Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Geographical Information System Related Abstracts

11 Employing GIS to Analyze Areas Prone to Flooding: Case Study of Thailand

Authors: Settapong Malisuwan, Sanpachai Huvanandana, Soparwan Tongyuak, Prust Pannachet, Anong Phoepueak, Navneet Madan


Many regions of Thailand are prone to flooding due to tropical climate. A commonly increasing precipitation in this continent results in risk of flooding. Many efforts have been implemented such as drainage control system, multiple dams, and irrigation canals. In order to decide where the drainages, dams, and canal should be appropriately located, the flooding risk area should be determined. This paper is aimed to identify the appropriate features that can be used to classify the flooding risk area in Thailand. Several features have been analyzed and used to classify the area. Non-supervised clustering techniques have been used and the results have been compared with ten years average actual flooding area.

Keywords: Geographical Information System, flood area clustering, flood features

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10 Incorporating Spatial Selection Criteria with Decision-Maker Preferences of A Precast Manufacturing Plant

Authors: M. N. A. Azman, M. S. S. Ahamad


The Construction Industry Development Board of Malaysia has been actively promoting the use of precast manufacturing in the local construction industry over the last decade. In an era of rapid technological changes, precast manufacturing significantly contributes to improving construction activities and ensuring sustainable economic growth. Current studies on the location decision of precast manufacturing plants aimed to enhanced local economic development are scarce. To address this gap, the present research establishes a new set of spatial criteria, such as attribute maps and preference weights, derived from a survey of local industry decision makers. These data represent the input parameters for the MCE-GIS site selection model, for which the weighted linear combination method is used. Verification tests on the model were conducted to determine the potential precast manufacturing sites in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The tests yield a predicted area of 12.87 acres located within a designated industrial zone. Although, the model is developed specifically for precast manufacturing plant but nevertheless it can be employed to other types of industries by following the methodology and guidelines proposed in the present research.

Keywords: Civil Engineering, Geographical Information System, multi criteria evaluation, industrialised building system

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9 GIS-Based Identification of Overloaded Distribution Transformers and Calculation of Technical Electric Power Losses

Authors: Javed Iqbal, Awais Ahmed


Pakistan has been for many years facing extreme challenges in energy deficit due to the shortage of power generation compared to increasing demand. A part of this energy deficit is also contributed by the power lost in transmission and distribution network. Unfortunately, distribution companies are not equipped with modern technologies and methods to identify and eliminate these losses. According to estimate, total energy lost in early 2000 was between 20 to 26 percent. To address this issue the present research study was designed with the objectives of developing a standalone GIS application for distribution companies having the capability of loss calculation as well as identification of overloaded transformers. For this purpose, Hilal Road feeder in Faisalabad Electric Supply Company (FESCO) was selected as study area. An extensive GPS survey was conducted to identify each consumer, linking it to the secondary pole of the transformer, geo-referencing equipment and documenting conductor sizes. To identify overloaded transformer, accumulative kWH reading of consumer on transformer was compared with threshold kWH. Technical losses of 11kV and 220V lines were calculated using the data from substation and resistance of the network calculated from the geo-database. To automate the process a standalone GIS application was developed using ArcObjects with engineering analysis capabilities. The application uses GIS database developed for 11kV and 220V lines to display and query spatial data and present results in the form of graphs. The result shows that about 14% of the technical loss on both high tension (HT) and low tension (LT) network while about 4 out of 15 general duty transformers were found overloaded. The study shows that GIS can be a very effective tool for distribution companies in management and planning of their distribution network.

Keywords: Power Distribution, GIS, GPS, Distribution Transformers, Geographical Information System, technical losses, SDSS, spatial decision support system

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8 Decision Support System Based On GIS and MCDM to Identify Land Suitability for Agriculture

Authors: Abdelkader Mendas


The integration of MultiCriteria Decision Making (MCDM) approaches in a Geographical Information System (GIS) provides a powerful spatial decision support system which offers the opportunity to efficiently produce the land suitability maps for agriculture. Indeed, GIS is a powerful tool for analyzing spatial data and establishing a process for decision support. Because of their spatial aggregation functions, MCDM methods can facilitate decision making in situations where several solutions are available, various criteria have to be taken into account and decision-makers are in conflict. The parameters and the classification system used in this work are inspired from the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) approach dedicated to a sustainable agriculture. A spatial decision support system has been developed for establishing the land suitability map for agriculture. It incorporates the multicriteria analysis method ELECTRE Tri (ELimitation Et Choix Traduisant la REalité) in a GIS within the GIS program package environment. The main purpose of this research is to propose a conceptual and methodological framework for the combination of GIS and multicriteria methods in a single coherent system that takes into account the whole process from the acquisition of spatially referenced data to decision-making. In this context, a spatial decision support system for developing land suitability maps for agriculture has been developed. The algorithm of ELECTRE Tri is incorporated into a GIS environment and added to the other analysis functions of GIS. This approach has been tested on an area in Algeria. A land suitability map for durum wheat has been produced. Through the obtained results, it appears that ELECTRE Tri method, integrated into a GIS, is better suited to the problem of land suitability for agriculture. The coherence of the obtained maps confirms the system effectiveness.

Keywords: Decision Support System, Geographical Information System, multicriteria decision analysis, land suitability for agriculture

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7 Multitemporal Satellite Images for Agriculture Change Detection in Al Jouf Region, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali A. Aldosari


Change detection of Earth surface features is extremely important for better understanding of our environment in order to promote better decision making. Al-Jawf is remarkable for its abundant agricultural water where there is fertile agricultural land due largely to underground water. As result, this region has large areas of cultivation of dates, olives and fruits trees as well as other agricultural products such as Alfa Alfa and wheat. However this agricultural area was declined due to the reduction of government supports in the last decade. This reduction was not officially recorded or measured in this region at large scale or governorate level. Remote sensing data are primary sources extensively used for change detection in agriculture applications. This study is applied the technology of GIS and used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which can be used to measure and analyze the spatial and temporal changes in the agriculture areas in the Aljouf region.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, Geographical Information System, change detection

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6 Disaster and Crisis Management Using Geographical Information System (GIS) during the Operation and Maintenance Stages of the Hyderabad Metro Rail in India

Authors: M. Anji Reddy, Sai Rajeev Reddy, Ishita Roy


The paper describes the importance of preventive measures and immediate Emergency logistics during accidents and unfortunate Disasters for the Hyderabad Metro Rails in their various stages of construction. This is the need of the modern generation where accidents, explosions, attacks and sudden crisis are frequent casualties which take huge tolls of life in the present world. The paper utilizes the workflow and application of Geographical information System (GIS) to provide information about problems and crisis structures for efficient Metro Transportation in the city. The study analyzes the difficulties and problems which cause accidents during operation and maintenance stages of the Metro Rail. The paper focuses upon the intermediate and firsthand information of Crisis with the help of GIS technology to share Disaster data for effective measures by the Cyber Police stations, Emergency Responders, Hospitals and First Aid Centre to act immediately and save lives. The results and conclusions have nevertheless proved very informative and useful for the safety board authorities of the Hyderabad Metro Rail. The operation and Maintenance are integral stages in the development of any Multipurpose transportation Projects and are usually prone to various Disasters and tragedies. Hence, the GIS technologies help in distribution of information among the masses with the web Technologies and advanced software developed to prevent and manage crisis widely and in a cost-benefits manner.

Keywords: Surveillance, Geographical Information System, emergency assessment, accident zones

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5 Estimating Soil Erosion Using Universal Soil Loss Equation and Gis in Algash Basin

Authors: Issamaldin Mohammed, Ahmed Abdalla, Hatim Elobied


Soil erosion is globally known for adverse effects on social, environmental and economical aspects which directly or indirectly influence the human life. The area under study suffers from problems like water quality, river and agricultural canals bed rise due to high sediment load brought by Algash River from upstream (Eritrea high land), the current study utilized from remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) to estimate the annual soil loss using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The USLE is widely used over the world which basically relies on rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), topographic factor (LS), cover management factor (C) and support practice factor (P). The result of the study showed high soil loss in the study area, this result was illustrated in a form of map presenting the spatial distribution of soil loss amounts which classified into seven zones ranging from very slight zone (less than 2 ton/ha.year) to very severe (100-500 ton/ha.year), also the total soil loss from the whole study area was found to be 32,916,840.87 ton/ha.year. These kinds of results will help the experts of land management to give a priority for the severely affected zones to be tackled in an appropriate way.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Sedimentation, Geographical Information System, soil loss

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4 Land Use Dynamics of Ikere Forest Reserve, Nigeria Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Akintunde Alo


The incessant encroachments into the forest ecosystem by the farmers and local contractors constitute a major threat to the conservation of genetic resources and biodiversity in Nigeria. To propose a viable monitoring system, this study employed Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to assess the changes that occurred for a period of five years (between 2011 and 2016) in Ikere forest reserve. Landsat imagery of the forest reserve was obtained. For the purpose of geo-referencing the acquired satellite imagery, ground-truth coordinates of some benchmark places within the forest reserve was relied on. Supervised classification algorithm, image processing, vectorization and map production were realized using ArcGIS. Various land use systems within the forest ecosystem were digitized into polygons of different types and colours for 2011 and 2016, roads were represented with lines of different thickness and colours. Of the six land-use delineated, the grassland increased from 26.50 % in 2011 to 45.53% in 2016 of the total land area with a percentage change of 71.81 %. Plantations of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis on the other hand reduced from 62.16 % in 2011 to 27.41% in 2016. The farmland and degraded land recorded percentage change of about 176.80 % and 8.70 % respectively from 2011 to 2016. Overall, the rate of deforestation in the study area is on the increase and becoming severe. About 72.59% of the total land area has been converted to non-forestry uses while the remnant 27.41% is occupied by plantations of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis. Interestingly, over 55 % of the plantation area in 2011 has changed to grassland, or converted to farmland and degraded land in 2016. The rate of change over time was about 9.79 % annually. Based on the results, rapid actions to prevail on the encroachers to stop deforestation and encouraged re-afforestation in the study area are recommended.

Keywords: land use change, Satellite Imagery, Geographical Information System, forest reserve

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3 Development of GIS-Based Geotechnical Guidance Maps for Prediction of Soil Bearing Capacity

Authors: Q. Toufeeq, R. Kauser, U. R. Jamil, N. Sohaib


Foundation design of a structure needs soil investigation to avoid failures due to settlements. This soil investigation is expensive and time-consuming. Developments of new residential societies involve huge leveling of large sites that is accompanied by heavy land filling. Poor practices of land fill for deep depths cause differential settlements and consolidations of underneath soil that sometimes result in the collapse of structures. The extent of filling remains unknown to the individual developer unless soil investigation is carried out. Soil investigation cannot be performed on each available site due to involved costs. However, fair estimate of bearing capacity can be made if such tests are already done in the surrounding areas. The geotechnical guidance maps can provide a fair assessment of soil properties. Previously, GIS-based approaches have been used to develop maps using extrapolation and interpolations techniques for bearing capacities, underground recharge, soil classification, geological hazards, landslide hazards, socio-economic, and soil liquefaction mapping. Standard penetration test (SPT) data of surrounding sites were already available. Google Earth is used for digitization of collected data. Few points were considered for data calibration and validation. Resultant Geographic information system (GIS)-based guidance maps are helpful to anticipate the bearing capacity in the real estate industry.

Keywords: Soil Classification, Geographical Information System, bearing capacity, radial basis function, inverse distance weighted

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2 Effects of Increased Green Surface on a Densely Built Urban Fabric: The Case of Budapest

Authors: Viktória Sugár, Orsolya Frick, Gabriella Horváth, A. Bendegúz Vöröss, Péter Leczovics, Géza Baráth


Urban greenery has multiple positive effects both on the city and its residents. Apart from the visual advantages, it changes the micro-climate by cooling and shading, also increasing vapor and oxygen, reducing dust and carbon-dioxide content at the same time. The above are all critical factors of livability of an urban fabric. Unfortunately, in a dense, historical district there are restricted possibilities to build green surfaces. The present study collects and systemizes the applicable green solutions in the case of a historical downtown district of Budapest. The study contains a GIS-based measurement of the eligible surfaces for greenery, and also calculates the potential of oxygen production, carbon-dioxide reduction and cooling effect of an increased green surface.  It can be concluded that increasing the green surface has measurable effects on a densely built urban fabric, including air quality, micro-climate and other environmental factors.

Keywords: Sustainable City, Geographical Information System, green roof, urban greenery, green wall, green surface potential, oxygen production, carbon-dioxide reduction

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1 Analyzing the Influence of Hydrometeorlogical Extremes, Geological Setting, and Social Demographic on Public Health

Authors: Irfan Ahmad Afip


This main research objective is to accurately identify the possibility for a Leptospirosis outbreak severity of a certain area based on its input features into a multivariate regression model. The research question is the possibility of an outbreak in a specific area being influenced by this feature, such as social demographics and hydrometeorological extremes. If the occurrence of an outbreak is being subjected to these features, then the epidemic severity for an area will be different depending on its environmental setting because the features will influence the possibility and severity of an outbreak. Specifically, this research objective was three-fold, namely: (a) to identify the relevant multivariate features and visualize the patterns data, (b) to develop a multivariate regression model based from the selected features and determine the possibility for Leptospirosis outbreak in an area, and (c) to compare the predictive ability of multivariate regression model and machine learning algorithms. Several secondary data features were collected locations in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, based on the possibility it would be relevant to determine the outbreak severity in the area. The relevant features then will become an input in a multivariate regression model; a linear regression model is a simple and quick solution for creating prognostic capabilities. A multivariate regression model has proven more precise prognostic capabilities than univariate models. The expected outcome from this research is to establish a correlation between the features of social demographic and hydrometeorological with Leptospirosis bacteria; it will also become a contributor for understanding the underlying relationship between the pathogen and the ecosystem. The relationship established can be beneficial for the health department or urban planner to inspect and prepare for future outcomes in event detection and system health monitoring.

Keywords: Geographical Information System, hydrometeorological, leptospirosis, multivariate regression

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