Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

genetic structure Related Abstracts

3 Genetic Structure of Four Bovine Populations in the Philippines Using Microsatellites

Authors: Peter James C. Icalia, Agapita J. Salces, Loida Valenzuela, Kangseok Seo, Geronima Ludan


This study evaluated polymorphism of 11 microsatellite markers in four local genetic groups of cattle. Batanes cattle which has never been studied using microsatellites is evaluated for its genetic distance from the Ilocos cattle while Brahman and Holstein-Sahiwal are also included as there were insemination programs by the government using these two breeds. PCR products that were genotyped for each marker were analyzed using POPGENEv32. Results showed that 55% (Fst=0.5501) of the genetic variation is due to the differences between populations while the remaining 45% is due to individual variation. The Fst value also indicates that there were very great differences from population to population using the range proposed by Sewall and Wright. The constructed phylogenetic tree based on Nei’s genetic distance using the modified neighboor joining procedure of PHYLIPv3.5 showed the admixture of Brahman and Holstein-Sahiwal having them grouped in the same clade. Batanes and Ilocos cattle were grouped in a different cluster showing that they have descended from a single parental population. This would presumably address the claim that Batanes and Ilocos cattle are genetically distant from other groups and still exist despite the artificial insemination program of the government using Brahman and other imported breeds. The knowledge about the genetic structure of this population supports the development of conservation programs for the smallholder farmers.

Keywords: Populations, Cattle, Philippines, microsatellites, genetic structure

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2 Genetic Structuring of Four Tectona grandis L. F. Seed Production Areas in Southern India

Authors: P. M. Sreekanth


Teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) is a tree species indigenous to India and other Southeastern countries. It produces high-value timber and is easily established in plantations. Reforestation requires a constant supply of high quality seeds. Seed Production Areas (SPA) of teak are improved stands used for collection of open-pollinated quality seeds in large quantities. Information on the genetic diversity of major teak SPAs in India is scanty. The genetic structure of four important seed production areas of Kerala State in Southern India was analyzed employing amplified fragment length polymorphism markers using ten selective primer combinations on 80 samples (4 populations X 20 trees). The study revealed that the gene diversity of the SPAs varied from 0.169 (Konni SPA) to 0.203 (Wayanad SPA). The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 74.42 (Parambikulam SPA) to 84.06 (Konni SPA). The mean total gene diversity index (HT) of all the four SPAs was 0.2296 ±0.02. A high proportion of genetic diversity was observed within the populations (83%) while diversity between populations was lower (17%) (GST = 0.17). Principal coordinate analysis and STRUCTURE analysis of the genotypes indicated that the pattern of clustering was in accordance with the origin and geographic location of SPAs, indicating specific identity of each population. A UPGMA dendrogram was prepared and showed that all the twenty samples from each of Konni and Parambikulam SPAs clustered into two separate groups, respectively. However, five Nilambur genotypes and one Wayanad genotype intruded into the Konni cluster. The higher gene flow estimated (Nm = 2.4) reflected the inclusion of Konni origin planting stock in the Nilambur and Wayanad plantations. Evidence for population structure investigated using 3D Principal Coordinate Analysis of FAMD software 1.30 indicated that the pattern of clustering was in accordance with the origin of SPAs. The present study showed that assessment of genetic diversity in seed production plantations can be achieved using AFLP markers. The AFLP fingerprinting was also capable of identifying the geographical origin of planting stock and there by revealing the occurrence of the errors in genotype labeling. Molecular marker-based selective culling of genetically similar trees from a stand so as to increase the genetic base of seed production areas could be a new proposition to improve quality of seeds required for raising commercial plantations of teak. The technique can also be used to assess the genetic diversity status of plus trees within provenances during their selection for raising clonal seed orchards for assuring the quality of seeds available for raising future plantations.

Keywords: genetic structure, spa, AFLP, teak

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1 Genetic Structure Analysis through Pedigree Information in a Closed Herd of the New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi


The New Zealand White breed of rabbit is one of the most commonly used, well adapted exotic breeds in India. Earlier studies were limited only to analyze the environmental factors affecting the growth and reproductive performance. In the present study, the population of the New Zealand White rabbits in a closed herd was evaluated for its genetic structure. Data on pedigree information (n=2508) for 18 years (1995-2012) were utilized for the study. Pedigree analysis and the estimates of population genetic parameters based on gene origin probabilities were performed using the software program ENDOG (version 4.8). The analysis revealed that the mean values of generation interval, coefficients of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding were 1.489 years, 13.233 percent and 17.585 percent, respectively. The proportion of population inbred was 100 percent. The estimated mean values of average relatedness and the individual increase in inbreeding were 22.727 and 3.004 percent, respectively. The percent increase in inbreeding over generations was 1.94, 3.06 and 3.98 estimated through maximum generations, equivalent generations, and complete generations, respectively. The number of ancestors contributing the most of 50% genes (fₐ₅₀) to the gene pool of reference population was 4 which might have led to the reduction in genetic variability and increased amount of inbreeding. The extent of genetic bottleneck assessed by calculating the effective number of founders (fₑ) and the effective number of ancestors (fₐ), as expressed by the fₑ/fₐ ratio was 1.1 which is indicative of the absence of stringent bottlenecks. Up to 5th generation, 71.29 percent pedigree was complete reflecting the well-maintained pedigree records. The maximum known generations were 15 with an average of 7.9 and the average equivalent generations traced were 5.6 indicating of a fairly good depth in pedigree. The realized effective population size was 14.93 which is very critical, and with the increasing trend of inbreeding, the situation has been assessed to be worse in future. The proportion of animals with the genetic conservation index (GCI) greater than 9 was 39.10 percent which can be used as a scale to use such animals with higher GCI to maintain balanced contribution from the founders. From the study, it was evident that the herd was completely inbred with very high inbreeding coefficient and the effective population size was critical. Recommendations were made to reduce the probability of deleterious effects of inbreeding and to improve the genetic variability in the herd. The present study can help in carrying out similar studies to meet the demand for animal protein in developing countries.

Keywords: genetic structure, effective population size, pedigree analysis, rabbit genetics

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