Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Genetic Variation Related Abstracts

7 Genetic Variation of Autosomal STR Loci from Unrelated Individual in Iraq

Authors: H. Imad, Q. Cheah, J. Mohammad, O. Aamera


The aim of this study is twofold. One is to determine the genetic structure of Iraq population and the second objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of these loci for forensic genetic purposes. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Twenty STR loci and Amelogenin including D3S1358, D13S317, PentaE, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, THO1, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, TPOX, D8S1179, FGA, D2S1338, D5S818, D6S1043, D12S391, D19S433, and Amelogenin amplified by using power plex21® kit. PCR products detected by genetic analyzer 3730xL then data analyzed by PowerStatsV1.2. Based on the allelic frequencies, several statistical parameters of genetic and forensic efficiency have been estimated. This includes the homozygosity and heterozygosity, effective number of alleles (n), the polymorphism information content (PIC), the power of discrimination (DP), and the power of exclusion (PE). The power of discrimination values for all tested loci was from 75% to 96% therefore, those loci can be safely used to establish a DNA-based database for Iraq population.

Keywords: Genetic Variation, autosomal STR, Middle and South of Iraq, statistical parameters

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6 Assessing Genetic Variation of Dog Rose (Rosa Canina L.) in Caspian Climate

Authors: Aptin Rahnavard, Ghavamaldin Asadian, Khalil Pourshamsian, Mariamalsadat Taghavi


Dog rose is one of the important rose species in Iran that the distant past had been considered due to nutritional value and medicinal. Despite its long history of use, due to poor information on the genetic modification of plants has been done resources inheritance. In this study was to assess the genetic diversity. Total of 30 genotypes Dog rose from areas of northern Iran in the Caspian region (provinces of Guilan and Mazandaran) were evaluated using 25 RAPD primers. The number of bands produced total of 202 and for each primer were measured in a bands with an average 8-band .The number of polymorphic bands per primer ranged from 1 to 13 and the bands were in the range of 300 to 3000 bp. Based on the results OPA-04 primer with 13 bands and PRA-1, E-09 and A-04 with 5-band were created maximum and minimum number of amplified fragments. Molecular marker genotypes showed a high degree of polymorphism. Studied genotypes based on RAPD results were divided into 2 groups and 2 subgroups. Most similar in subgroups A2 and B group was the lowest.

Keywords: Genetic Variation, rosa canina spp, RAPD marker, caspian climate

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5 Milk Protein Genetic Variation and Haplotype Structure in Sudanse Indigenous Dairy Zebu Cattle

Authors: Ammar Said Ahmed, M. Reissmann, R. Bortfeldt, G. A. Brockmann


Milk protein genetic variants are of interest for characterizing domesticated mammalian species and breeds, and for studying associations with economic traits. The aim of this work was to analyze milk protein genetic variation in the Sudanese native cattle breeds, which have been gradually declining in numbers over the last years due to the breed substitution, and indiscriminate crossbreeding. The genetic variation at three milk protein genes αS1-casein (CSN1S1), αS2-casein (CSN1S2) and ƙ-casein (CSN3) was investigated in 250 animals belonging to five Bos indicus cattle breeds of Sudan (Butana, Kenana, White-nile, Erashy and Elgash). Allele specific primers were designed for five SNPs determine the CSN1S1 variants B and C, the CSN1S2 variants A and B, the CSN3 variants A, B and H. Allele, haplotype frequencies and genetic distances (D) were calculated and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. All breeds were found to be polymorphic for the studied genes. The CSN1S1*C variant was found very frequently (>0.63) in all analyzed breeds with highest frequency (0.82) in White-nile cattle. The CSN1S2*A variant (0.77) and CSN3*A variant (0.79) had highest frequency in Kenana cattle. Eleven haplotypes in casein gene cluster were inferred. Six of all haplotypes occurred in all breeds with remarkably deferent frequencies. The estimated D ranged from 0.004 to 0.049. The most distant breeds were White-nile and Kenana (D 0.0479). The results presented contribute to the genetic knowledge of indigenous cattle and can be used for proper definition and classification of the Sudanese cattle breeds as well as breeding, utilization, and potential development of conservation strategies for local breeds.

Keywords: Genetic Variation, Milk protein, casein haplotype, Bos indicus

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4 In Vitro Propagation of Aloe vera and Aloe littoralis Plants: Gamma Radiation, Biochemical and Genetic Changes

Authors: M. Shaker, Z. Nourmohammadi, F. Farahani


Aloe is an important commercial crop available in a wide range of species and varieties in international markets. The applications of this plant have been recorded in the ancient cultures of India, Egypt, Greece, Rome and China. Aloe has been used for centuries and is currently being actively studied for medicinal purposes. Aloe is propagated through lateral buds, which is slow, very expensive and low income practice. Nowadays, it has been cultured by in vitro propagation for rapid multiplication of plants, genetic improvement of crops, obtaining disease-free clones and for progressive valuable germplasm. The present study focused on the influence of different phytohormones on rapid in vitro propagation of Aloe plants. We also investigated the effect of gamma radiation on biochemical characters as well as genetic changes. Shoot tip of 2-3 cm were collected from offshoot of Aloe barbadensis and Aloe littoralis, and were inoculated with MS medium containing various concentrations of BA (0.5, 1, 2 mg/l), IAA (0.5, 1 mg/l). The best treatment for a highest shoot number and bud proliferation was MS medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l IAA in A. barbadensis and A. littoralis. Maximum percentage of proliferated shoot buds (90% and 95%) from a single explant were obtained in MS medium after 4-5 weeks of the second and the first subcultures, respectively. Different genome sizes were also indicated among treatments and subcultures. The mixoploids identified in flow cytometery histograms in different treatments. The effect of gamma radiation on A. littoralis showed that by increasing the dose of gamma radiation, amounts of chlorophyll A, B, carotenoids, total protein content and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased compared to control plants. Genetic variation analysis also revealed significant genetic differences between control and gamma radiation treated regenerated plants by AMOVA test. Higher genetic heterozygocity was observed in radiation treated plants. Our findings may provide useful method for improving of Aloe plant proliferation with increasing of useful material such as antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: Genetic Variation, Gamma Radiation, Micropropagation, antioxidant enzyme, aloe

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3 Photosynthesis Metabolism Affects Yield Potentials in Jatropha curcas L.: A Transcriptomic and Physiological Data Analysis

Authors: Nisha Govender, Siju Senan, Zeti-Azura Hussein, Wickneswari Ratnam


Jatropha curcas, a well-described bioenergy crop has been extensively accepted as future fuel need especially in tropical regions. Ideal planting material required for large-scale plantation is still lacking. Breeding programmes for improved J. curcas varieties are rendered difficult due to limitations in genetic diversity. Using a combined transcriptome and physiological data, we investigated the molecular and physiological differences in high and low yielding Jatropha curcas to address plausible heritable variations underpinning these differences, in regard to photosynthesis, a key metabolism affecting yield potentials. A total of 6 individual Jatropha plant from 4 accessions described as high and low yielding planting materials were selected from the Experimental Plot A, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi. The inflorescence and shoots were collected for transcriptome study. For the physiological study, each individual plant (n=10) from the high and low yielding populations were screened for agronomic traits, chlorophyll content and stomatal patterning. The J. curcas transcriptomes are available under BioProject PRJNA338924 and BioSample SAMN05827448-65, respectively Each transcriptome was subjected to functional annotation analysis of sequence datasets using the BLAST2Go suite; BLASTing, mapping, annotation, statistical analysis and visualization Large-scale phenotyping of the number of fruits per plant (NFPP) and fruits per inflorescence (FPI) classified the high yielding Jatropha accessions with average NFPP =60 and FPI > 10, whereas the low yielding accessions yielded an average NFPP=10 and FPI < 5. Next generation sequencing revealed genes with differential expressions in the high yielding Jatropha relative to the low yielding plants. Distinct differences were observed in transcript level associated to photosynthesis metabolism. DEGs collection in the low yielding population showed comparable CAM photosynthetic metabolism and photorespiration, evident as followings: phosphoenolpyruvate phosphate translocator chloroplastic like isoform with 2.5 fold change (FC) and malate dehydrogenase (2.03 FC). Green leaves have the most pronounced photosynthetic activity in a plant body due to significant accumulation of chloroplast. In most plants, the leaf is always the dominant photosynthesizing heart of the plant body. Large number of the DEGS in the high-yielding population were found attributable to chloroplast and chloroplast associated events; STAY-GREEN chloroplastic, Chlorophyllase-1-like (5.08 FC), beta-amylase (3.66 FC), chlorophyllase-chloroplastic-like (3.1 FC), thiamine thiazole chloroplastic like (2.8 FC), 1-4, alpha glucan branching enzyme chloroplastic amyliplastic (2.6FC), photosynthetic NDH subunit (2.1 FC) and protochlorophyllide chloroplastic (2 FC). The results were parallel to a significant increase in chlorophyll a content in the high yielding population. In addition to the chloroplast associated transcript abundance, the TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) at 2.9 FC, which code for distant stomatal distribution and patterning in the high-yielding population may explain high concentration of CO2. The results were in agreement with the role of TMM. Clustered stomata causes back diffusion in the presence of gaps localized closely to one another. We conclude that high yielding Jatropha population corresponds to a collective function of C3 metabolism with a low degree of CAM photosynthetic fixation. From the physiological descriptions, high chlorophyll a content and even distribution of stomata in the leaf contribute to better photosynthetic efficiency in the high yielding Jatropha compared to the low yielding population.

Keywords: Genetic Variation, Gene expression, Stomata, chlorophyll

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2 Studies on Phylogeny of Helicoverpa armigera Populations from North Western Himalaya Region with Help of Cytochromeoxidase I Sequence

Authors: R. M. Srivastava, Subbanna A.R.N.S, Md Abbas Ahmad, S. P.More, Shivashankar and B. Kalyanbabu


The similar morphology associated with high genetic variability poses problems in phylogenetic studies of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). To identify genetic variation of North Western Himalayan population’s, partial (Mid to terminal region) cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene was amplified and sequenced for three populations collected from Pantnagar, Almora, and Chinyalisaur. The alignment of sequences with other two populations, Nagpur representing central India population and Anhui, China representing complete COX-1 sequence revealed unanimity in middle region with eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Nagpur populations. However, the consensus is missing when approaching towards terminal region, which is associated with 15 each SNPs and pair base substitutions in Chinyalisaur populations. In minimum evolution tree, all the five populations were majorly separated into two clades, one comprising of only Nagpur population and the other with rest. Amongst, North Western populations, Chinyalisaur one is promising by farming a separate clade. The pairwise genetic distance ranges from 0.025 to 0.192 with the maximum between H. armigera populations of Nagpur and Chinyalisaur. This genetic isolation of populations can be attributed to a key role of topological barriers of weather and mountain ranges and temporal barriers due to cropping patterns.

Keywords: Genetic Variation, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, northwestern Himalayan population, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), phylogenetic relationship

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1 Surveillance of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Circulating in North India

Authors: Amita Jain, Suruchi Shukla, Shantanu Prakash


Introduction: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. Injection drug use and individuals receiving blood and blood products are the primary modes of HCV transmission. Our study aims to establish the prevalent genotypes/ subtypes of HCV circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India, as reported from a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It is a retrospective observational analysis of consecutive 404 HCV RNA positive cases referred to our hospital during September 2014 to April 2017. The study was approved by an institutional ethics committee. Written informed consent was taken from each participant. Clinical and demographic details of these patients were recorded using predesigned questionnaires. All the laboratory testing was carried on stored serum sample of enrolled cases. Genotyping of all 404 strains was done by Sanger’s sequencing of the core region. The phylogenetic analysis of 179 HCV strains with high -quality sequencing data was performed. Results: The distribution of prevalent genotypes/ subtypes as noted in the present study was; Genotype (GT)1a [n-101(25%)], GT1b [n-12(2.9%)], GT1c [1(0.25%)], GT3a [275(68.07%)], GT3b [9(2.2%)], GT3g [2(0.49%)], GT3i [3(0.74%)], and GT4a [1(0.24%)]. HCV genotypes GT2, GT5 and GT6 were not detected from our region. Sequence analysis showed high genotypic variability in HCV GT3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HCV GT3 and GT1 circulating in our region were related to Indian strains reported earlier. Conclusions: HCV genotypes 3a and 1a are commonest circulating genotypes in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Genetic Variation, genotype, Hepatitis C Virus, HCV

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