Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Geographic Information System Related Abstracts

37 A Review on Stormwater Harvesting and Reuse

Authors: Fatema Akram, Mohammad G. Rasul, M. Masud K. Khan, M. Sharif I. I. Amir

Abstract:

Australia is a country of some 7,700 million square kilometres with a population of about 22.6 million. At present water security is a major challenge for Australia. In some areas the use of water resources is approaching and in some parts it is exceeding the limits of sustainability. A focal point of proposed national water conservation programs is the recycling of both urban storm-water and treated wastewater. But till now it is not widely practiced in Australia, and particularly storm-water is neglected. In Australia, only 4% of storm-water and rainwater is recycled, whereas less than 1% of reclaimed wastewater is reused within urban areas. Therefore, accurately monitoring, assessing and predicting the availability, quality and use of this precious resource are required for better management. As storm-water is usually of better quality than untreated sewage or industrial discharge, it has better public acceptance for recycling and reuse, particularly for non-potable use such as irrigation, watering lawns, gardens, etc. Existing storm-water recycling practice is far behind of research and no robust technologies developed for this purpose. Therefore, there is a clear need for using modern technologies for assessing feasibility of storm-water harvesting and reuse. Numerical modelling has, in recent times, become a popular tool for doing this job. It includes complex hydrological and hydraulic processes of the study area. The hydrologic model computes storm-water quantity to design the system components, and the hydraulic model helps to route the flow through storm-water infrastructures. Nowadays water quality module is incorporated with these models. Integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) with these models provides extra advantage of managing spatial information. However for the overall management of a storm-water harvesting project, Decision Support System (DSS) plays an important role incorporating database with model and GIS for the proper management of temporal information. Additionally DSS includes evaluation tools and Graphical user interface. This research aims to critically review and discuss all the aspects of storm-water harvesting and reuse such as available guidelines of storm-water harvesting and reuse, public acceptance of water reuse, the scopes and recommendation for future studies. In addition to these, this paper identifies, understand and address the importance of modern technologies capable of proper management of storm-water harvesting and reuse.

Keywords: Database, Geographic Information System, Decision Support System, Numerical Modelling, storm-water management, storm-water harvesting and reuse

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36 GIS Application in Surface Runoff Estimation for Upper Klang River Basin, Malaysia

Authors: Wardah Tahir, Suzana Ramli

Abstract:

Estimation of surface runoff depth is a vital part in any rainfall-runoff modeling. It leads to stream flow calculation and later predicts flood occurrences. GIS (Geographic Information System) is an advanced and opposite tool used in simulating hydrological model due to its realistic application on topography. The paper discusses on calculation of surface runoff depth for two selected events by using GIS with Curve Number method for Upper Klang River basin. GIS enables maps intersection between soil type and land use that later produces curve number map. The results show good correlation between simulated and observed values with more than 0.7 of R2. Acceptable performance of statistical measurements namely mean error, absolute mean error, RMSE, and bias are also deduced in the paper.

Keywords: Environment, Geographic Information System, surface runoff, curve number method

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35 Dynamic Model for Forecasting Rainfall Induced Landslides

Authors: R. Premasiri, W. A. H. A. Abeygunasekara, S. M. Hewavidana, T. Jananthan, R. M. S. Madawala, K. Vaheeshan

Abstract:

Forecasting the potential for disastrous events such as landslides has become one of the major necessities in the current world. Most of all, the landslides occurred in Sri Lanka are found to be triggered mostly by intense rainfall events. The study area is the landslide near Gerandiella waterfall which is located by the 41st kilometer post on Nuwara Eliya-Gampala main road in Kotmale Division in Sri Lanka. The landslide endangers the entire Kotmale town beneath the slope. Geographic Information System (GIS) platform is very much useful when it comes to the need of emulating the real-world processes. The models are used in a wide array of applications ranging from simple evaluations to the levels of forecast future events. This project investigates the possibility of developing a dynamic model to map the spatial distribution of the slope stability. The model incorporates several theoretical models including the infinite slope model, Green Ampt infiltration model and Perched ground water flow model. A series of rainfall values can be fed to the model as the main input to simulate the dynamics of slope stability. Hydrological model developed using GIS is used to quantify the perched water table height, which is one of the most critical parameters affecting the slope stability. Infinite slope stability model is used to quantify the degree of slope stability in terms of factor of safety. DEM was built with the use of digitized contour data. Stratigraphy was modeled in Surfer using borehole data and resistivity images. Data available from rainfall gauges and piezometers were used in calibrating the model. During the calibration, the parameters were adjusted until a good fit between the simulated ground water levels and the piezometer readings was obtained. This model equipped with the predicted rainfall values can be used to forecast of the slope dynamics of the area of interest. Therefore it can be investigated the slope stability of rainfall induced landslides by adjusting temporal dimensions.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Geographic Information System, factor of safety, hydrological model

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34 Combination of Artificial Neural Network Model and Geographic Information System for Prediction Water Quality

Authors: Sirilak Areerachakul

Abstract:

Water quality has initiated serious management efforts in many countries. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are developed as forecasting tools in predicting water quality trend based on historical data. This study endeavors to automatically classify water quality. The water quality classes are evaluated using 6 factor indices. These factors are pH value (pH), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3N), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3N) and Total Coliform (T-Coliform). The methodology involves applying data mining techniques using multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network models. The data consisted of 11 sites of Saen Saep canal in Bangkok, Thailand. The data is obtained from the Department of Drainage and Sewerage Bangkok Metropolitan Administration during 2007-2011. The results of multilayer perceptron neural network exhibit a high accuracy multilayer perception rate at 94.23% in classifying the water quality of Saen Saep canal in Bangkok. Subsequently, this encouraging result could be combined with GIS data improves the classification accuracy significantly.

Keywords: Computer Science, Water Quality, Geographic Information System, Artificial Neural Network

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33 Development of mHealth Information in Community Based on Geographical Information: A Case Study from Saraphi District, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Authors: Waraporn Boonchieng, Ekkarat Boonchieng, Wilawan Senaratana, Jaras Singkaew

Abstract:

Geographical information system (GIS) is a designated system widely used for collecting and analyzing geographical data. Since the introduction of ultra-mobile, 'smart' devices, investigators, clinicians, and even the general public have had powerful new tools for collecting, uploading and accessing information in the field. Epidemiology paired with GIS will increase the efficacy of preventive health care services. The objective of this study is to apply GPS location services that are available on the common mobile device with district health systems, storing data on our private cloud system. The mobile application has been developed for use on iOS, Android, and web-based platforms. The system consists of two parts of district health information, including recorded resident data forms and individual health recorded data forms, which were developed and approved by opinion sharing and public hearing. The application's graphical user interface was developed using HTML5 and PHP with MySQL as a database management system (DBMS). The reporting module of the developed software displays data in a variety of views, from traditional tables to various types of high-resolution, layered graphics, incorporating map location information with street views from Google Maps. Multi-extension exporting is also supported, utilizing standard platforms such as PDF, PNG, JPG, and XLS. The data were collected in the database beginning in March 2013, by district health volunteers and district youth volunteers who had completed the application training program. District health information consisted of patients’ household coordinates, individual health data, social and economic information. This was combined with Google Street View data, collected in March 2014. Studied groups consisted of 16,085 (67.87%) and 47,811 (59.87%) of the total 23,701 households and 79,855 people were collected by the system respectively, in Saraphi district, Chiang Mai Province. The report generated from the system has had a major benefit directly to the Saraphi District Hospital. Healthcare providers are able to use the basic health data to provide a specific home health care service and also to create health promotion activities according to medical needs of the people in the community.

Keywords: Health, Public Health, Geographic Information System, GIS

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32 Outline of a Technique for the Recommendation of Tourism Products in Cuba Using GIS

Authors: Jesse D. Cano, Marlon J. Remedios

Abstract:

Cuban tourism has developed so much in the last 30 years to the point of becoming one of the engines of the Cuban economy. With such a development, Cuban companies opting for e-tourism as a way to publicize their products and attract customers has also grown. Despite this fact, the majority of Cuban tourism-themed websites simply provide information on the different products and services they offer which results in many cases, in the user getting overwhelmed with the amount of information available which results in the user abandoning the search before he can find a product that fits his needs. Customization has been recognized as a critical factor for successful electronic tourism business and the use of recommender systems is the best approach to address the problem of personalization. This paper aims to outline a preliminary technique to obtain predictions about which products a particular user would give a better evaluation; these products would be those which the website would show in the first place. To achieve this, the theoretical elements of the Cuban tourism environment are discussed; recommendation systems and geographic information systems as tools for information representation are also discussed. Finally, for each structural component identified, we define a set of rules that allows obtaining an electronic tourism system that handles the personalization of the service provided effectively.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Technique, tourism products, recommendation

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31 Decision Support System for the Management and Maintenance of Sewer Networks

Authors: M. T. Bouziane, A. Bouamrane, K. Boutebba, Y. Djebbar

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This paper aims to develop a decision support tool to provide solutions to the problems of sewer networks management/maintenance in order to assist the manager to sort sections upon priority of intervention by taking account of the technical, economic, social and environmental standards as well as the managers’ strategy. This solution uses the Analytic Network Process (ANP) developed by Thomas Saaty, coupled with a set of tools for modelling and collecting integrated data from a geographic information system (GIS). It provides to the decision maker a tool adapted to the reality on the ground and effective in usage compared to the means and objectives of the manager.

Keywords: Modelling, Maintenance, Geographic Information System, multi-criteria decision support

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30 Applications Using Geographic Information System for Planning and Development of Energy Efficient and Sustainable Living for Smart-Cities

Authors: Javed Mohammed

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As urbanization process has been and will be happening in an unprecedented scale worldwide, strong requirements from academic research and practical fields for smart management and intelligent planning of cities are pressing to handle increasing demands of infrastructure and potential risks of inhabitants agglomeration in disaster management. Geo-spatial data and Geographic Information System (GIS) are essential components for building smart cities in a basic way that maps the physical world into virtual environment as a referencing framework. On higher level, GIS has been becoming very important in smart cities on different sectors. In the digital city era, digital maps and geospatial databases have long been integrated in workflows in land management, urban planning and transportation in government. People have anticipated GIS to be more powerful not only as an archival and data management tool but also as spatial models for supporting decision-making in intelligent cities. The purpose of this project is to offer observations and analysis based on a detailed discussion of Geographic Information Systems( GIS) driven Framework towards the development of Smart and Sustainable Cities through high penetration of Renewable Energy Technologies.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Urban Planning, Smart Cities, Geographic Information System, Digital Maps, geo-spatial

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29 Algorithmic Fault Location in Complex Gas Networks

Authors: Soban Najam, S. M. Jahanzeb, Ahmed Sohail, Faraz Idris Khan

Abstract:

With the recent increase in reliance on Gas as the primary source of energy across the world, there has been a lot of research conducted on gas distribution networks. As the complexity and size of these networks grow, so does the leakage of gas in the distribution network. One of the most crucial factors in the production and distribution of gas is UFG or Unaccounted for Gas. The presence of UFG signifies that there is a difference between the amount of gas distributed, and the amount of gas billed. Our approach is to use information that we acquire from several specified points in the network. This information will be used to calculate the loss occurring in the network using the developed algorithm. The Algorithm can also identify the leakages at any point of the pipeline so we can easily detect faults and rectify them within minimal time, minimal efforts and minimal resources.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, GIS, NMS, FLA, fault location analysis, GDN, gas distribution network, network Management system, OMS, outage management system, SSGC, Sui Southern gas company, UFG, unaccounted for gas

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28 Detection of Flood Prone Areas Using Multi Criteria Evaluation, Geographical Information Systems and Fuzzy Logic. The Ardas Basin Case

Authors: Vasileiou Apostolos, Theodosiou Chrysa, Tsitroulis Ioannis, Maris Fotios

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The severity of extreme phenomena is due to their ability to cause severe damage in a small amount of time. It has been observed that floods affect the greatest number of people and induce the biggest damage when compared to the total of annual natural disasters. The detection of potential flood-prone areas constitutes one of the fundamental components of the European Natural Disaster Management Policy, directly connected to the European Directive 2007/60. The aim of the present paper is to develop a new methodology that combines geographical information, fuzzy logic and multi-criteria evaluation methods so that the most vulnerable areas are defined. Therefore, ten factors related to geophysical, morphological, climatological/meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the basin were selected. Afterwards, two models were created to detect the areas pronest to flooding. The first model defined the gravitas of each factor using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the final map of possible flood spots were created using GIS and Boolean Algebra. The second model made use of the fuzzy logic and GIS combination and a respective map was created. The application area of the aforementioned methodologies was in Ardas basin due to the frequent and important floods that have taken place these last years. Then, the results were compared to the already observed floods. The result analysis shows that both models can detect with great precision possible flood spots. As the fuzzy logic model is less time-consuming, it is considered the ideal model to apply to other areas. The said results are capable of contributing to the delineation of high risk areas and to the creation of successful management plans dealing with floods.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Geographic Information System, analytical hierarchy process, flood prone areas

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27 Use of GIS and Remote Sensing for Calculating the Installable Photovoltaic and Thermal Power on All the Roofs of the City of Aix-en-Provence, France

Authors: Sofiane Bourchak, Sébastien Bridier

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The objective of this study is to show how to calculate and map solar energy’s quantity (instantaneous and accumulated global solar radiation during the year) available on roofs in the city Aix-en-Provence which has a population of 140,000 inhabitants. The result is a geographic information system (GIS) layer, which represents hourly and monthly the production of solar energy on roofs throughout the year. Solar energy professionals can use it to optimize implementations and to size energy production systems. The results are presented as a set of maps, tables and histograms in order to determine the most effective costs in Aix-en-Provence in terms of photovoltaic power (electricity) and thermal power (hot water).

Keywords: Thermal, Geographic Information System, Photovoltaic, Solar Radiation, solar potential

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26 Dynamic Ambulance Deployment to Reduce Ambulance Response Times Using Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Masoud Swalehe, Semra Günay

Abstract:

Developed countries are losing many lives to non-communicable diseases as compared to their developing counterparts. The effects of these diseases are mostly sudden and manifest at a very short time prior to death or a dangerous attack and this has consolidated the significance of emergency medical system (EMS) as one of the vital areas of healthcare service delivery. The primary objective of this research is to reduce ambulance response times (RT) of Eskişehir province EMS since a number of studies have established a relationship between ambulance response times and survival chances of patients especially out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims. It has been found out that patients who receive out of hospital medical attention in few (4) minutes after cardiac arrest because of low ambulance response times stand higher chances of survival than their counterparts who take longer times (more than 12 minutes) to receive out of hospital medical care because of higher ambulance response times. The study will make use of geographic information systems (GIS) technology to dynamically reallocate ambulance resources according to demand and time so as to reduce ambulance response times. Geospatial-time distribution of ambulance calls (demand) will be used as a basis for optimal ambulance deployment using system status management (SSM) strategy to achieve much demand coverage with the same number of ambulance resources to cause response time reduction. Drive-time polygons will be used to come up with time specific facility coverage areas and suggesting additional facility candidate sites where ambulance resources can be moved to serve higher demands making use of network analysis techniques. Emergency Ambulance calls’ data from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2014 obtained from Eskişehir province health directorate will be used in this study. This study will focus on the reduction of ambulance response times which is a key Emergency Medical Services performance indicator.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, out of hospital cardiac arrest, emergency medical services, system status management, ambulance response times, geospatial-time distribution

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25 Integrating Geographic Information into Diabetes Disease Management

Authors: Tsu-Yun Chiu, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Tain-Junn Cheng

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Background: Traditional chronic disease management did not pay attention to effects of geographic factors on the compliance of treatment regime, which resulted in geographic inequality in outcomes of chronic disease management. This study aims to examine the geographic distribution and clustering of quality indicators of diabetes care. Method: We first extracted address, demographic information and quality of care indicators (number of visits, complications, prescription and laboratory records) of patients with diabetes for 2014 from medical information system in a medical center in Tainan City, Taiwan, and the patients’ addresses were transformed into district- and village-level data. We then compared the differences of geographic distribution and clustering of quality of care indicators between districts and villages. Despite the descriptive results, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for indices of care in order to compare the quality of diabetes care among different areas. Results: A total of 23,588 patients with diabetes were extracted from the hospital data system; whereas 12,716 patients’ information and medical records were included to the following analysis. More than half of the subjects in this study were male and between 60-79 years old. Furthermore, the quality of diabetes care did indeed vary by geographical levels. Thru the smaller level, we could point out clustered areas more specifically. Fuguo Village (of Yongkang District) and Zhiyi Village (of Sinhua District) were found to be “hotspots” for nephropathy and cerebrovascular disease; while Wangliau Village and Erwang Village (of Yongkang District) would be “coldspots” for lowest proportion of ≥80% compliance to blood lipids examination. On the other hand, Yuping Village (in Anping District) was the area with the lowest proportion of ≥80% compliance to all laboratory examination. Conclusion: In spite of examining the geographic distribution, calculating rate ratios and their 95% CI could also be a useful and consistent method to test the association. This information is useful for health planners, diabetes case managers and other affiliate practitioners to organize care resources to the areas most needed.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, catchment area of healthcare, chronic disease management, quality of diabetes care

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24 Using Geographic Information System and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Detecting Forest Degradation in Benslimane Forest, Morocco

Authors: Hassan Rhinane, Loubna Khalile, Hicham Lahlaoi, A. Kaoukaya, S. Fal

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Green spaces is an essential element, they contribute to improving the quality of lives of the towns around them. They are a place of relaxation, walk and rest a playground for sport and youths. According to United Nations Organization Forests cover 31% of the land. In Morocco in 2013 that cover 12.65 % of the total land area, still, a small proportion compared to the natural needs of forests as a green lung of our planet. The Benslimane Forest is a large green area It belongs to Chaouia-Ouardigha Region and Greater Casablanca Region, it is located geographically between Casablanca is considered the economic and business Capital of Morocco and Rabat the national political capital, with an area of 12261.80 Hectares. The essential problem usually encountered in suburban forests, is visitation and tourism pressure it is anthropogenic actions, as well as other ecological and environmental factors. In recent decades, Morocco has experienced a drought year that has influenced the forest with increasing human pressure and every day it suffers heavy losses, as well as over-exploitation. The Moroccan forest ecosystems are weak with intense ecological variation, domanial and imposed usage rights granted to the population; forests are experiencing a significant deterioration due to forgetfulness and immoderate use of forest resources which can influence the destruction of animal habitats, vegetation, water cycle and climate. The purpose of this study is to make a model of the degree of degradation of the forest and know the causes for prevention by using remote sensing and geographic information systems by introducing climate and ancillary data. Analytic hierarchy process was used to find out the degree of influence and the weight of each parameter, in this case, it is found that anthropogenic activities have a fairly significant impact has thus influenced the climate.

Keywords: Forest, Geographic Information System, degradation, analytic hierarchy process

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23 Assessment of Rehabilitation Possibilities in Case of Budapest Jewish Quarter Building Stock

Authors: Michihiro Kita, Viktória Sugár, Attila Talamon, András Horkai

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The dense urban fabric of the Budapest 7th district is known as the former Jewish Quarter. The majority of the historical building stock contains multi-story tenement houses with courtyards, built around the end of the 19th century. Various rehabilitation and urban planning attempt occurred until today, mostly left unfinished. Present paper collects the past rehabilitation plans, actions and their effect which took place in the former Jewish District of Budapest. The authors aim to assess the boundaries of a complex building stock rehabilitation, by taking into account the monument protection guidelines. As a main focus of the research, structural as well as energetic rehabilitation possibilities are analyzed in case of each building by using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Protection, Geographic Information System, Hungary, Jewish Quarter, monument

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22 Represent Light and Shade of Old Beijing: Construction of Historical Picture Display Platform Based on Geographic Information System (GIS)

Authors: Jihong Liang, Li Niu, Lichao Liu, Huidi Chen

Abstract:

With the drawing of ancient palace painter, the layout of Beijing famous architect and the lens under photographers, a series of pictures which described whether emperors or ordinary people, whether gardens or Hutongs, whether historical events or life scenarios has emerged into our society. These precious resources are scattered around and preserved in different places Such as organizations like archives and libraries, along with individuals. The research combined decentralized photographic resources with Geographic Information System (GIS), focusing on the figure, event, time and location of the pictures to map them with geographic information in webpage and to display them productively. In order to meet the demand of reality, we designed a metadata description proposal, which is referred to DC and VRA standards. Another essential procedure is to formulate a four-tier classification system to correspond with the metadata proposals. As for visualization, we used Photo Waterfall and Time Line to display our resources in front end. Last but not the least, leading the Web 2.0 trend, the research developed an artistic, friendly, expandable, universal and user involvement platform to show the historical and culture precipitation of Beijing.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, historical picture, display platform, four-tier classification system

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21 Spatial Comparative Analysis on Travels of Mackay in Taiwan

Authors: Shao-Chi Chien, Ying-Ju Chen, Chiao-Yu Tseng, Wan-Ting Lee, Yi-Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Dr. George Leslie Mackay arrived at Takoukang (now Port of Kaohsiung) in Taiwan on December 30, 1871. When Dr. Mackay dedicated at Taiwan for 30 years, he has been an important factor in such areas as preaching, medical and engaged in education. Many researchers have thoroughly studied Dr. Mackay's travels to understand his impact on the state of education, medicine and religion in Taiwan. In the 30-year period of hard work, Dr. Mackay's made outstanding influence on the church in Taiwan. Therefore, the present study will be the mission of the establishment of hospitals, schools, churches which preaching, education, and medicine whether there are related the number of comparisons to explore. According to The Diaries of George Leslie Mackay, our research uses the Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the location of Dr. Mackay's travel in Taiwan and compares it with today's local churches, hospitals, and schools whether there are related the number of comparisons to explore. Therefore, our research focuses on the whole of Taiwan, divided into missionary, medical and education as the main content of the three major parts. Additionally, use of point layer, the surface layer of the property table to establish, in-depth mission of Dr. Mackay's development in Taiwan and Today's comparison. The results will be based on the classification of three different colors pictures that the distance of Mackay's contribution of preaching, medicine, and education. Our research will be compared with the current churches, hospitals, schools and the past churches, hospitals, schools. The results of the present study will provide a reference for future research.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Spatial Distribution, George Leslie Mackay, color categories analysis

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20 Flood Disaster Prevention and Mitigation in Nigeria Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Dinebari Akpee, Friday Aabe Gaage, Florence Fred Nwaigwu

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Natural disasters like flood affect many parts of the world including developing countries like Nigeria. As a result, many human lives are lost, properties damaged and so much money is lost in infrastructure damages. These hazards and losses can be mitigated and reduced by providing reliable spatial information to the generality of the people through about flood risks through flood inundation maps. Flood inundation maps are very crucial for emergency action plans, urban planning, ecological studies and insurance rates. Nigeria experience her worst flood in her entire history this year. Many cities were submerged and completely under water due to torrential rainfall. Poor city planning, lack of effective development control among others contributes to the problem too. Geographic information system (GIS) can be used to visualize the extent of flooding, analyze flood maps to produce flood damaged estimation maps and flood risk maps. In this research, the under listed steps were taken in preparation of flood risk maps for the study area: (1) Digitization of topographic data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS (2) Flood simulation using hydraulic model and integration and (3) Integration of the first two steps to produce flood risk maps. The results shows that GIS can play crucial role in Flood disaster control and mitigation.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Hazards, flood disaster, risk maps

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19 Analyzing Impacts of Road Network on Vegetation Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Elizabeth Malebogo Mosepele

Abstract:

Road transport has become increasingly common in the world; people rely on road networks for transportation purpose on a daily basis. However, environmental impact of roads on surrounding landscapes extends their potential effects even further. This study investigates the impact of road network on natural vegetation. The study will provide baseline knowledge regarding roadside vegetation and would be helpful in future for conservation of biodiversity along the road verges and improvements of road verges. The general hypothesis of this study is that the amount and condition of road side vegetation could be explained by road network conditions. Remote sensing techniques were used to analyze vegetation conditions. Landsat 8 OLI image was used to assess vegetation cover condition. NDVI image was generated and used as a base from which land cover classes were extracted, comprising four categories viz. healthy vegetation, degraded vegetation, bare surface, and water. The classification of the image was achieved using the supervised classification technique. Road networks were digitized from Google Earth. For observed data, transect based quadrats of 50*50 m were conducted next to road segments for vegetation assessment. Vegetation condition was related to road network, with the multinomial logistic regression confirming a significant relationship between vegetation condition and road network. The null hypothesis formulated was that 'there is no variation in vegetation condition as we move away from the road.' Analysis of vegetation condition revealed degraded vegetation within close proximity of a road segment and healthy vegetation as the distance increase away from the road. The Chi Squared value was compared with critical value of 3.84, at the significance level of 0.05 to determine the significance of relationship. Given that the Chi squared value was 395, 5004, the null hypothesis was therefore rejected; there is significant variation in vegetation the distance increases away from the road. The conclusion is that the road network plays an important role in the condition of vegetation.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System, multinomial logistic regression, Chi squared, road side vegetation

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18 Eco-Environmental Vulnerability Evaluation in Mountain Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System: A Case Study of Pasol Gad Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya, India

Authors: Suresh Kumar Bandooni, Mirana Laishram

Abstract:

The Mid Himalaya of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand (India) has a complex Physiographic features withdiversified climatic conditions and therefore it is suspect to environmental vulnerability. Thenatural disasters and also anthropogenic activities accelerate the rate of environmental vulnerability. To analyse the environmental vulnerability, we have used geoinformatics technologies and numerical models and it is adoptedby using Spatial Principal Component Analysis (SPCA). The model consist of many factors such as slope, landuse/landcover, soil, forest fire risk, landslide susceptibility zone, human population density and vegetation index. From this model, the environmental vulnerability integrated index (EVSI) is calculated for Pasol Gad Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya for the years 1987, 2000, and 2013 and the Vulnerability is classified into five levelsi.e. Very low, low, medium, high and very highby means of cluster principle. The resultsforeco-environmental vulnerability distribution in study area shows that medium, high and very high levels are dominating in the area and it is mainly caused by the anthropogenic activities and natural disasters. Therefore, proper management forconservation of resources is utmost necessity of present century. It is strongly believed that participation at community level along with social worker, institutions and Non-governmental organization (NGOs) have become a must to conserve and protect the environment.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Institutions, Geographic Information System, Himalaya, eco-environment vulnerability, spatial principal component analysis

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17 Accessibility Assessment of School Facilities Using Geospatial Technologies: A Case Study of District Sheikhupura

Authors: Hira Jabbar

Abstract:

Education is vital for inclusive growth of an economy and a critical contributor for investment in human capital. Like other developing countries, Pakistan is facing enormous challenges regarding the provision of public facilities, improper infrastructure planning, accelerating rate of population and poor accessibility. The influence of the rapid advancement and innovations in GIS and RS techniques have proved to be a useful tool for better planning and decision making to encounter these challenges. Therefore present study incorporates GIS and RS techniques to investigate the spatial distribution of school facilities, identifies settlements with served and unserved population, finds potential areas for new schools based on population and develops an accessibility index to evaluate the higher accessibility for schools. For this purpose high-resolution worldview imagery was used to develop road network, settlements and school facilities and to generate school accessibility for each level. Landsat 8 imagery was utilized to extract built-up area by applying pre and post-processing models and Landscan 2015 was used to analyze population statistics. Service area analysis was performed using network analyst extension in ArcGIS 10.3v and results were evaluated for served and underserved areas and population. An accessibility tool was used to evaluate a set of potential destinations to determine which is the most accessible with the given population distribution. Findings of the study may contribute to facilitating the town planners and education authorities for understanding the existing patterns of school facilities. It is concluded that GIS and remote sensing can be effectively used in urban transport and facility planning.

Keywords: Accessibility, Geographic Information System, landscan, worldview

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16 Spatial Analysis the Suitability Area for Jatropha curcas L. as an Alternative to Biodiesel in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Rizki Oktariza, Sri Fauza Pratiwi, Hilza Ikhsanti

Abstract:

Human depends on fossil fuels as the bigger sources of considerable energy in all sectors. Based on that cases, we are needed alternative energy to supplies needed for fuel, one of them by using energy fuel from the biodiesel. The raw materials that can be used for producing the biodiesel energy are Jatropha curcas L. In Indonesia, the availability of land for the development of the Jatropha curcas L which has very appropriate Indonesia reached 14.2 million hectares, with an area of suitable in Kalimantan around 10 million hectares. In Central Kalimantan, as one of the provinces of Kalimantan, has considerable potential planting Jatropha curcas L because of the physical condition and have a largest of the agricultural land. To support the potential of Jatropha curcas L in Central Kalimantan, spatial analysis is needed to find out the appropriate areas for Jatropha curcas L growing land. The suitability of region is influenced by several variables i.e., rainfall, the slope of the land, the surface temperature and the altitude of a region. The compliance of criteria are divided into four criteria: high suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), not suitable (N). The suitability of the region is based on these variables and made an overlay analysis of these variables by using Geographic Information System. Based on this overlay analysis will results a map of the suitability area for planting Jatropha curcas L, which is distribution criteria is high suitable (S1) of 213,245 ha, moderately suitable (S2) of 14,389,353 ha, marginally suitable (S3) 360,357 ha, not suitable (N) 0.020 ha.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, overlay, Jatropha curcas L, the suitable area

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15 Design and Development of a Platform for Analyzing Spatio-Temporal Data from Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Walid Fantazi

Abstract:

The development of sensor technology (such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), wireless communications, embedded systems, distributed processing and wireless sensor applications) has contributed to a broad range of WSN applications which are capable of collecting a large amount of spatiotemporal data in real time. These systems require real-time data processing to manage storage in real time and query the data they process. In order to cover these needs, we propose in this paper a Snapshot spatiotemporal data model based on object-oriented concepts. This model allows saving storing and reducing data redundancy which makes it easier to execute spatiotemporal queries and save analyzes time. Further, to ensure the robustness of the system as well as the elimination of congestion from the main access memory we propose a spatiotemporal indexing technique in RAM called Captree *. As a result, we offer an RIA (Rich Internet Application) -based SOA application architecture which allows the remote monitoring and control.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, SOA, WSN, indexing data, RIA

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14 Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Victoria’s Food Bowl: Optimizing Productivity with the use of Decision-Support Tools

Authors: M. Johnson, R. Faggian, V. Sposito

Abstract:

A participatory and engaged approach is key in connecting agricultural managers to sustainable agricultural systems to support and optimize production in Victoria’s food bowl. A sustainable intensification (SI) approach is well documented globally, but participation rates amongst Victorian farmers is fragmentary, and key outcomes and implementation strategies are poorly understood. Improvement in decision-support management tools and a greater understanding of the productivity gains available upon implementation of SI is necessary. This paper reviews the current understanding and uptake of SI practices amongst farmers in one of Victoria’s premier food producing regions, the Goulburn Broken; and it spatially analyses the potential for this region to adapt to climate change and optimize food production. A Geographical Information Systems (GIS) approach is taken to develop an interactive decision-support tool that can be accessible to on-ground agricultural managers. The tool encompasses multiple criteria analysis (MCA) that identifies factors during the construction phase of the tool, using expert witnesses and regional knowledge, framed within an Analytical Hierarchy Process. Given the complexities of the interrelations between each of the key outcomes, this participatory approach, in which local realities and factors inform the key outcomes and help to strategies for a particular region, results in a robust strategy for sustainably intensifying production in key food producing regions. The creation of an interactive, locally embedded, decision-support management and education tool can help to close the gap between farmer knowledge and production, increase on-farm adoption of sustainable farming strategies and techniques, and optimize farm productivity.

Keywords: Agriculture, Geographic Information System, GIS, Sustainable Intensification, decision-support management tool

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13 Geographic Information System Using Google Fusion Table Technology for the Delivery of Disease Data Information

Authors: I. Nyoman Mahayasa Adiputra

Abstract:

Data in the field of health can be useful for the purposes of data analysis, one example of health data is disease data. Disease data is usually in a geographical plot in accordance with the area. Where the data was collected, in the city of Denpasar, Bali. Disease data report is still published in tabular form, disease information has not been mapped in GIS form. In this research, disease information in Denpasar city will be digitized in the form of a geographic information system with the smallest administrative area in the form of district. Denpasar City consists of 4 districts of North Denpasar, East Denpasar, West Denpasar and South Denpasar. In this research, we use Google fusion table technology for map digitization process, where this technology can facilitate from the administrator and from the recipient information. From the administrator side of the input disease, data can be done easily and quickly. From the receiving end of the information, the resulting GIS application can be published in a website-based application so that it can be accessed anywhere and anytime. In general, the results obtained in this study, divided into two, namely: (1) Geolocation of Denpasar and all of Denpasar districts, the process of digitizing the map of Denpasar city produces a polygon geolocation of each - district of Denpasar city. These results can be utilized in subsequent GIS studies if you want to use the same administrative area. (2) Dengue fever mapping in 2014 and 2015. Disease data used in this study is dengue fever case data taken in 2014 and 2015. Data taken from the profile report Denpasar Health Department 2015 and 2016. This mapping can be useful for the analysis of the spread of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the city of Denpasar.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Google fusion table technology, delivery of disease data information, Denpasar city

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12 Spatial Relationship of Drug Smuggling Based on Geographic Information System Knowledge Discovery Using Decision Tree Algorithm

Authors: S. Niamkaeo, O. Robert, O. Chaowalit

Abstract:

In this investigation, we focus on discovering spatial relationship of drug smuggling along the northern border of Thailand. Thailand is no longer a drug production site, but Thailand is still one of the major drug trafficking hubs due to its topographic characteristics facilitating drug smuggling from neighboring countries. Our study areas cover three districts (Mae-jan, Mae-fahluang, and Mae-sai) in Chiangrai city and four districts (Chiangdao, Mae-eye, Chaiprakarn, and Wienghang) in Chiangmai city where drug smuggling of methamphetamine crystal and amphetamine occurs mostly. The data on drug smuggling incidents from 2011 to 2017 was collected from several national and local published news. Geo-spatial drug smuggling database was prepared. Decision tree algorithm was applied in order to discover the spatial relationship of factors related to drug smuggling, which was converted into rules using rule-based system. The factors including land use type, smuggling route, season and distance within 500 meters from check points were found that they were related to drug smuggling in terms of rules-based relationship. It was illustrated that drug smuggling was occurred mostly in forest area in winter. Drug smuggling exhibited was discovered mainly along topographic road where check points were not reachable. This spatial relationship of drug smuggling could support the Thai Office of Narcotics Control Board in surveillance drug smuggling.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Decision Tree, drug smuggling, GIS knowledge discovery, rule-based system

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11 Geographic Information System-Based Map for Best Suitable Place for Cultivating Permanent Trees in South-Lebanon

Authors: Allaw Kamel, Al-Chami Leila

Abstract:

It is important to reduce the human influence on natural resources by identifying an appropriate land use. Moreover, it is essential to carry out the scientific land evaluation. Such kind of analysis allows identifying the main factors of agricultural production and enables decision makers to develop crop management in order to increase the land capability. The key is to match the type and intensity of land use with its natural capability. Therefore; in order to benefit from these areas and invest them to obtain good agricultural production, they must be organized and managed in full. Lebanon suffers from the unorganized agricultural use. We take south Lebanon as a study area, it is the most fertile ground and has a variety of crops. The study aims to identify and locate the most suitable area to cultivate thirteen type of permanent trees which are: apples, avocados, stone fruits in coastal regions and stone fruits in mountain regions, bananas, citrus, loquats, figs, pistachios, mangoes, olives, pomegranates, and grapes. Several geographical factors are taken as criterion for selection of the best location to cultivate. Soil, rainfall, PH, temperature, and elevation are main inputs to create the final map. Input data of each factor is managed, visualized and analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS). Management GIS tools are implemented to produce input maps capable of identifying suitable areas related to each index. The combination of the different indices map generates the final output map of the suitable place to get the best permanent tree productivity. The output map is reclassified into three suitability classes: low, moderate, and high suitability. Results show different locations suitable for different kinds of trees. Results also reflect the importance of GIS in helping decision makers finding a most suitable location for every tree to get more productivity and a variety in crops.

Keywords: Agricultural Production, Geographic Information System, GIS, Crop management, geographical factors, land capability, permanent trees, suitable location

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10 Comparative Study of Urban Structure between an Island-Type and a General-Type City

Authors: Hiroko Ono, Tomoya Oshiro

Abstract:

Japan's aging population is increasing due to the decrease in birthrate. It causes various problems like the decrease in the gross domestic product of the country. The reason is why the local government of Japan has been on the way to a sustainable city recently. Then it is essential to get control of an urban structure to make the compact city successful. There are many kinds of paper about the compact city; however, the paper about a compact city of the island-type city is less. The purpose of this study is to clarify difference of urban structure between an island-type and a general city type. The method which has conducted in this research has two steps. First of all, by using evaluation indexes in the handbook, we evaluated the urban structures among each same -population-class cities from 50,000 to 100,000 people. Next, to clear the difference about the urban structure and feature between island-type and general-type cities compare the radar chart which is composed with each evaluation indexes of urban structure. Moreover, in order to clarify the relationship between evaluation indexes and the place of residence by using GIS software to show up population density on the map. As a result of this research, the management of local government and the local economy in evaluation indexes are indicated to be negative point in comparison of island-type cities with general cities. However, evaluation indexes of safety/security and low-carbon/energy are proved to be positive point. The research to find the difference features of the island-type of urban structure proves that the management of local government or the local economy is negative point in these island-type cities. In addition, the public transportation coverage in Miyako Island, Sado Island, and Amakusa Island show low value compare with other islands and average value. Relationship between evaluation indexes of an urban structure and the place of residence prove that the place of residence is related to public transportation coverage. If the place of residence is spread out, the public transportation coverage will be decreased. The results of this research reveal that the finances in island-type cities are negative point compare to general cities. This problem is caused by declining population. In addition, the place of residence is related to the public transportation coverage. Even though, it needs a much money to increase the public transportation coverage. It is possibly to cause other problems furthermore the aspect of finance is influenced by that as well. The conclusion in this research suggests that it is important for creating the compact city in island-type cities that we first need to address solving the problems about the management of local government and the local economy.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Sustainable City, Urban Structure, Comparative Analysis

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9 Monitoring the Rate of Expansion of Agricultural Fields in Mwekera Forest Reserve Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: K. Kanja, M. Mweemba, K. Malungwa

Abstract:

Due to the rampant population growth coupled with retrenchments currently going on in the Copper mines in Zambia, a number of people are resorting to land clearing for agriculture, illegal settlements as well as charcoal production among other vices. This study aims at assessing the rate of expansion of agricultural fields and illegal settlements in protected areas using remote sensing and Geographic Information System. Zambia’s Mwekera National Forest Reserve was used as a case study. Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA), as well as maximum likelihood, supervised classification on four Landsat images as well as an accuracy assessment of the classifications was performed. Over the period under observation, results indicate annual percentage changes to be -0.03, -0.49 and 1.26 for agriculture, forests and settlement respectively indicating a higher conversion of forests into human settlements and agriculture.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System, Land Cover Change, Landsat TM and ETM+, Mwekera forest reserve

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8 Coordinative Remote Sensing Observation Technology for a High Altitude Barrier Lake

Authors: Zhang Xin

Abstract:

Barrier lakes are lakes formed by storing water in valleys, river valleys or riverbeds after being blocked by landslide, earthquake, debris flow, and other factors. They have great potential safety hazards. When the water is stored to a certain extent, it may burst in case of strong earthquake or rainstorm, and the lake water overflows, resulting in large-scale flood disasters. In order to ensure the safety of people's lives and property in the downstream, it is very necessary to monitor the barrier lake. However, it is very difficult and time-consuming to manually monitor the barrier lake in high altitude areas due to the harsh climate and steep terrain. With the development of earth observation technology, remote sensing monitoring has become one of the main ways to obtain observation data. Compared with a single satellite, multi-satellite remote sensing cooperative observation has more advantages; its spatial coverage is extensive, observation time is continuous, imaging types and bands are abundant, it can monitor and respond quickly to emergencies, and complete complex monitoring tasks. Monitoring with multi-temporal and multi-platform remote sensing satellites can obtain a variety of observation data in time, acquire key information such as water level and water storage capacity of the barrier lake, scientifically judge the situation of the barrier lake and reasonably predict its future development trend. In this study, The Sarez Lake, which formed on February 18, 1911, in the central part of the Pamir as a result of blockage of the Murgab River valley by a landslide triggered by a strong earthquake with magnitude of 7.4 and intensity of 9, is selected as the research area. Since the formation of Lake Sarez, it has aroused widespread international concern about its safety. At present, the use of mechanical methods in the international analysis of the safety of Lake Sarez is more common, and remote sensing methods are seldom used. This study combines remote sensing data with field observation data, and uses the 'space-air-ground' joint observation technology to study the changes in water level and water storage capacity of Lake Sarez in recent decades, and evaluate its safety. The situation of the collapse is simulated, and the future development trend of Lake Sarez is predicted. The results show that: 1) in recent decades, the water level of Lake Sarez has not changed much and remained at a stable level; 2) unless there is a strong earthquake or heavy rain, it is less likely that the Lake Sarez will be broken under normal conditions, 3) lake Sarez will remain stable in the future, but it is necessary to establish an early warning system in the Lake Sarez area for remote sensing of the area, 4) the coordinative remote sensing observation technology is feasible for the high altitude barrier lake of Sarez.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Disaster, Geographic Information System, GIS, coordinative observation

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