Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Geochemistry Related Abstracts

15 Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralization of Cisarua, Nanggung District, Bogor Regency, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Asaga, N. I. Basuki

Abstract:

The research area is located in Cisarua, Bogor Regency, West Java, with 12,8 km2 wide. This area belongs to mining region of PT Aneka Tambang Tbk. The purpose of this research is to study geological condition, alteration type and pattern, and type of mineralization. Geomorphology of the research area is at young to mature stage, which can be divided into Ciparigi’s Parasite Volcanic Cone Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Valley Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Rim Hill Unit, and Pongkor Volcanic Hill. Stratigraphy of the research area consist of five units, they are Laharic Breccia (Pliocene), Pyroclastic Breccia, Lapilli Tuff, Flow Tuff, Fall Tuff, and Andesite Lava (Pleistocene). Based on mineral composition, it is interpreted that there is magma composition changing from rhyolite to andesitic. Geological structures in the research area are caused by NE-SW and N-S stress direction; they are Ciparay Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pliocene), Cisarua Right Strike-Slip Fault, G. Singa Left Strike-Slip Fault, and Cinyuncung Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pleistocene). Weak to strong hydrothermal alteration can be found in the research area.They are Chlorite ± Smectite ± Halloysite Zone, Smectite - Illite - Quartz Zone, Smectite - Kaolinite - Illite - Chlorite Zone, and Smectite - Chlorite - Calcite - Quartz Zone. The distribution and assemblage of alteration minerals is controlled by lithology and geological structures in Pleistocene. Mineralization produce ore minerals, those are pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcocite. There are calcite and quartz veins that show colloform, comb, and crystalline textures. Hydrothermal alteration assemblages, ore minerals, and cavity filling textures suggest that mineralization type in research area is epithermal low sulphidation.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Hydrothermal Alteration, Pongkor, epithermal

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14 Organic Geochemical Characteristics of Cenozoic Mudstones, NE Bengal Basin, Bangladesh

Authors: H. M. Zakir Hossain

Abstract:

Cenozoic mudstone samples, obtained from drilled cored and outcrop in northeastern Bengal Basin of Bangladesh were organic geochemically analyzed to identify vertical variations of organic facies, thermal maturity, hydrocarbon potential and depositional environments. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges from 0.11 to 1.56 wt% with an average of 0.43 wt%, indicating a good source rock potential. Total sulphur content is variable with values ranging from ~0.001 to 1.75 wt% with an average of 0.065 wt%. Rock-Eval S1 and S2 yields range from 0.03 to 0.14 mg HC/g rock and 0.01 to 0.66 mg HC/g rock, respectively. The hydrogen index values range from 2.71 to 56.09 mg HC/g TOC. These results revealed that the samples are dominated by type III kerogene. Tmax values of 426 to 453 °C and vitrinite reflectance of 0.51 to 0.66% indicate the organic matter is immature to mature. Saturated hydrocarbon ratios such as pristane, phytane, steranes, and hopanes, indicate mostly terrigenous organic matter with small influence of marine organic matter. Organic matter in the succession was accumulated in three different environmental conditions based on the integration of biomarker proxies. First phase (late Eocene to early Miocene): Deposition occurred entirely in seawater-dominated oxic conditions, with high inputs of land plants organic matter including angiosperms. Second phase (middle to late Miocene): Deposition occurred in freshwater-dominated anoxic conditions, with phytoplanktonic organic matter and a small influence of land plants. Third phase (late Miocene to Pleistocene): Deposition occurred in oxygen-poor freshwater conditions, with abundant input of planktonic organic matter and high influx of angiosperms. The lower part (middle Eocene to early Miocene) of the succession with moderate TOC contents and primarily terrestrial organic matter could have generated some condensates and oils in and around the study area.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Bangladesh, hydrocarbon potential, mudstone

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13 Hydro-Geochemistry and Groundwater Quality Assessment of Rajshahi City in Bangladesh

Authors: M. R. Hasan, M. G. Mostafa, S. M. Helal Uddin, A. B. M. H. Haque

Abstract:

The study was carried out to understand the hydro-geochemistry and ground water quality in Rajshahi City of Bangladesh. 240 groundwater (shallow and deep tubewell) samples were collected during the year 2009-2010 covering pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters including major ions. The results reveal that the groundwater was slightly acidic to neutral in nature, total hardness observed in all samples fall under hard to very hard category. The concentration of calcium, iron, manganese, arsenic and lead ions were found far above the permissible limit in most of the shallow tubewells water samples. The analysis results show that the mean concentrations of cations and anions were observed in the order: Ca > Mg > Na > K > Fe > Mn > Pb > Zn > Cu > As (total) > Cd and HCO3-> Cl-> SO42-> NO3-, respectively. The concentrations of TH, TDS, HCO3-, NO3-, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and As (total) were found to be higher during post-monsoon compare to pre-monsoon, whilst K, Mg, Cd, and Cl were found higher during pre-monsoon and monsoon. Ca-HCO3 was identified as the major hydro chemical facie using piper trilinear diagram. Higher concentration of toxic metals including Fe, Mn, As and Pb were found indicating various health hazards. The results also illustrate that the rock water interaction was the major geochemical process controlling the chemistry of groundwater in the study area.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Groundwater, physio-chemical parameters, Rajshahi city

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12 Sedimentology and Geochemistry of Carbonate Bearing-Argillites on the Southeastern Flank of Mount Cameroon, Likomba

Authors: Chongwain G. Mbzighaa, Christopher M. Agyingi, Josepha-Forba-Tendo

Abstract:

Background and aim: Sedimentological, geochemical and petrographic studies were carried out on carbonate-bearing argillites outcropping at the southeastern flank of Mount Cameroon (Likomba) to determine the lithofacies and their associations, major element geochemistry and mineralogy. Methods: Major elements of the rocks were analyzed using XRF technique. Thermal analysis and thin section studies were carried out accompanied with the determination of insoluble components of the carbonates. Results: The carbonates are classed as biomicrites with siderite being the major carbonate mineral. Clay, quartz and pyrite constitute the major insoluble components of these rocks. Geochemical results depict a broad variation in their concentrations with silica and iron showing the highest concentrations and sodium and manganese with the least concentrations. Two factors were revealed with the following elemental associations, Fe2O3-MgO-Mn2O3 (72.56 %) and TiO2-SiO2-Al2O3-K2O (23.20%) indicating both Fe-enrichment, the subsequent formation of the siderite and the contribution of the sediments to the formation of these rocks. Conclusion: The rocks consist of cyclic iron-rich carbonates alternating with sideritic-shales and might have been formed as a result of variations in the sea conditions as well as variation in sediment influx resulting from transgression and regression sequences occurring in a shallow to slightly deep marine environments.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Sedimentology, Petrography, iron carbonates, Likomba

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11 Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources Management in the Mahi River Basin of India

Authors: Y. B. Sharma, K. B. Biswas

Abstract:

This research project examines a 5000 cal yr BP sediment core record to reveal the consequences of human impact and climate variability on the tropical dry forests of the Mahi river basin, western India. To date there has been little research to assess the impact of climate variability and human impact on the vegetation dynamics of this region. There has also been little work to link changes in vegetation cover to documented changes in the basin hydrology over the past 100 years – although it is assumed that the two are closely linked. The key objective of this research project therefore is to understand the driving mechanisms responsible for the abrupt changes in the Mahi river basin as detailed in historical documentation and its impact on water resource management. The Mahi river basin is located in western India (22° 11’-24° 35’ N 72° 46’-74° 52’ E). Mahi river arises in the Malwa Plateau, Madhya Pradesh near Moripara and flows through the uplands and alluvial plain of Rajasthan and Gujarat provinces before draining into the Gulf of Cambay. Palaeoecological procedures (sedimentology, geochemical analysis, C&N isotopes and fossil pollen evidences) have been applied on sedimentary sequences collected from lakes in the Mahi basin. These techniques then facilitate to reconstruct the soil erosion, nutrient cycling, vegetation changes and climatic variability over the last 5000 years. Historical documentation detailing changes in demography, climate and landscape use over the past 100 years in this region will also be collated to compare with the most recent palaeoecological records. The results of the research work provide a detailed record of vegetation change, soil erosion, changes in aridity, and rainfall patterns in the region over the past 5000 years. This research therefore aims to determine the drivers of change and natural variability in the basin. Such information is essential for its current and future management including restoration.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Palaeoecology, water resource management, Human impact, Climate Variability, Nutrient Cycling, Rainfall, vegetation changes, vegetation cover, Mahi river basin, fossil pollen, aridity, drivers of change

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10 Petrography and Geochemistry of Basic Dokhan Volcanics from the Eastern Desert of Egypt and their Use as Aggregates in Concrete Mixes

Authors: Ahmed Khalil, Hatem M. El-Desoky

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The present paper deals with the petrography and geochemistry of the Basic Dokhan Volcanics, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The basalts from Gabal Wassif, Atalla volcanics and Gabal Esh Mellaha were tested for use as aggregates in concrete mixes. The representative twelve samples were collected from areas. These samples were examined by using a petrographic microscope to evaluate sample texture, degree of alteration and the presence of volcanic glass in the matrix. The results obtained indicate that basalt can be used successfully for preparing concrete, but some attention should be paid to the choice of the suitable types of basalt. A general improvement in concrete mix properties has been found by using basalt aggregates in the mix.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Petrography, basic Dokhan volcanics, petrogenesis and concrete aggregates

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9 Geochemical Studies of Mud Volcanoes Fluids According to Petroleum Potential of the Lower Kura Depression (Azerbaijan)

Authors: Ayten Bakhtiyar Khasayeva

Abstract:

Lower Kura depression is a part of the South Caspian Basin (SCB), located between the folded regions of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. The region is characterized by thick sedimentary cover 22 km (SCB up to 30 km), high sedimentation rate, low geothermal gradient (average value corresponds to 2 °C / 100m). There is Quaternary, Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene deposits take part in geological structure. Miocene and Oligocene deposits are opened by prospecting and exploratory wells in the areas of Kalamaddin and Garabagli. There are 25 mud volcanoes within the territory of the Lower Kura depression, which are the unique source of information about hydrocarbons contenting great depths. During the wells data research, solid erupted products and mud volcano fluids, and according to the geological and thermal characteristics of the region, it was determined that the main phase of the hydrocarbon generation (MK1-AK2) corresponds to a wide range of depths from 10 to 14 km, which corresponds to the Pliocene-Miocene sediments, and to the "oil and gas windows" according to the intended meaning of R0 ≈ 0,65-0,85%. Fluids of mud volcanoes comprise by the following phases - gas, water. Gas phase consists mainly of methane (99%) of heavy hydrocarbons (С2+ hydrocarbons), CO2, N2, inert components He, Ar. The content of the С2+ hydrocarbons in the gases of mud volcanoes associated with oil deposits is increased. Carbon isotopic composition of methane for the Lower Kura depression varies from -40 ‰ to -60 ‰. Water of mud volcanoes are represented by all four genetic types. However the most typical types of water are HCN type. According to the Mg-Li geothermometer formation of mud waters corresponds to the temperature range from 20 °C to 140 °C (PC2). The solid product emissions of mud volcanoes identified 90 minerals and 30 trace elements. As a result geochemical investigation, thermobaric and geological conditions, zone oil and gas generation - the prospect of the Lower Kura depression is projected to depths greater than 10 km.

Keywords: Geology, Geochemistry, mud volcanoes, petroleum potential

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8 Geochemistry of Cenozoic basaltic rocks from Jiashan County of Nushan Geopark, China: Implications for Petrogenesis and Tectonic Setting

Authors: Yung-Tan Lee, Ren-Yi Huang, Hsiao-Ling Yu, Dixon, Lieh-Chi Su

Abstract:

The present paper analyzed the major, trace elements, rare earth elements of these Cenozoic basalts and combined with Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts and the tectonic setting of the study area. Based on major, trace elements and fractional crystallization model we suggest that the basaltic magma has experienced olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase fractionation during its evolution. Spidergrams and REE patterns reveal that Cenozoic basalts found in the Jiashan County, Anhui Province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts(OIB) suggesting a derivation related to OIB-like mantle source. The slight positive Nb and Ti anomalies found in basaltic rocks of this study suggest the presence of Ti-bearing minerals in the mantle source and these Ti-bearing minerals had contributed to basaltic magma during partial melting, indicating a metasomatic event might have occurred before the partial melting. Based on 143Nd/144Nd vs. 87Sr/86Sr diagram we suggest that basalts of this study can be produced by MORB and EM-I components mixing and small degree of partial melting may be the major controlling factor during generation of basaltic magma. Some basaltic magma may be derived from partial melting of EM-Ⅰ heated by the upwelling asthenospheric mantle. The basalts fall within the WPB field in the discriminant plot of 2Nb-Zr/4-Y indicate that the volcanic activities in this region may be closely related to deep continental rifting process.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Fractionation, tectonic setting, cenozoic basalts, Anhui Province, Nushan Geopark

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7 Geochemistry and Tectonic Framework of Malani Igneous Suite and Their Effect on Groundwater Quality of Tosham, India

Authors: Naresh Kumar, Savita Kumari, Naresh Kochhar

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The objective of the study was to assess the role of mineralogy and subsurface structure on water quality of Tosham, Malani Igneous Suite (MIS), Western Rajasthan, India. MIS is the largest (55,000 km2) A-type, anorogenic and high heat producing acid magmatism in the peninsular India and owes its origin to hot spot tectonics. Apart from agricultural and industrial wastes, geogenic activities cause fluctuations in quality parameters of water resources. Twenty water samples (20) selected from Tosham and surrounding areas were analyzed for As, Pb, B, Al, Zn, Fe, Ni using Inductive coupled plasma emission and F by Ion Chromatography. The concentration of As, Pb, B, Ni and F was above the stipulated level specified by BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards IS-10500, 2012). The concentration of As and Pb in surrounding areas of Tosham ranged from 1.2 to 4.1 mg/l and from 0.59 to 0.9 mg/l respectively which is higher than limits of 0.05mg/l (As) and 0.01 mg/l (Pb). Excess trace metal accumulation in water is toxic to humans and adversely affects the central nervous system, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, skin and cause mental confusion. Groundwater quality is defined by nature of rock formation, mineral water reaction, physiography, soils, environment, recharge and discharge conditions of the area. Fluoride content in groundwater is due to the solubility of fluoride-bearing minerals like fluorite, cryolite, topaz, and mica, etc. Tosham is comprised of quartz mica schist, quartzite, schorl, tuff, quartz porphyry and associated granites, thus, fluoride is leached out and dissolved in groundwater. In the study area, Ni concentration ranged from 0.07 to 0.5 mg/l (permissible limit 0.02 mg/l). The primary source of nickel in drinking water is leached out nickel from ore-bearing rocks. Higher concentration of As is found in some igneous rocks specifically containing minerals as arsenopyrite (AsFeS), realgar (AsS) and orpiment (As2S3). MIS consists of granite (hypersolvus and subsolvus), rhyolite, dacite, trachyte, andesite, pyroclasts, basalt, gabbro and dolerite which increased the trace elements concentration in groundwater. Nakora, a part of MIS rocks has high concentration of trace and rare earth elements (Ni, Rb, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd, Eu and Yb) which percolates the Ni and Pb to groundwater by weathering, contacts and joints/fractures in rocks. Additionally, geological setting of MIS also causes dissolution of trace elements in water resources beneath the surface. NE–SW tectonic lineament, radial pattern of dykes and volcanic vent at Nakora created a way for leaching of these elements to groundwater. Rain water quality might be altered by major minerals constituents of host Tosham rocks during its percolation through the rock fracture, joints before becoming the integral part of groundwater aquifer. The weathering process like hydration, hydrolysis and solution might be the cause of change in water chemistry of particular area. These studies suggest that geological relation of soil-water horizon with MIS rocks via mineralogical variations, structures and tectonic setting affects the water quality of the studied area.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Groundwater, malani igneous suite, tosham

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6 Geochemical Characteristics of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Crude Oils from the Chepaizi Area, Junggar Basin, China

Authors: Luofu Liu, Fei Xiao Jr., Fei Xiao

Abstract:

Through the analysis technology of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition and distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons in the Chepaizi area of the Junggar Basin were analyzed in detail. Based on that, the biological input, maturity of crude oils and sedimentary environment of the corresponding source rocks were determined and the origin types of crude oils were divided. The results show that there are three types of crude oils in the study area including Type I, Type II and Type III oils. The crude oils from the 1st member of the Neogene Shawan Formation are the Type I oils; the crude oils from the 2nd member of the Neogene Shawan Formation are the Type II oils; the crude oils from the Cretaceous Qingshuihe and Jurassic Badaowan Formations are the Type III oils. For the Type I oils, they show a single model in the late retention time of the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The content of triaromatic steroid series is high, and the content of dibenzofuran is low. Maturity parameters related to alkyl naphthalene, methylphenanthrene and alkyl dibenzothiophene all indicate low maturity for the Type I oils. For the Type II oils, they have also a single model in the early retention time of the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The content of naphthalene and phenanthrene series is high, and the content of dibenzofuran is medium. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon representing the terrestrial organic matter is high. The aromatic maturity parameters indicate high maturity for the Type II oils. For the Type III oils, they have a bi-model in the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The contents of naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, and dibenzofuran series are high. The aromatic maturity parameters indicate medium maturity for the Type III oils. The correlation results of triaromatic steroid series fingerprint show that the Type I and Type III oils have similar source and are both from the Permian Wuerhe source rocks. Because of the strong biodegradation and mixing from other source, the Type I oils are very different from the Type III oils in aromatic hydrocarbon characteristics. The Type II oils have the typical characteristics of terrestrial organic matter input under oxidative environment, and are the coal oil mainly generated by the mature Jurassic coal measure source rocks. However, the overprinting effect from the low maturity Cretaceous source rocks changed the original distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons to some degree.

Keywords: Geochemistry, aromatic hydrocarbons, oil source, crude oils, chepaizi area, Junggar Basin

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5 Geochemical Study of Claystone from Nunukan Island, North Kalimantan of Indonesia

Authors: Mutiara Effendi

Abstract:

Nunukan Island is located on North Kalimantan of Indonesia. The region is one of Indonesia’s cross-border with Malaysia. In conjunction with its strategic geographic location, its potential as the new oil and gas resources has brought many researchers to do their studies here. The research area consists of claystone which criss-crossed with quarts sandstone. There are also rocks claystone-grained which are the weathering product of basaltic volcanic rocks. In some places, there are argillic clays which are the hydrothermal-altered product of Sei Apok ancient volcano. Geochemical study was established to learn the origin of the claystones, whether it came from weathering, hydrothermal alteration, or both. The samples used in this research are fresh rock, weathering rocks, hydrothermally-altered rock, and claystones. Chemical compositions of each sample were determined and their relations was studied. The studies encompass major and minor elements analysis using X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF) method and trace elements analysis, specifically rare earth elements, using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The results were plotted on certain graphics to learn about the trend and the relations of each sample and element. Any changes in chemical compositions, like increase and decrease of elements or species, was analysed to learn about geological phenomenon that happens during the formation of claystones. The result of this study shows that claystones of Nunukan Island have relation with volcanic rocks of its surrounding area. Its chemical composition profile corresponds to weathering product of volcanic rocks rather than hydrothermally-altered product. The general profile also resembles claystone minerals of illite or montmorillonite, especially in the existence of aluminum, iron, potassium, and magnesium. Both minerals are formed in basic condition and commonly happen to shales. It is consistent with the fact that claystone was found mixing with shales and silt to clay grained mudstones in field exploration. Even though the general profile is much alike, the amount of each elements is not precisely the same as theoretically claystone mineral compositions because the mineral have not formed completely yet.

Keywords: Geochemistry, XRF, ICP-MS, claystone

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4 Geochemistry of Nutrients in the South Lagoon of Tunis, Northeast of Tunisia, Using Multivariable Methods

Authors: Abidi Myriam, Ben Amor Rim, Gueddari Moncef

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Understanding ecosystem response to the restoration project is essential to assess its rehabilitation. Indeed, the time elapsed after restoration is a critical indicator to shows the real of the restoration success. In this order, the south lagoon of Tunis, a shallow Mediterranean coastal area, has witnessed several pollutions. To resolve this environmental problem, a large restoration project of the lagoon was undertaken. In this restoration works, the main changes are the decrease of the residence time of the lagoon water and the nutrient concentrations. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the trophic state of lagoon water for evaluating the risk of eutrophication after almost 16 years of its restoration. To attend this objectives water quality monitoring was untaken. In order to identify and to analyze the natural and anthropogenic factor governing the nutrients concentrations of lagoon water geochemical methods and multivariate statistical tools were used. Results show that nutrients have duel sources due to the discharge of municipal wastewater of Megrine City in the south side of the lagoon. The Carlson index shows that the South lagoon of Tunis Lagoon Tunis is eutrophic, and may show limited summer anoxia.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Geochemistry, Nutrients, trophic state, the south lagoon of Tunis

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3 Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of High-K Calc-Alkaline Granitic Rocks of Song, Hawal Massif, N. E. Nigeria

Authors: Ismaila Haruna

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The global downfall in fossil energy prices and dwindling oil reserves in Nigeria has ignited interest in the search for alternative sources of foreign income for the country. Solid minerals, particularly Uranium and other base metals like Lead and Zinc have been considered as potentially good options. Several occurrences of this mineral have been discovered in both the sedimentary and granitic rocks of the Hawal and Adamawa Massifs as well as in the adjoining Benue Trough in northeastern Nigeria. However, the paucity of geochemical data and consequent poor petrogenetic knowledge of the granitoids in this region has made exploration works difficult. Song, a small area within the Hawal Massif, was mapped and the collected samples chemically determined in Activation Laboratory, Canada through fusion dissolution technique of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Field mapping results show that the area is underlain by Granites, diorites with pockets of gneisses and pegmatites and that these rocks consists of microcline, quartz, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, pyroxene and accessory apatite, zircon, sphene, magnetite and opaques in various proportions. Geochemical data show continous compositional variation from diorite to granites within silica range of 52.69 to 76.04 wt %. Plot of the data on various Harker variation diagrams show distinct evolutionary trends from diorites to granites indicated by decreasing CaO, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, Ti2O, and increasing K2O with increasing silica. This pattern is reflected in trace elements data which, in general, decrease from diorite to the granites with rising Rb and K. Tectonic, triangular and other diagrams, indicate high-K calc-alkaline trends, syn-collisional granite signatures, I-type characteristics, with CNK/A of less than 1.1 (minimum of 0.58 and maximum of 0.94) and strong potassic character (K2O/Na2O˃1). However, only the granites are slightly peraluminous containing high silica percentage (68.46 to 76.04), K2O (2.71 to 6.16 wt %) with low CaO (1.88 on the average). Chondrite normalised rare earth elements trends indicate strongly fractionated REEs and enriched LREEs with slightly increasing negative Eu anomaly from the diorite to the granite. On the basis of field and geochemical data, the granitoids are interpreted to be high-K calc-alkaline, I-type, formed as a result of hybridization between mantle-derived magma and continental source materials (probably older meta-sediments) in a syn-collisional tectonic setting.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Nigeria, song, granite, petrogenesis, Hawal Massif

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2 Using GIS and Map Data for the Analysis of the Relationship between Soil and Groundwater Quality at Saline Soil Area of Kham Sakaesaeng District, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

Authors: W. Thongwat, B. Terakulsatit

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The study area is Kham Sakaesaeng District in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, the south section of Northeastern Thailand, located in the Lower Khorat-Ubol Basin. This region is the one of saline soil area, located in a dry plateau and regularly experience standing with periods of floods and alternating with periods of drought. Especially, the drought in the summer season causes the major saline soil and saline water problems of this region. The general cause of dry land salting resulted from salting on irrigated land, and an excess of water leading to the rising water table in the aquifer. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of physical and chemical properties between the soil and groundwater. The soil and groundwater samples were collected in both rainy and summer seasons. The content of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride and salinity were investigated. The experimental result of soil and groundwater samples show the slightly pH less than 7, EC (186 to 8,156 us/cm and 960 to 10,712 us/cm), TDS (93 to 3,940 ppm and 480 to 5,356 ppm), chloride content (45.58 to 4,177,015 mg/l and 227.90 to 9,216,736 mg/l), and salinity (0.07 to 4.82 ppt and 0.24 to 14.46 ppt) in the rainy and summer seasons, respectively. The distribution of chloride content and salinity content were interpolated and displayed as a map by using ArcMap 10.3 program, according to the season. The result of saline soil and brined groundwater in the study area were related to the low-lying topography, drought area, and salt-source exposure. Especially, the Rock Salt Member of Maha Sarakham Formation was exposed or lies near the ground surface in this study area. During the rainy season, salt was eroded or weathered from the salt-source rock formation and transported by surface flow or leached into the groundwater. In the dry season, the ground surface is dry enough resulting salt precipitates from the brined surface water or rises from the brined groundwater influencing the increasing content of chloride and salinity in the ground surface and groundwater.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Environmental Geology, Groundwater Hydrology, soil salinity

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1 Geochemical Evolution of Microgranular Enclaves Hosted in Cambro-Ordovician Kyrdem Granitoids, Meghalaya Plateau, Northeast India

Authors: K. Mohon Singh

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Cambro-Ordovician (512.5 ± 8.7 Ma) felsic magmatism in the Kyrdem region of Meghalaya plateau, herewith referred to as Kyrdem granitoids (KG), intrudes the low-grade Shillong Group of metasediments and Precambrian Basement Gneissic complex forming an oval-shaped plutonic body with longer axis almost trending N-S. Thermal aureole is poorly developed or covered under the alluvium. KG exhibit very coarse grained porphyritic texture with abundant K-feldspar megacrysts (up to 9cm long) and subordinate amount of amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, and quartz. The size of K-feldspar megacrysts increases from margin (Dwarksuid) to the interior (Kyrdem) of the KG pluton. Late felsic pulses as fine grained granite, leucocratic (aplite), and pegmatite veins intrude the KG at several places. Grey and pink varieties of KG can be recognized, but pink colour of KG is the result of post-magmatic fluids, which have not affected the magnetic properties of KG. Modal composition of KG corresponds to quartz monzonite, monzogranite, and granodiorite. KG has been geochemically characterized as metaluminous (I-type) to peraluminous (S-type) granitoids. The KG is characterized by development of variable attitude of primary foliations mostly marked along the margin of the pluton and is located at the proximity of Tyrsad-Barapani lineament. The KG contains country rock xenoliths (amphibolite, gneiss, schist, etc.) which are mostly confined to the margin of the pluton, and microgranular enclaves (ME) are hosted in the porphyritic variety of KG. Microgranular Enclaves (ME) in Kyrdem Granitoids are fine- to medium grained, mesocratic to melanocratic, phenocryst bearing or phenocryst-free, rounded to ellipsoidal showing typical magmatic textures. Mafic-felsic phenocrysts in ME are partially corroded and dissolved because of their involvement in magma-mixing event, and thus represent xenocrysts. Sharp to diffused contacts of ME with host Kyrdem Granitoids, fine grained nature and presence of acicular apatite in ME suggest comingling and undercooling of coeval, semi-solidified ME magma within partly crystalline felsic host magma. Geochemical features recognize the nature of ME (molar A/CNK=0.76-1.42) and KG (molar A/CNK =0.41-1.75) similar to hybrid-type formed by mixing of mantle-derived mafic and crustal-derived felsic magmas. Major and trace including rare earth elements variations of ME suggest the involvement of combined processes such as magma mixing, mingling and crystallization differentiation in the evolution of ME but KG variations appear primarily controlled by fractionation of plagioclase, hornblende biotite, and accessory phases. Most ME are partially to nearly re-equilibrate chemically with felsic host KG during magma mixing and mingling processes.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Northeast India, Kyrdem Granitoids, microgranular enclaves

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