GR) and Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced (PGR) soil on the load bearing capacity and the settlement characteristics of prestressed geogrid reinforced soil using the numerical analysis by using the software PLAXIS 3D. The results of the numerical analysis have been validated and compared with those given in the referred paper. The results have been found to be in very good agreement with those of the actual field values with very small variation. The GR soil has been found to be improve the bearing pressure 240 % whereas the PGR soil improves it by almost 500 % for 1mm settlement. In fact, the PGR soil has enhanced the bearing pressure of the GR soil by almost 200 %. The settlement reduction has also been found to be very significant as for 100 kPa bearing pressure the settlement reduction of the PGR soil has been found to be about 88 % with respect to UR soil and it reduced to up to 67 % with respect to GR soil. The prestressing force has resulted in enhanced reinforcement mechanism, resulting in the increased bearing pressure. The deformation at the geogrid layer has been found to be 13.62 mm for GR soil whereas it decreased down to mere 3.5 mm for PGR soil which certainly ensures the effect of prestressing on the geogrid layer. The parameter Improvement factor or conventionally known as Bearing Capacity Ratio for different settlements and which depicts the improvement of the PGR with respect to UR and GR soil and the improvement of GR soil with respect to UR soil has been found to vary in the range of 1.66-2.40 in the present analysis for GR soil and was found to be vary between 3.58 and 5.12 for PGR soil with respect to UR soil. The effect of prestressing was also observed in case of two interfering square footings. The centre to centre distance between the two footings (SFD) was taken to be B, 1.5B, 2B, 2.5B and 3B where B is the width of the footing. It was found that for UR soil the improvement of the bearing pressure was up to 1.5B after which it remained almost same. But for GR soil the zone of influence rose up to 2B and for PGR it further went up to 2.5B. So the zone of interference for PGR soil has increased by 67% than Unreinforced (UR) soil and almost 25 % with respect to GR soil.

Keywords: geogrid, bearing, prestressed, reinforced

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13 A Numerical Study for Mixing Depth and Applicability of Partial Cement Mixing Method Utilizing Geogrid and Fixing Unit

Authors: Woo-seok Choi, Eun-sup Kim, Nam-Seo Park


The demand for new technique in soft ground improvement continuously increases as general soft ground methods like PBD and DCM have a application problem in soft grounds with deep depth and wide distribution in Southern coast of Korea and Southeast. In this study, partial cement mixing method utilizing geogrid and fixing unit(CMG) is suggested and Finite element analysis is performed for analyzing the depth of surface soil and deep soil stabilization and comparing with DCM method. In the result of the experiment, the displacement in DCM method were lower than the displacement in CMG, it's because the upper load is transferred to deep part soil not treated by cement in CMG method case. The differential settlement in DCM method was higher than the differential settlement in CMG, because of the effect load transfer effect by surface part soil treated by cement and geogrid. In conclusion, CMG method has the advantage of economics and constructability in embankment road, railway, etc in which differential settlement is the important consideration.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, geogrid, soft ground, fixing unit, partial cement mixing

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12 Numerical Modeling of Geogrid Reinforced Soil Bed under Strip Footings Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Adel M. Belal, Ahmed M. Gamal, S. A. Elsoud


This article aims to study the effect of reinforcement inclusions (geogrids) on the sand dunes bearing capacity under strip footings. In this research experimental physical model was carried out to study the effect of the first geogrid reinforcement depth (u/B), the spacing between the reinforcement (h/B) and its extension relative to the footing length (L/B) on the mobilized bearing capacity. This paper presents the numerical modeling using the commercial finite element package (PLAXIS version 8.2) to simulate the laboratory physical model, studying the same parameters previously handled in the experimental work (u/B, L/B & h/B) for the purpose of validation. In this study the soil, the geogrid, the interface element and the boundary condition are discussed with a set of finite element results and the validation. Then the validated FEM used for studying real material and dimensions of strip foundation. Based on the experimental and numerical investigation results, a significant increase in the bearing capacity of footings has occurred due to an appropriate location of the inclusions in sand. The optimum embedment depth of the first reinforcement layer (u/B) is equal to 0.25. The optimum spacing between each successive reinforcement layer (h/B) is equal to 0.75 B. The optimum Length of the reinforcement layer (L/B) is equal to 7.5 B. The optimum number of reinforcement is equal to 4 layers. The study showed a directly proportional relation between the number of reinforcement layer and the Bearing Capacity Ratio BCR, and an inversely proportional relation between the footing width and the BCR.

Keywords: Reinforced Soil, geogrid, bearing capacity, sand dunes

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11 A Study on the Reinforced Earth Walls Using Sandwich Backfills under Seismic Loads

Authors: Kavitha A.S., L.Govindaraju


Reinforced earth walls offer excellent solution to many problems associated with earth retaining structures especially under seismic conditions. Use of cohesive soils as backfill material reduces the cost of reinforced soil walls if proper drainage measures are taken. This paper presents a numerical study on the application of a new technique called sandwich technique in reinforced earth walls. In this technique, a thin layer of granular soil is placed above and below the reinforcement layer to initiate interface friction and the remaining portion of the backfill is filled up using the existing insitu cohesive soil. A 6 m high reinforced earth wall has been analysed as a two-dimensional plane strain finite element model. Three types of reinforcing elements such as geotextile, geogrid and metallic strips were used. The horizontal wall displacements and the tensile loads in the reinforcement were used as the criteria to evaluate the results at the end of construction and dynamic excitation phases. Also to verify the effectiveness of sandwich layer on the performance of the wall, the thickness of sand fill surrounding the reinforcement was varied. At the end of construction stage it is found that the wall with sandwich type backfill yielded lower displacements when compared to the wall with cohesive soil as backfill. Also with sandwich backfill, the reinforcement loads reduced substantially when compared to the wall with cohesive soil as backfill. Further, it is found that sandwich technique as backfill and geogrid as reinforcement is a good combination to reduce the deformations of geosynthetic reinforced walls during seismic loading.

Keywords: geogrid, geotextile, reinforced earth, sandwich technique

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10 Geotechnical Investigation of Soil Foundation for Ramps of Dawar El-Tawheed Bridge in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Abdulwali Wazir, Hamod H. Kharezi, Hossam E. M. Sallam


The soil profile at site of the bridge project includes soft fine grained soil layer located between 5.0 m to 11.0 m in depth, it has high water content, low SPT no., and low bearing capacity. The clay layer induces high settlement due to surcharge application of earth embankment at ramp T1, ramp T2, and ramp T3 especially at heights from 9m right 3m. Calculated settlement for embankment heights less than 3m may be accepted regarding Saudi Code for soil and foundation. The soil and groundwater at the project site comprise high contents of sulfates and chlorides of high aggressively on concrete and steel bars, respectively. Regarding results of the study, it has been recommended to use stone column piles or new technology named PCC piles as soil improvement to improve the bearing capacity of the weak layer. The new technology is cast in-situ thin wall concrete pipe piles (PCC piles), it has economically advantageous and high workability. The technology can save time of implementation and cost of application is almost 30% of other types of piles.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, geogrid, bearing capacity, soft foundation soil, bridge ramps, PCC piles

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9 Laboratory Evaluation of Geogrids Used for Stabilizing Soft Subgrades

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Nehla Mansour


This paper aims to assess the efficiency of using geogrid reinforcement for subgrade stabilization. The literature of applying geogrid reinforcement technique for pavements built on soft subgrades and the previous experiences were reviewed. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil reinforced with geogrids in one or several layers. The soil specimens were compacted in four layers with or without geogrid sheets. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, in soaking condition, was performed on natural soil and soil-geogrid specimens. The test results revealed that the CBR value is much affected by the geogrid sheet location and the number of sheets used in the soil specimen. When a geogrid sheet was placed at the 1st layer of the soil, there was an increment of 26% in the CBR value. Moreover, the CBR value was significantly increased by 62% when geogrid sheets were placed at all four layers. The high CBR value is attributed to interface friction and interlock involved in the geogrid/ soil interactions. It could be concluded that geogrid reinforcement is successful and more economical technique.

Keywords: reinforcement, Stabilization, geogrid, subgrade

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8 Analysis of Bored Piles with and without Geogrid in a Selected Area in Kocaeli/Turkey

Authors: Utkan Mutman, Cihan Dirlik


Kocaeli/TURKEY district in which wastewater held in a chosen field increased property has made piling in order to improve the ground under the aeration basin. In this study, the degree of improvement the ground after bored piling held in the field were investigated. In this context, improving the ground before and after the investigation was carried out and that the solution values obtained by the finite element method analysis using Plaxis program have been made. The diffuses in the aeration basin whose treatment is to aide is influenced with and without geogrid on the ground. On the ground been improved, for the purpose of control of manufactured bored piles, pile continuity, and pile load tests were made. Taking into consideration both the data in the field as well as dynamic loads in the aeration basic, an analysis was made on Plaxis program and compared the data obtained from the analysis result and data obtained in the field.

Keywords: Soil Improvement, geogrid, plaxis, bored pile

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7 Case Study: Hybrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall System Built on Basal Reinforced Raft

Authors: S. Kaymakçı, D. Gündoğdu, H. Özçelik


The truck park of a warehouse for a chain of supermarket was going to be constructed on a poor ground. Rather than using a piled foundation, the client was convinced that a ground improvement using a reinforced foundation raft also known as “basal reinforcement” shall work. The retaining structures supporting the truck park area were designed using a hybrid structure made up of the Terramesh® Wall System and MacGrid™ high strength geogrids. The total wall surface area is nearly 2740 sq.m , reaching a maximum height of 13.00 meters. The area is located in the first degree seismic zone of Turkey and the design seismic acceleration is high. The design of walls has been carried out using pseudo-static method (limit equilibrium) taking into consideration different loading conditions using Eurocode 7. For each standard approach stability analysis in seismic condition were performed. The paper presents the detailed design of the reinforced soil structure, basal reinforcement and the construction methods; advantages of using such system for the project are discussed.

Keywords: soil reinforcement, geogrid, basal reinforcement, reinforced soil raft, reinforced soil wall

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6 Experimental Study on Improving the Engineering Properties of Sand Dunes Using Random Fibers-Geogrid Reinforcement

Authors: Sameh Abu El-Soud, Adel M. Belal, Mariam Farid


This study presents the effect of reinforcement inclusions (fibers-geogrids) on fine sand bearing capacity under strip footings. Experimental model tests were carried out using a rectangular plates [(10cm x 38 cm), (7.5 cm x 38 cm), and (12.5 cm x 38 cm)] with a geogrids and randomly reinforced fibers. The width and depth of the geogrid were varied to determine their effects on the engineering properties of treated poorly graded fine sand. Laboratory model test results for the ultimate stresses and the settlement of a rigid strip foundation supported by single and multi-layered fiber-geogrid-reinforced sand are presented. The number of layers of geogrid was varied between 1 to 4. The effect of the first geogrid reinforcement depth, the spacing between the reinforcement and its length on the bearing capacity is investigated by experimental program. Results show that the use of flexible random fibers with a content of 0.125% by weight of the treated sand dunes, with 3 geogrid reinforcement layers, u/B= 0.25 and L/B=7.5, has a significant increase in the bearing capacity of the proposed system.

Keywords: Reinforced Soil, geogrid, earth reinforcement, random fiber

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5 Application of Geosynthetics for the Recovery of Located Road on Geological Failure

Authors: Rideci Farias, Haroldo Paranhos


The present work deals with the use of drainage geo-composite as a deep drainage and geogrid element to reinforce the base of the body of the landfill destined to the road pavement on geological faults in the stretch of the TO-342 Highway, between the cities of Miracema and Miranorte, in the State of Tocantins / TO, Brazil, which for many years was the main link between TO-010 and BR-153, after the city of Palmas, also in the state of Tocantins / TO, Brazil. For this application, geotechnical and geological studies were carried out by means of SPT percussion drilling, drilling and rotary drilling, to understand the problem, identifying the type of faults, filling material and the definition of the water table. According to the geological and geotechnical studies carried out, the area where the route was defined, passes through a zone of longitudinal fault to the runway, with strong breaking / fracturing, with presence of voids, intense alteration and with advanced argilization of the rock and with the filling up parts of the faults by organic and compressible soils leachate from other horizons. This geology presents as a geotechnical aggravating agent a medium of high hydraulic load and very low resistance to penetration. For more than 20 years, the region presented constant excessive deformations in the upper layers of the pavement, which after routine services of regularization, reconformation, re-compaction of the layers and application of the asphalt coating. The faults were quickly propagated to the surface of the asphalt pavement, generating a longitudinal shear, forming steps (unevenness), close to 40 cm, causing numerous accidents and discomfort to the drivers, since the geometric positioning was in a horizontal curve. Several projects were presented to the region's highway department to solve the problem. Due to the need for partial closure of the runway, the short time for execution, the use of geosynthetics was proposed and the most adequate solution for the problem was taken into account the movement of existing geological faults and the position of the water level in relation to several Layers of pavement and failure. In order to avoid any flow of water in the body of the landfill and in the filling material of the faults, a drainage curtain solution was used, carried out at 4.0 meters depth, with drainage geo-composite and as reinforcement element and inhibitor of the possible A geogrid of 200 kN / m of resistance was inserted at the base of the reconstituted landfill. Recent evaluations, after 13 years of application of the solution, show the efficiency of the technique used, supported by the geotechnical studies carried out in the area.

Keywords: Recovery, Geosynthetics, Road, geogrid, geocomposite, geological failure

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4 The Influence of the Geogrid Layers on the Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils

Authors: M. Hossein Zade, S. A. Naeini, H. R. Rahmani


Many classical bearing capacity theories assume that the natural soil's layers are homogenous for determining the bearing capacity of the soil. But, in many practical projects, we encounter multi-layer soils. Geosynthetic as reinforcement materials have been extensively used in the construction of various structures. In this paper, numerical analysis of the Plate Load Test (PLT) using of ABAQUS software in double-layered soils with different thicknesses of sandy and gravelly layers reinforced with geogrid was considered. The PLT is one of the common filed methods to calculate parameters such as soil bearing capacity, the evaluation of the compressibility and the determination of the Subgrade Reaction module. In fact, the influence of the geogrid layers on the bearing capacity of the layered soils is investigated. Finally, the most appropriate mode for the distance and number of reinforcement layers is determined. Results show that using three layers of geogrid with a distance of 0.3 times the width of the loading plate has the highest efficiency in bearing capacity of double-layer (sand and gravel) soils. Also, the significant increase in bearing capacity between unreinforced and reinforced soil with three layers of geogrid is caused by the condition that the upper layer (gravel) thickness is equal to the loading plate width.

Keywords: reinforcement, geogrid, bearing capacity, plate load test, layered soils

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3 Model Tests on Geogrid-Reinforced Sand-Filled Embankments with a Cover Layer under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Ma Yuan, Zhang Mengxi, Akbar Javadi, Chen Longqing


The structure of sand-filled embankment with cover layer is treated with tipping clay modified with lime on the outside of the packing, and the geotextile is placed between the stuffing and the clay. The packing is usually river sand, and the improved clay protects the sand core against rainwater erosion. The sand-filled embankment with cover layer has practical problems such as high filling embankment, construction restriction, and steep slope. The reinforcement can be applied to the sand-filled embankment with cover layer to solve the complicated problems such as irregular settlement caused by poor stability of the embankment. At present, the research on the sand-filled embankment with cover layer mainly focuses on the sand properties, construction technology, and slope stability, and there are few studies in the experimental field, the deformation characteristics and stability of reinforced sand-filled embankment need further study. In addition, experimental research is relatively rare when the cyclic load is considered in tests. A subgrade structure of geogrid-reinforced sand-filled embankment with cover layer was proposed. The mechanical characteristics, the deformation properties, reinforced behavior and the ultimate bearing capacity of the embankment structure under cyclic loading were studied. For this structure, the geogrids in the sand and the tipping soil are through the geotextile which is arranged in sections continuously so that the geogrids can cross horizontally. Then, the Unsaturated/saturated Soil Triaxial Test System of Geotechnical Consulting and Testing Systems (GCTS), USA was modified to form the loading device of this test, and strain collector was used to measuring deformation and earth pressure of the embankment. A series of cyclic loading model tests were conducted on the geogrid-reinforced sand-filled embankment with a cover layer under a different number of reinforcement layers, the length of reinforcement and thickness of the cover layer. The settlement of the embankment, the normal cumulative deformation of the slope and the earth pressure were studied under different conditions. Besides cyclic loading model tests, model experiments of embankment subjected cyclic-static loading was carried out to analyze ultimate bearing capacity with different loading. The experiment results showed that the vertical cumulative settlement under long-term cyclic loading increases with the decrease of the number of reinforcement layers, length of the reinforcement arrangement and thickness of the tipping soil. Meanwhile, these three factors also have an influence on the decrease of the normal deformation of the embankment slope. The earth pressure around the loading point is significantly affected by putting geogrid in a model embankment. After cyclic loading, the decline of ultimate bearing capacity of the reinforced embankment can be effectively reduced, which is contrary to the unreinforced embankment.

Keywords: Earth Pressure, geogrid, cyclic load, reinforcement behavior, cumulative deformation

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2 Experimental Investigation on Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Sections via California Bearing Ratio Test

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Nazeri, S. Abdi Goudazri


Loose soils normally are of weak bearing capacity due to their structural nature. Being exposed to heavy traffic loads, they would fail in most cases. To tackle the aforementioned issue, geotechnical engineers have come up with different approaches; one of which is making use of geosynthetic-reinforced soil-aggregate systems. As these polymeric reinforcements have highlighted economic and environmentally-friendly features, they have become widespread in practice during the last decades. The present research investigates the efficiency of four different types of these reinforcements in increasing the bearing capacity of two-layered soil sections using a series California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test. The studied sections are comprised of a 10 cm-thick layer of no. 161 Firouzkooh sand (weak subgrade) and a 10 cm-thick layer of compacted aggregate materials (base course) classified as SP and GW according to the United Soil Classification System (USCS), respectively. The aggregate layer was compacted to the relative density (Dr) of 95% at the optimum water content (Wopt) of 6.5%. The applied reinforcements were including two kinds of geocomposites (type A and B), a geotextile, and a geogrid that were embedded at the interface of the lower and the upper layers of the soil-aggregate system. As the standard CBR mold was not appropriate in height for this study, the mold used for soaked CBR tests were utilized. To make a comparison between the results of stress-settlement behavior in the studied specimens, CBR values pertinent to the penetrations of 2.5 mm and 5 mm were considered. The obtained results demonstrated 21% and 24.5% increments in the amount of CBR value in the presence of geocomposite type A and geogrid, respectively. On the other hand, the effect of both geotextile and geocomposite type B on CBR values was generally insignificant in this research.

Keywords: Geosynthetics, geogrid, geotextile, CBR test, increasing bearing capacity

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1 Numerical Analysis of Shallow Footing Rested on Geogrid Reinforced Sandy Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Javad Shamsi Soosahab


The use of geosynthetic reinforcement within the footing soils is a very effective and useful method to avoid the construction of costly deep foundations. This study investigated the use of geosynthetics for soil improvement based on numerical modeling using FELA software. Pressure settlement behavior and bearing capacity ratio of foundation on geogrid reinforced sand is investigated and the effect of different parameters like as number of geogrid layers and vertical distance between elements in three different relative density soil is studied. The effects of geometrical parameters of reinforcement layers were studied for determining the optimal values to reach to maximum bearing capacity. The results indicated that the optimum range of the distance ratio between the reinforcement layers was achieved at 0.5 to 0.6 and after number of geogrid layers of 4, no significant effect on increasing the bearing capacity of footing on reinforced sandy with geogrid

Keywords: geogrid, reinforced sand, FELA software, distance ratio, number of geogrid layers

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