Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Genome Assembly Related Abstracts

3 A Comprehensive Analysis of LACK (Leishmania Homologue of Receptors for Activated C Kinase) in the Context of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Abhay Kumar, Sukrat Sinha, Shanthy Sundaram

Abstract:

The Leishmania homologue of activated C kinase (LACK) is known T cell epitope from soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) that confers protection against Leishmania challenge. This antigen has been found to be highly conserved among Leishmania strains. LACK has been shown to be protective against L. donovani challenge. A comprehensive analysis of several LACK sequences was completed. The analysis shows a high level of conservation, lower variability and higher antigenicity in specific portions of the LACK protein. This information provides insights for the potential consideration of LACK as a putative candidate in the context of visceral Leishmaniasis vaccine target.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Next-generation sequencing, Genome Assembly, leishmania activated protein kinase c (lack)

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2 Exploring MPI-Based Parallel Computing in Analyzing Very Large Sequences

Authors: Bilal Wajid, Erchin Serpedin

Abstract:

The health industry is aiming towards personalized medicine. If the patient’s genome needs to be sequenced it is important that the entire analysis be completed quickly. This paper explores use of parallel computing to analyze very large sequences. Two cases have been considered. In the first case, the sequence is kept constant and the effect of increasing the number of MPI-based processes is evaluated in terms of execution time, speed and efficiency. In the second case the number of MPI-based processes have been kept constant whereas, the length of the sequence was increased.

Keywords: Parallel Computing, Genome Assembly, alignment

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1 Predictive Pathogen Biology: Genome-Based Prediction of Pathogenic Potential and Countermeasures Targets

Authors: Debjit Ray

Abstract:

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination leads to the emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance and pathogenic traits. HGT events can be identified by comparing a large number of fully sequenced genomes across a species or genus, define the phylogenetic range of HGT, and find potential sources of new resistance genes. In-depth comparative phylogenomics can also identify subtle genome or plasmid structural changes or mutations associated with phenotypic changes. Comparative phylogenomics requires that accurately sequenced, complete and properly annotated genomes of the organism. Assembling closed genomes requires additional mate-pair reads or “long read” sequencing data to accompany short-read paired-end data. To bring down the cost and time required of producing assembled genomes and annotating genome features that inform drug resistance and pathogenicity, we are analyzing the performance for genome assembly of data from the Illumina NextSeq, which has faster throughput than the Illumina HiSeq (~1-2 days versus ~1 week), and shorter reads (150bp paired-end versus 300bp paired end) but higher capacity (150-400M reads per run versus ~5-15M) compared to the Illumina MiSeq. Bioinformatics improvements are also needed to make rapid, routine production of complete genomes a reality. Modern assemblers such as SPAdes 3.6.0 running on a standard Linux blade are capable in a few hours of converting mixes of reads from different library preps into high-quality assemblies with only a few gaps. Remaining breaks in scaffolds are generally due to repeats (e.g., rRNA genes) are addressed by our software for gap closure techniques, that avoid custom PCR or targeted sequencing. Our goal is to improve the understanding of emergence of pathogenesis using sequencing, comparative genomics, and machine learning analysis of ~1000 pathogen genomes. Machine learning algorithms will be used to digest the diverse features (change in virulence genes, recombination, horizontal gene transfer, patient diagnostics). Temporal data and evolutionary models can thus determine whether the origin of a particular isolate is likely to have been from the environment (could it have evolved from previous isolates). It can be useful for comparing differences in virulence along or across the tree. More intriguing, it can test whether there is a direction to virulence strength. This would open new avenues in the prediction of uncharacterized clinical bugs and multidrug resistance evolution and pathogen emergence.

Keywords: Genomics, Pathogens, Genome Assembly, superbugs

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