Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Genetic Related Abstracts

13 Development of Evolutionary Algorithm by Combining Optimization and Imitation Approach for Machine Learning in Gaming

Authors: Bright Keswani, Rohit Mittal, Amit Mithal

Abstract:

This paper provides a sense about the application of computational intelligence techniques used to develop computer games, especially car racing. For the deep sense and knowledge of artificial intelligence, this paper is divided into various sections that is optimization, imitation, innovation and combining approach of optimization and imitation. This paper is mainly concerned with combining approach which tells different aspects of using fitness measures and supervised learning techniques used to imitate aspects of behavior. The main achievement of this paper is based on modelling player behaviour and evolving new game content such as racing tracks as single car racing on single track.

Keywords: Innovation, Optimization, Genetic, racing, Gaming, Imitation, evolution algorithm

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12 Oral Health Status in Sickle Cell Anemia Subjects

Authors: Surekha Rathod

Abstract:

Sickle cell disease is a vascular disorder characterized by chronic, ongoing organ damage that is punctuated by episodes of acutely painful vascular complications.1 It is the most common genetic blood disorder in the United States, with about 2000 infants being identified through routine blood screenings annually, and an estimated 104,000-138,000 affected individuals living in the United States. Approximately 0.3%-1.3% of African American are affected by Sickle Cell Diseases (SCD).3 The aim of this paper is to present oral health status of patients with SCD. A total of 200 subjects of both sexes in the age group 18- 40 years were included in this study. The subjects were examined and the following indices were recorded • Oral hygiene index – Simplified (OHI-S). • Probing depths (PD). • Clinical Attachment Levels (CAL). • Gingival Index - Loe and Sillness. • Turesky Gillmore Glickman Modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index. (1970) • DMFT index. • Sickle Cell Disease Severity Index. A total of 1478 patients were screened of which 200 subjects were found to be diagnosed with SCD by electrophoresis. The study thus, included 200 subjects (111 females & 89 males) diagnosed with Sickle Cell Disease in the age group of 18-40 years. The probing pocket depths (PPD) were measured in millimeters. 36% had PPD in the range of 2-4mm, 48% had PPD in the range of 4-6mm while 16% had PPD of more than 6mm. Similar results were obtained for the Clinical Attachment Levels (CAL). 29.5 % subjects had CAL 2-4mm, 44.5% had 4-6mm & 26% had CAL 6mm & above. We can thus conclude that although oral health is not a priority for patients with SCD, it is supported by increased plaque accumulation. Because of the chronic anemic state of the patients with SCD, they should be encouraged to pay strict attention to oral hygiene instructions and practice.

Keywords: Genetic, Oral, Sickle cell disease, vascular, chronic

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11 Klippel Feil Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed Abdelmoula, Afifa Sellami, Salima Daoud, Tarek Rebai

Abstract:

Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) is characterized by congenital vertebral fusion of the cervical spine resulting from faulty segmentation along the embryo's developing axis. A wide spectrum of associated anomalies may be present. This heterogeneity has complicated elucidation of the genetic etiology and management of the syndrome. We report a case of an isolated Klippel-Feil Syndrome with C5-C6 fusion on the cervical spine. It‘s the rarest form of congenital fused cervical vertebrae which is predisposed to the risk of spinal cord injury and neurologic problems. The aim of this paper was to review clinical heterogeneity; radiographic abnormalities and genetic etiology in Klippel-Feil Syndrome. We insist in comprehensive evaluation and delineation of diagnostic and prognostic classes.

Keywords: Genetic, Klippel–Feil anomaly, clinical heterogeneity, radiographic abnormalities

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10 Molecular Characterization of Cysticercus tenuicolis of Slaughtered Livestock in Upper-Egypt Governorates

Authors: Mosaab A. Omara, Layla O. Elmajdoubb, Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboodyc, Ahmed ElSifyd, Ahmed O. Elkhtamd

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to present the molecular characterization of cysticercus tenuicolis of Taenia hydatigena from livestock isolates in Egypt, using the amplification of sequencing of the mt-CO1 gene. We introduce a detailed image of the Cysticercus tenuicolis infection in ruminant animals in Upper Egypt. Cysticercus tenuicolis inhabits such organs in ruminants as the omentum, viscera, and liver. In the present study, the infection rate of Cysticercus tenuicolis was found to be 16% and 19% in sheep and goat sample respectively. Firstly we report one larval stage of Taenia hydatigena detected in the camel liver in Egypt. Cysticercus tenuicolis infection manifested a higher prevalence in females than in males. Those above 2 years of age manifested a higher infection rate than younger animals. The preferred site for the infection was the omentum: a 70% preference in sheep and a 68% preference in goat samples. The molecular characterization using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene of isolates from sheep, goats and camels corresponded to T. hydatigena. For this study, molecular characterizations of T. hydatigena were done for the first time in Egypt. Molecular tools are of great assistance in characterizing the Cysticercus tenuicolis parasite especially when the morphological character cannot be detected because the metacestodes are frequently confused with infection by the Hydatid cyst, especially when these occur in the visceral organs. In the present study, Cysticercus tenuicolis manifested high identity in the goat and sheep samples, while differences were found more frequently in the camel samples (10 pairbase). Clearly molecular diagnosis for Cysticercus tenuicolis infection significantly helps to differentiate it from such other metacestodes.

Keywords: Genetic, ITS2, cysticercus tenuicolis, qena, molecular and taenia hydatigena

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9 Evaluation of Genetic Potentials of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Cultivars of North Western Nigeria

Authors: T. S. Bubuche, L. Abubakar, B. M. Sokoto, I. U. Mohammed, M. S. Na’allah, A. Mohammad, A. N. Garba

Abstract:

Onion (Allium cepa var. cepa L.) is the most important species of the Allium group belonging to family Alliaceae and genus Allium. It can be regarded as the single important vegetable species in the world after tomatoes. Despite the similarities, which bring the species together, the genus is a strikingly diverse one, with more than five hundred species, which are perennial and mostly bulbous plants. Out of these, only seven species are in cultivation, and five are the most important species of the cultivated Allium. However, Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) are the two major cultivated species grown all over the world of which the onion crop is the most important. North Western Nigeria (Sokoto, Kebbi and Zamfara States) constitute the major onion producing zone in Nigeria, which is primarily during the dry season. However, onion production in the zone is seriously affected by two main factors i.e. diseases and storage losses, in addition to other constraints that limits the cultivation of the crop during the rainy season which include lack of prolonged rainy season to allow for proper maturation of the crop. The major onion disease in this zone is purple blotch caused by a fungus Alternaria porri and currently efforts are on to develop onion hybrids resistant to the disease. Genetic diversity plays an important role in plant breeding either to exploit heterosis or to generate productive recombinants. Assessment of a large number of genotypes for a genetic diversity is the first step in this direction. The objective of this research therefore is to evaluate the genetic potentials of the onion cultivars of North Western Nigeria, with a view of developing new cultivars that address the major production challenges to onion cultivation in North Western, Nigeria. Thirteen onion cultivars were collected during an expedition covering North western Nigeria and Southern part of Niger Republic during 2013, which are areas noted for onion production. The cultivars were evaluated at two locations; Sokoto, in Sokoto State and Jega in Kebbi State all in Nigeria during the 2013/14 onion season (dry season) under irrigation. The objective of the research was to determine the genetic potentials of onion cultivars of north western Nigeria as a basis for breeding purposes. Combined analysis of the results revealed highly significant variation between the cultivars across the locations with respect to plant height, number of leaves/plant, bolting %, bulb height, bulb weight, mean bulb yield and cured bulb weight, with significant variation in terms of bulb diameter. Tasa from Warra Local Government Area of Kebbi State (V4) recorded the greatest mean fresh bulb yield with Jar Albasa (V8) from Illela Local Government Area of Sokoto State recording the least. Similarly Marsa (V5) from Silame Local Government Area recorded the greatest mean cured bulb yield (marketable bulb)with Kiba (V11) from Goronyo Local Government of Sokoto State recording the least. Significant variation was recorded between the locations with respect to all characters, with Sokoto being better in terms of plant height, number of leaves/plant, bolting % and bulb diameter. Jega was better in terms of bulb height, bulb yield and cured bulb weight. Significant variation was therefore observed between the cultivars.

Keywords: Genetic, Evaluation, onions, North Western Nigeria

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8 Understanding the Genetic Basis of SUDEP

Authors: Kumar Ashwini, Nayak C. Vinod

Abstract:

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a rarity. Each year, about one in 150 epileptics, whose seizures are not controlled, may die of SUDEP. It is a leading cause of death in young adults with uncontrolled seizures. Understanding the genetic basis for SUDEP, is crucial given that the rate of sudden death in epilepsy patients is 20 fold that of the general population. We encountered one such case of a young male, a known epileptic, who was brought dead after a sudden collapse. We hereby present a poster discussing the autopsy findings of this case and also highlighting the importance of understanding the genetic basis of SUDEP.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Genetic, Autopsy, sudden death

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7 TNF-α, TNF-β and IL-10 Gene Polymorphism and Association with Oral Lichen Planus Risk in Saudi Patients

Authors: Maha Ali Al-Mohaya, Lubna Majed Al-Otaibi, Ebtissam Nassir Al-Bakr, Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

Abstract:

Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease. Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of OLP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF-β and interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphisms with the OLP risk. Material and Methods: Forty-two unrelated patients with OLP and 211 healthy volunteers were genotyped for TNF-α (-308 G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G), IL-10 (-1082G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T), and IL-10 (-592C/A) polymorphisms. Results: The frequencies of allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) were significantly higher while allele G and GG genotypes were lower in OLP patients as compared to the controls (P < 0.001). The frequency of GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) was significantly higher in patients than in controls while the AA genotype was completely absent in OLP patients. These results indicated that allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) as well as the GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms are associated with OLP risk. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of -1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms in IL-10 gene did not differ significantly between OLP patients and controls (P > 0.05). However, haplotype ATA extracted from 1082G/A, -819C/T, -592C/A polymorphisms of IL-10 were more prevalent in OLP patients when compared to controls indicating its possible association with OLP susceptibility. Conclusion: It is concluded that TNF-α (-308G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G) and IL-10 (-1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A) polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility of OLP, thus giving additional support for the genetic basis of this disease. Further studies are required using a larger sample size to confirm this association and determine the prognostic values of these findings.

Keywords: Cytokines, Genetic, Polymorphism, oral lichen planus

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6 The Role of ALDH2 Genotypes in Bipolar II Disorder Comorbid with Anxiety Disorder

Authors: Yun-Hsuan Chang, Chih-Chun Huang, Ru-Band Lu

Abstract:

Dopamine, metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*1, and ALDH2*1/*2+ALDH*2/*2 equally carried in Han Chinese. The relationship between dopamine metabolic enzyme and cognitive performance in bipolar II disorder comorbid with anxiety disorder (AD) remains unclear. This study proposed to explore the association between ALDH2 polymorphisms, anxiety comorbidity in bipolar II disorder. One hundred and ninety-seven BPII with or without AD comorbidity were recruited and compared with 130 Health controls (HC). A polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to determine genotypes for ALDH2, and neuropsychological battery was performed. Two factor analyses with AD comorbidity and ALDH2 showed a significant main effect of ALDH2 on attention and marginally significant interaction between AD and ALDH2 memory performance. The ALDH2 polymorphisms may play a different role in the neuropsychological performance on varied neuropsychological performance in BPII comorbid with and without AD.

Keywords: Genetic, Comorbidity, anxiety disorder, bipolar II disorder

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5 Phylogeography and Evolutionary History of Whiting (Merlangius merlangus) along the Turkish Coastal Waters with Comparisons to the Atlantic

Authors: Aslı Şalcıoğlu, Grigorous Krey, Raşit Bilgin

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of the Turkish Straits System (TSS), comprising a biogeographical boundary that forms the connection between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, on the evolutionary history, phylogeography and intraspecific gene flow of the whiting (Merlangius merlangus) a demersal fish species, was investigated. For these purposes, the mitochondrial DNA (CO1, cyt-b) genes were used. In addition, genetic comparisons samples from other regions (Greece, France, Atlantic) obtained from GenBank and Barcode of Life Database were made to better understand the phylogeographic history of the species at a larger geographic scale. Within this study, high level of genetic differentiation was observed along the Turkish coastal waters based on cyt-b gene, suggesting that TSS is a barrier to dispersal. Two different sub-species were also observed based on mitochondrial DNA, one found in Turkish coastal waters and Greece (M.m euxinus) and other (M.m. merlangus) in Atlantic, France.

Keywords: Phylogeography, Genetic, TSS, whiting

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4 Parameter Estimation of Additive Genetic and Unique Environment (AE) Model on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Using Bayesian Method

Authors: Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih, Andi Darmawan

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease in human that occurred if pancreas cannot produce enough of insulin hormone or the body uses ineffectively insulin hormone which causes increasing level of glucose in the blood, or it was called hyperglycemia. In Indonesia, DM is a serious disease on health because it can cause blindness, kidney disease, diabetic feet (gangrene), and stroke. The type of DM criteria can also be divided based on the main causes; they are DM type 1, type 2, and gestational. Diabetes type 1 or previously known as insulin-independent diabetes is due to a lack of production of insulin hormone. Diabetes type 2 or previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes is due to ineffective use of insulin while gestational diabetes is a hyperglycemia that found during pregnancy. The most one type commonly found in patient is DM type 2. The main factors of this disease are genetic (A) and life style (E). Those disease with 2 factors can be constructed with additive genetic and unique environment (AE) model. In this article was discussed parameter estimation of AE model using Bayesian method and the inheritance character simulation on parent-offspring. On the AE model, there are response variable, predictor variables, and parameters were capable of representing the number of population on research. The population can be measured through a taken random sample. The response and predictor variables can be determined by sample while the parameters are unknown, so it was required to estimate the parameters based on the sample. Estimation of AE model parameters was obtained based on a joint posterior distribution. The simulation was conducted to get the value of genetic variance and life style variance. The results of simulation are 0.3600 for genetic variance and 0.0899 for life style variance. Therefore, the variance of genetic factor in DM type 2 is greater than life style.

Keywords: Genetic, Bayesian Method, diabetes Mellitus type 2, life style, AE model

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3 Asparagus racemosus Willd for Enhanced Medicinal Properties

Authors: Ashok kumar, Parveen Parveen

Abstract:

India is bestowed with an extremely high population of plant species with medicinal value and even has two biodiversity hotspots. Indian systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani have historically been serving humankind across the world since time immemorial. About 1500 plant species have well been documented in Ayurvedic Nighantus as official medicinal plants. Additionally, several hundred species of plants are being routinely used as medicines by local people especially tribes living in and around forests. The natural resources for medicinal plants have unscientifically been over-exploited forcing rapid depletion in their genetic diversity. Moreover, renewed global interest in herbal medicines may even lead to additional depletion of medicinal plant wealth of the country, as about 95% collection of medicinal plants for pharmaceutical preparation is being carried out from natural forests. On the other hand, huge export market of medicinal and aromatic plants needs to be seriously tapped for enhancing inflow of foreign currency. Asparagus racemosus Willd., a member of family Liliaceae, is one of thirty-two plant species that have been identified as priority species for cultivation and conservation by the National Medicinal Plant Board (NMPB), Government of India. Though attention is being focused on standardization of agro-techniques and extraction methods, little has been designed on genetic improvement and selection of desired types with higher root production and saponin content, a basic ingredient of medicinal value. The saponin not only improves defense mechanisms and controls diabetes but the roots of this species promote secretion of breast milk, improved lost body weight and considered as an aphrodisiac. There is ample scope for genetic improvement of this species for enhancing productivity substantially, qualitatively and quantitatively. It is emphasized to select desired genotypes with sufficient genetic diversity for important economic traits. Hybridization between two genetically divergent genotypes could result in the synthesis of new F1 hybrids consisting of useful traits of both the parents. The evaluation of twenty seed sources of Asparagus racemosus assembled different geographical locations of India revelled high degree of variability for traits of economic importance. The maximum genotypic and phenotypic variance was observed for shoot height among shoot related traits and for root length among root related traits. The shoot height, genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance, the phenotypic coefficient of variance was recorded to be 231.80, 3924.80, 61.26 and 1037.32, respectively, where those of the root length were 9.55, 16.80, 23.46 and 41.27, respectively. The maximum genetic advance and genetic gain were obtained for shoot height among shoot-related traits and root length among root-related traits. Index values were developed for all seed sources based on the four most important traits, and Panthnagar (Uttrakhand), Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Dehradun (Uttarakhand), Chandigarh (Punjab), Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir) and Solan (Himachal Pradesh) were found to be promising seed sources.

Keywords: Genetic, genotypes, asparagus, variance

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2 Molecular Survey and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella henselae Strains Infecting Stray Cats from Algeria

Authors: Naouelle Azzag, Nadia Haddad, Benoit Durand, Elisabeth Petit, Ali Ammouche, Bruno Chomel, Henri J. Boulouis

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Bartonella henselae is a small, gram negative, arthropod-borne bacterium that has been shown to cause multiple clinical manifestations in humans including cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, and bacteremia. In this research, we report the results of a cross sectional study of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in stray cats from Algiers. Whole blood of 227 stray cats from Algiers was tested for the presence of Bartonella species by culture and for the evaluation of the genetic diversity of B. henselae strains by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats assay (MLVA). Bacteremia prevalence was 17% and only B. henselae was identified. Type I was the predominant type (64%). MLVA typing of 259 strains from 30 bacteremic cats revealed 52 different profiles. 51 of these profiles were specific to Algerian cats/identified for the first time. 20/30 cats (67%) harbored 2 to 7 MLVA profiles simultaneously. The similarity of MLVA profiles obtained from the same cat, neighbor-joining clustering and structure-neighbor clustering showed that such a diversity likely results from two different mechanisms occurring either independently or simultaneously independent infections and genetic drift from a primary strain.

Keywords: Genetic, Cat, Bartonella, MLVA

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1 THRAP2 Gene Identified as a Candidate Susceptibility Gene of Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases Pedigree in Tunisian Population

Authors: Ghazi Chabchoub, Mohamed Abid, Mouna Feki, Hammadi Ayadi

Abstract:

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), including Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), are inherited as complex traits. Genetic factors associated with AITDs have been tentatively identified by candidate gene and genome scanning approaches. We analysed three intragenic microsatellite markers in the thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 2 gene (THRAP2), mapped near D12S79 marker, which have a potential role in immune function and inflammation [THRAP2-1(TG)n, THRAP2-2 (AC)n and THRAP2-3 (AC)n]. Our study population concerned 12 patients affected with AITDs belonging to a multiplex Tunisian family with high prevalence of AITDs. Fluorescent genotyping was carried out on ABI 3100 sequencers (Applied Biosystems USA) with the use of GENESCAN for semi-automated fragment sizing and GENOTYPER peak-calling software. Statistical analysis was performed using the non parametric Lod score (NPL) by Merlin software. Merlin outputs non-parametric NPLall (Z) and LOD scores and their corresponding asymptotic P values. The analysis for three intragenic markers in the THRAP2 gene revealed strong evidence for linkage (NPL=3.68, P=0.00012). Our results suggested the possible role of THRAP2 gene in AITDs susceptibility in this family.

Keywords: Autoimmunity, Genetic, Autoimmune Disease, linkage analysis

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