Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Genetic Diversity Related Abstracts

36 Genetic Parameters as Indicators of Sustainability and Diversity of Schinus terebinthifolius Populations in the Riparian Area of the São Francisco River

Authors: Renata Silva-Mann, Sheila Valéria Álvares Carvalho, Robério Anastácio Ferreira, Laura Jane Gomes

Abstract:

There is growing interest in defining indicators of sustainability, which are important for monitoring the conservation of native forests, particularly in areas of permanent protection. These indicators are references for assessing the state of the forest and the status of the depredated area and its ability to maintain species populations. The aim of the present study was to select genetic parameters as indicators of sustainability for Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Fragments located in riparian areas between the Sergipe and Alagoas States in Brazil. This species has been exploited for traditional communities, which represent 20% of the incoming. This study was carried out using the indicators suggested by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which were identified as Driving-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) factors. The genetic parameters were obtained in five populations located on the shores and islands of the São Francisco River, one of the most important rivers in Brazil. The framework for Schinus conservation suggests seventeen indicators of sustainability. In accordance with genetic parameters, the populations are isolated, and these genetic parameters can be used to monitor the sustainability of those populations in riparian area with the aim of defining strategies for forest restoration.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Molecular markers, Genetic Diversity, alleles

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35 ISSR-PCR Based Genetic Diversity Analysis on Copper Tolerant versus Wild Type Strains of Unicellular alga Chlorella Vulgaris

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani

Abstract:

The unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from Al-Asfar Lake, which is located in the Al-Ahsa province of Saudi Arabia. Two different isolates were sub-cultured under laboratory conditions. The wild type was grown under a regular concentration of copper, whereas the other isolate was grown under a progressively increasing copper concentration. An Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) analysis was performed using DNA isolated from the wild type and tolerant strains. The sum of the scored bands of the wild type was 155, with 100 (64.5%) considered to be polymorphic bands, whereas the resistant strain displayed 147 bands, with 92 (62.6%) considered to be polymorphic bands. The sum of the scored bands of a mixed sample was 117 bands, of which only 4 (3.4%) were considered to be polymorphic. The average Nei's genetic diversity (h) and Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (I) were 0.3891 and 0.5394, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the adaptation to a high level of copper in Chlorella vulgaris is not merely physiological but rather driven by modifications at the genomic level.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, chlorella vulgaris, copper tolerance, green algae

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34 Population Structure Analysis of Pakistani Indigenous Cattle Population by Using High Density SNP Array

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, McClure Matt, Khalid Javed, Talat Nasser Pasha, Afzal Ali1, Adeela Ajmal, Tad Sonstegard

Abstract:

Genetic differences associated with speciation, breed formation or local adaptation can help to preserve and effective utilization of animals in selection programs. Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. In this study, we used a high-density panel of SNP markers to examine population structure and diversity among ten Pakistani indigenous cattle breeds. In total, 25 individuals from three cattle populations, including Achi (n=08), Bhagnari (n=04) and Cholistani (n=13) were genotyped for 777, 962 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Population structure was examined using the linkage model in the program STRUCTURE. After characterizing SNP polymorphism in the different populations, we performed a detailed analysis of genetic structure at both the individual and population levels. The whole-genome SNP panel identified several levels of population substructure in the set of examined cattle breeds. We further searched for spatial patterns of genetic diversity among these breeds under the recently developed spatial principal component analysis framework. Overall, such high throughput genotyping data confirmed a clear partitioning of the cattle genetic diversity into distinct breeds. The resulting complex historical origins associated with both natural and artificial selection have led to the differentiation of numerous different cattle breeds displaying a broad phenotypic variety over a short period of time.

Keywords: Pakistan, Cattle, Genetic Diversity, population structure

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33 RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Polymorphism in the Collection of Rye Cultivars

Authors: Z. Gálová, Ž. Balážová, L. Petrovičová, M. Wójcik-Jagła, M. Rapacz

Abstract:

In the present study, RAPD-PCR was used to assess genetic diversity of the rye including landrances and new rye cultivars coming from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN). Five arbitrary random primers were used to determine RAPD polymorphism in the set of 38 rye genotypes. These primers amplified altogether 43 different DNA fragments with an average number of 8.6 fragments per genotypes. The number of fragments ranged from 7 (RLZ 8, RLZ 9 and RLZ 10) to 12 (RLZ 6). DI and PIC values of all RAPD markers were higher than 0.8 that generally means high level of polymorphism detected between rye genotypes. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. The cultivars were grouped into two main clusters. In this experiment, RAPD proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Polymorphism, RAPD markers, Secale cereale L

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32 Lycopene and β-Carotene Variation among Genetically Diverse Momordica cochinchinensis

Authors: Dilani Wimalasiri, Robert Brkljaca, Sylvia Urban, Terrence Piva, Tien Huynh

Abstract:

Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) is used as food and traditional medicine in South East Asia and is commonly known as Red Gac. The fruit aril consists 70 times higher lycopene and 10 times higher β-carotene than all known fruits and vegetables. Despite its nutritional value there is little information available on its genetic variation and its influence on nutritional value. In this study; genetic and nutritional variation (lycopene and β-carotene) was investigated among 47 M. cochinchinensis samples collected from Australia, Thailand and Vietnam using molecular markers (RAPD and ISSR) and HPLC, respectively. UPGMA based cluster analysis of genetic data grouped Northern and Central Vietnam samples together but were separated from Australia, Thailand and Southern Vietnam samples. The concentration of lycopene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Central Vietnam (p<0.05) and the concentration of β-carotene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Northern Vietnam (p<0.05) indicating the existence of best varieties. This study provides vital information in genetic diversity and facilitates the selection and breeding for nutritious M. cochinchinensis varieties.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, lycopene, momordica cochinchinensis, beta carotene

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31 Genetic Diversity of Tiger Groupers (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) Challenged with Vibrio Parahaemolyticus and Exposed to Extreme Low Salinities

Authors: Hidayah Triana, Mahir S. Gani, Asmi Citra Malina, Hamka

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity of tiger groupers that are resistant to V. parahaemolyticus and tolerant to low extreme salinities. This research is useful to obtain superior broodstock of fish. Tiger grouper used were 6 to 8 cm obtained from Brackish Water Aquaculture Research Center Gondol (Bali). This study consists of four stages: preliminary stage was adaptation of fish exposed to several concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus (103, 104, 105, 106, and 107 CFU / ml); second stage was test of Lethal Concentration (LC50) of bacteria to fish; third stage was salinity tolerance test (low salinity 12, 14 and 16 ppt) and fourth stage was analysis of DNA profiles. For DNA profiles analysis, genomic DNA of fish were extracted for PCR using primers YNZ-22 and UBC-122 and visualized by electrophoresis method. The results showed that Lethal concentration of bacteria (LC50) to fish was 1,56x106 CFU/ml. Furthermore, survival rate of groupers exposed with low salinities (12, 14, 16 ppt) survival rates were found to be 54,17 %, 66,67 % and 79,16 % respectively. Average of DNA fragment (5 fragments) generated from primer UBC-122 in the group of fish resistant to V.parahaemolyticus and tolerant to low salinities was similar to group of susceptible to low salinities. Primer YNZ-22 generated more diverse of DNA fragments (8,0 and 5,8 fragments) both in the group of fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities compared to primer UBC-122 (5,0 fragments). Size of DNA 1.5 kb resulted from primer YNZ-22. Primer YNZ-22 generated 4 (50 %) and 3 (42,8 %) polymorfic fragments in the group of fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities, respectively. Four (4) monomorfic fragments were found both in the group of fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities. Primer UBC-122 generated 6 (85,7 %) and 9 (90,0 %) polymorfic fragments in the fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities, respectively.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, epinephelus fuscoguttatus, V. parahaemolyticus, PCR-RAPD, low extreme salinity

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30 Durian Marker Kit for Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Identity

Authors: Emma K. Sales

Abstract:

Durian is the flagship fruit of Mindanao and there is an abundance of several cultivars with many confusing identities/ names. The project was conducted to develop procedure for reliable and rapid detection and sorting of durian planting materials. Moreover, it is also aimed to establish specific genetic or DNA markers for routine testing and authentication of durian cultivars in question. The project developed molecular procedures for routine testing. SSR primers were also screened and identified for their utility in discriminating durian cultivars collected. Results of the study showed the following accomplishments; 1. Twenty (29) SSR primers were selected and identified based on their ability to discriminate durian cultivars, 2. Optimized and established standard procedure for identification and authentication of Durian cultivars 3. Genetic profile of durian is now available at Biotech Unit. Our results demonstrate the relevance of using molecular techniques in evaluating and identifying durian clones. The most polymorphic primers tested in this study could be useful tools for detecting variation even at the early stage of the plant especially for commercial purposes. The process developed combines the efficiency of the microsatellites development process with the optimization of non-radioactive detection process resulting in a user-friendly protocol that can be performed in two (2) weeks and easily incorporated into laboratories about to start microsatellite development projects. This can be of great importance to extend microsatellite analyses to other crop species where minimal genetic information is currently available. With this, the University can now be a service laboratory for routine testing and authentication of durian clones.

Keywords: genotype, Dna, Genetic Diversity, SSR analysis, cultivars

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29 The Molecular Characteristic of Heliotropium digynum in Saudi Arabia by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Analysis

Authors: Mona Alwhibi, Najat Bukhary

Abstract:

Heliotropium digynum, a member of Boraginaceae family, the growth of the plant, as well as its size, length of inflorescence, and speed of development depends on the amount of rain in its habitat. In this study, we studied the applicability of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphism in Heliotropium digynum in a different region of Saudi Arabia. We found that. ISSR analysis using 15 primers were used for ISSR-PCR optimization trials, five primers (UBC810, UBC811, UBC818, UBC834, and UBC849) which gave the best amplification results produced a total of 43 polymorphic bands. The number of polymorphic loci was 20 and the percentage of polymorphism was 90.47%. The similarity result indicates the presence of a high-level genetic diversity between populations and a dendrogram constructed by UPGMA method.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, genetic differentiation, Heliotropium digynum, ISSR

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28 Heterogeneity of Genes Encoding the Structural Proteins of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, Siamak Zohari, Lena H. M. Renström, Désirée S. Jansson, Faruk Otman, Karin Ullman, Claudia Baule

Abstract:

Infectious bronchitis is an acute, highly contagious respiratory, nephropathogenic and reproductive disease of poultry that is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The present study used a large data set of structural gene sequences, including newly generated ones and sequences available in the GenBank database to further analyze the diversity and to identify selective pressures and recombination spots. There were some deletions or insertions in the analyzed regions in isolates of the Italy-02 and D274 genotypes. Whereas, there were no insertions or deletions observed in the isolates of the Massachusetts and 4/91 genotype. The hypervariable nucleotide sequence regions spanned positions 152–239, 554–582, 686–737 and 802–912 in the S1 sub-unit of the all analyzed genotypes. The nucleotide sequence data of the E gene showed that this gene was comparatively unstable and subjected to a high frequency of mutations. The M gene showed substitutions consistently distributed except for a region between nucleotide positions 250–680 that remained conserved. The lowest variation in the nucleotide sequences of ORF5a was observed in the isolates of the D274 genotype. While, ORF5b and N gene sequences showed highly conserved regions and were less subjected to variation. Genes ORF3a, ORF3b, M, ORF5a, ORF5b and N presented negative selective pressure among the analyzed isolates. However, some regions of the ORFs showed favorable selective pressure(s). The S1 and E proteins were subjected to a high rate of mutational substitutions and non-synonymous amino acids. Strong signals of recombination breakpoints and ending break point were observed in the S and N genes. Overall, the results of this study revealed that very likely the strong selective pressures in E, M and the high frequency of substitutions in the S gene can probably be considered the main determinants in the evolution of IBV.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, genotypes, IBV, avian infectious bronchitis, structural genes

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27 Investigation of Genetic Variation among Anemone narcissiflora L. Population Using PCR-RAPD Molecular Marker

Authors: Habib Onsori, Somayeh Akrami, Elham Tahmassebian

Abstract:

Species of Anemone narcissiflora is belonged to Anemone genus of Ranunculaceae family. This species has two subspecies named narcissiflora and willdenowii which the latest is recorded in Iran in 2010. Some samples of A. narcissiflora is gathered from kuhkamar-zonouz region of East -Azerbaijan province, Iran to study the genetic diversity of the species by using RAPD molecular markers, and estimation of genetic diversity were evaluated with the using 10mer RAPD primers by PCR-RAPD method. 39 polymorphic bands were produced from the six primers used in this technique that the maximum band is related to the RP1 primer, the lowest band is related to the RP7 and the average band for all primers were 6.5 polymorphic bands. Cluster analysis of samples in done by UPGMA method in NTSYSpc 2.02 software. Dendrogram resulting from migrating bands showed that the studied samples can be divided into two groups. The first group includes samples with 1-2 flowers and the second group consists of two sub-groups which the first subgroup consists of samples with 3-5 flowers, and the second subgroup consists of samples with 6-7 flowers. The results of the comparison and analysis of the data obtained from RAPD technique and similarity matrix represents the genetic variation between collected samples. This study shows that RAPD markers can determine the polymorphisms between different genotypes of A. narcissiflora and their hybrids. So RAPD technique can serve as a suitable molecular method to determine the genetic diversity of samples.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, RAPD-PCR, Anemone narcissiflora

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26 Investigation of Genetic Diversity of Tilia tomentosa Moench. (Silver Lime) in Duzce-Turkey

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Seda Birbilener, Semsettin Kulac, Zeki Severoglu

Abstract:

In this study, we have performed genetic diversity analysis of Tilia tomentosa genotypes by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. A total of 28 genotypes, including 25 members from the urban ecosystem and 3 genotypes from forest ecosystem as outgroup were used. 8 RAPD primers produced a total of 53 bands, of which 48 (90.6 %) were polymorphic. Percentage of polymorphic loci (P), observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's (1973) gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were found as 94.29 %, 1.94, 1.60, 0.34, and 0.50, respectively. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis revealed that two major groups were observed. The genotypes of urban and forest ecosystems showed a high genetic similarity between 28% and 92% and these genotypes did not separate from each other in UPGMA tree. Also, urban and forest genotypes clustered together in principal component analysis (PCA).

Keywords: Urban Ecosystem, Genetic Diversity, RAPD, Tilia tomentosa, UPGMA

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25 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Triticum Aestivum Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Prachi Sharma, Mukesh Kumar Rana

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In the present study, the simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers have been used in analysis of genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Triticum aestivum. The DNA was extracted using cTAB method. The DNA was quantified using the fluorimeter. The annealing temperatures for 27 primer pairs were standardized using gradient PCR, out of which 16 primers gave satisfactory amplification at temperature ranging from 50-62⁰ C. Out of 16 polymorphic SSR markers only 10 SSR primer pairs were used in the study generating 34 reproducible amplicons among 37 genotypes out of which 30 were polymorphic. Primer pairs Xgwm533, Xgwm 160, Xgwm 408, Xgwm 120, Xgwm 186, Xgwm 261 produced maximum percent of polymorphic bands (100%). The bands ranged on an average of 3.4 bands per primer. The genetic relationship was determined using Jaccard pair wise similarity co-efficient and UPGMA cluster analysis with NTSYS Pc.2 software. The values of similarity index range from 0-1. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.97. A minimum genetic similarity (0.13) was observed between VL 804 and HPW 288, meaning they are only 13% similar. More number of available SSR markers can be useful for supporting the genetic diversity analysis in the above wheat genotypes.

Keywords: Wheat, Genetic Diversity, Polymorphism, microsatellite

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24 Molecular Characterization of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Strains Based on Selected Glycoprotein and Tegument Genes

Authors: Fulufhelo Amanda Doboro, Kgomotso Sebeko, Stephen Njiro, Moritz Van Vuuren

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Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) genome obtained from the lymphopblastoid cell line of a BJ1035 cow was recently sequenced in the United States of America (USA). Information on the sequences of OvHV-2 genes obtained from South African strains from bovine or other African countries and molecular characterization of OvHV-2 is not documented. Present investigation provides information on the nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences and genetic diversity of Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2, ORF 27 and ORF 73 genes, of these genes from OvHV-2 strains circulating in South Africa. Gene-specific primers were designed and used for PCR of DNA extracted from 42 bovine blood samples that previously tested positive for OvHV-2. The expected PCR products of 495 bp, 253 bp, 890 bp and 1632 bp respectively for Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2, ORF 27 and ORF 73 genes were sequenced and multiple sequence analysis done on the selected regions of the sequenced PCR products. Two genotypes for ORF 27 and ORF 73 gene sequences, and three genotypes for Ov 7 and Ov 8 ex2 gene sequences were identified, and similar groupings for the derived amino acid sequences were obtained for each gene. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence variations that led to the identification of the different genotypes included SNPs, deletions and insertions. Sequence analysis of Ov 7 and ORF 27 genes revealed variations that distinguished between sequences from SA and reference OvHV-2 strains. The implication of geographic origin among SA sequences was difficult to evaluate because of random distribution of genotypes in the different provinces, for each gene. However, socio-economic factors such as migration of people with animals, or transportation of animals for agricultural or business use from one province to another are most likely to be responsible for this observation. The sequence variations observed in this study have no impact on the antibody binding activities of glycoproteins encoded by Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2 and ORF 27 genes, as determined by prediction of the presence of B cell epitopes using BepiPred 1.0. The findings of this study will be used for selection of gene candidates for the development of diagnostic assays and vaccine development as well.

Keywords: Genes, Genetic Diversity, Amino Acid, nucleotide

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23 Genetic Diversity of Sugar Beet Pollinators

Authors: Ksenija Taski-Ajdukovic, Nevena Nagl, Živko Ćurčić, Dario Danojević

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Information about genetic diversity of sugar beet parental populations is of a great importance for hybrid breeding programs. The aim of this research was to evaluate genetic diversity among and within populations and lines of diploid sugar beet pollinators, by using SSR markers. As plant material were used eight pollinators originating from three USDA-ARS breeding programs and four pollinators from Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Depending on the presence of self-fertility gene, the pollinators were divided into three groups: autofertile (inbred lines), autosterile (open-pollinating populations), and group with partial presence of autofertility gene. A total of 40 SSR primers were screened, out of which 34 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 129 different alleles were obtained with mean value 3.2 alleles per SSR primer. According to the results of genetic variability assessment the number and percentage of polymorphic loci was the maximal in pollinators NS1 and tester cms2 while effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosis and Shannon’s index was highest in pollinator EL0204. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 77.34% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. Correspondence analysis results were very similar to grouping by neighbor-joining algorithm. Number of groups was smaller by one, because correspondence analysis merged IFVCNS pollinators with CZ25 into one group. Pollinators FC220, FC221 and C 51 were in the next group, while self-fertile pollinators CR10 and C930-35 from USDA-Salinas were separated. On another branch were self-sterile pollinators ЕL0204 and ЕL53 from USDA-East Lansing. Sterile testers cms1 and cms2 formed separate group. The presented results confirmed that SSR analysis can be successfully used in estimation of genetic diversity within and among sugar beet populations. Since the tested pollinator differed considering the presence of self-fertility gene, their heterozygosity differed as well. It was lower in genotypes with fixed self-fertility genes. Since the most of tested populations were open-pollinated, which rarely self-pollinate, high variability within the populations was expected. Cluster analysis grouped populations according to their origin.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Pollinator, SSR, auto fertility, sugar beet

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22 Development and Characterization of Polymorphic Genomic-SSR Markers in Asian Long-Horned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Authors: Zhao Yang Liu, Jing Tao

Abstract:

The Asian long-horned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), is a wood-borer and polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and killing healthy trees. As it causes serious danger to trees, the beetle has been paid close attention in the world. However, the genetic markers limited, especially microsatellite. In this study, 24 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. We developed SSR loci of 2 to 6 repeated and perfect units including 9895 points, the density of SSRs was found one SSR per 56.57 kb and the abundance of SSR was 0.02/kb, besides 140 types of repeats motifs were found. Half of the 48 pairs SSR primers (containing 4 di-, 7 tri-, 2 tetra- and 11 hexamers SSRs) we selected randomly from 1222 pairs of primers were polymorphism. The number of alleles for these markers in 48 individuals varied from 3 to 21 with an average of 7.71, the number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 9.97 with an average of 3.54. Besides this, the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.18 to 0.89 with a mean of 0.65, And Shannon's Information index (I) ranged from 0.46 to 2.62 with an average of 1.44. The results suggest that the method for screening of SSR in the whole genome is feasible and efficient. SSR markers developed in this study can be used for population genetic studies of A. glabripennis. Moreover, they may also be helpful for the development of microsatellites for other Coleoptera.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, SSR markers, Anoplophora glabripennis, whole genome

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21 The Efficiency of AFLP and ISSR Markers in Genetic Diversity Estimation and Gene Pool Classification of Iranian Landrace Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Germplasm

Authors: Reza Talebi

Abstract:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important food staples in Iran. Understanding genetic variability among the landrace wheat germplasm is important for breeding. Landraces endemic to Iran are a genetic resource that is distinct from other wheat germplasm. In this study, 60 Iranian landrace wheat accessions were characterized AFLP and ISSR markers. Twelve AFLP primer pairs detected 128 polymorphic bands among the sixty genotypes. The mean polymorphism rate based on AFLP data was 31%; however, a wide polymorphism range among primer pairs was observed (22–40%). Polymorphic information content (PIC value) calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.28 to 0.4, with a mean of 0.37. According to AFLP molecular data, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in five distinct clusters. .ISSR markers generated 68 bands (average of 6 bands per primer), which 31 were polymorphic (45%) across the 60 wheat genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for ISSR markers was calculated in the range of 0.14 to 0.48 with an average of 0.33. Based on data achieved by ISSR-PCR, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in three distinct clusters. Both AFLP and ISSR markers able to showed that high level of genetic diversity in Iranian landrace wheat accessions has maintained a relatively constant level of genetic diversity during last years.

Keywords: Wheat, Genetic Diversity, ISSR, AFLP

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20 Genomic Diversity of Clostridium perfringens Strains in Food and Human Sources

Authors: Abdollah Jamshidi, Mehrnaz Rad, Jamshid Razmyar, Asma Afshari

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Clostridium perfringens is a serious pathogen which causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. Spores can survive cooking processes and play an important role in the possible onset of disease. In this study RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were used to examine the genetic diversity of 49isolates ofC. Perfringens type A from 3 different sources. The results of RAPD-PCR revealed the most genetic diversity among poultry isolates, while human isolates showed the least genetic diversity. Cluster analysis obtained from RAPD_PCR and based on the genetic distances split the 49 strains into five distinct major clusters (A, B, C, D, and E). Cluster A and C were composed of isolates from poultry meat, cluster B was composed of isolates from human feces, cluster D was composed of isolates from minced meat, poultry meat and human feces and cluster E was composed of isolates from minced meat. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG) 5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis did not show further differentiation between various types of strains. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolates from different types of meats and human feces has been investigated.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, RAPD-PCR, C. perfringens, REP-PCR

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19 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity Through RAPD Markers Among Melia azedarach L (Chinabery)

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Nadir Ali Rind, Özlem Aksoy, Muhammad Umar Dahot, Salih Dikilitaş, Burçak Tütünoğlu

Abstract:

Melia azedarach L. is freshly fruited small to medium sized tree native to China and North western India. It is growing in Pakistan and Turkey in various areas facing great environmental changes to maintain its survival. The species is valued for its high quality wood, medicinal, ornamental and shade purposes. The present work was aimed to estimate the genetic variation among the populations of Melia azedarach L. leaf samples that were collected from five different locations of Turkey and three different areas of Pakistan. These populations were chosen on the random bases by applying RAPD primers in order to construct a dendogram using UPGMA method to show genetic diversity. After that appropriate conservation strategies were suggested. 14 primers producing polymorphic and monomorphic bands were analyzed. Genetic distances were calculated for all the species studied by RAPD-PCR methods. According to the results the lowest genetic identity values and the highest genetic polymorphic values were determined. It is observed that there was a clear split among populations from different areas in Turkey and Pakistan. These differences may be due to eco-geographical association with genetic variation and should be conserved to retain the genetic variation of the species.

Keywords: Conservation, Genetic Diversity, medicinal plant, RAPD-PCR, melia azedarach L

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18 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity as a Function of the Genetic Diversity of Canna indica Complex

Authors: A. Rattanapittayapron, O. Vanijajiva

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Canna indica is a prominent species complex in tropical and subtropical areas. They become indigenous in Southeast Asia where they have been introduced. At present, C. indica complex comprises over hundred hybrids, are cultivated as commercial horticulture. The species complex contains starchy rhizome having economic value in terms of food and herbal medicine. In addition, bright color of the flowers makes it a valuable ornamental plant and potential source for natural colorant. This study aims to assess genetic diversity of four varieties of C. indica complex based on SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) and iPBS (inter primer binding site) markers. We also examined phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant properties of the flower extracts from four different color varieties. Results showed that despite of the genetic variation, there were no significant differences in phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant properties of flowers. The SRAP and iPBS results agree with the more primitive traits showed by morphological information and phytochemical and antioxidant characteristics from the flowers. Since Canna flowers has long been used as natural colorants together with the antioxidant activities from the ethanol extracts in this study, there are likely to be good source for cosmetics additives.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, antioxidant activity, Canna indica, SRAP, iPBS

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17 Genetic Diversity Based Population Study of Freshwater Mud Eel (Monopterus cuchia) in Bangladesh

Authors: H. Ali, M. F. Miah, M. N. Naser, K. M. A. Zinnah, M. J. Raihan

Abstract:

As genetic diversity is most important for existing, breeding and production of any fish; this study was undertaken for investigating genetic diversity of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia at population level where three ecological populations such as flooded area of Sylhet (P1), open water of Moulvibazar (P2) and open water of Sunamganj (P3) districts of Bangladesh were considered. Four arbitrary RAPD primers (OPB-12, C0-4, B-03 and OPB-08) were screened and RAPD banding patterns were analyzed among the populations considering 15 individuals of each population. In total 174, 138 and 149 bands were detected in the populations of P1, P2 and P3 respectively; however, each primer revealed less number of bands in each population. 100% polymorphic loci were recorded in P2 and P3 whereas only one monomorphic locus was observed in P1, recorded 97.5% polymorphism. Different genetic parameters such as inter-individual pairwise similarity, genetic distance, Nei genetic similarity, linkage distances, cluster analysis and allelic information, etc. were considered for measuring genetic diversity. The average inter-individual pairwise similarity was recorded 2.98, 1.47 and 1.35 in P1, P2 and P3 respectively. Considering genetic distance analysis, the highest distance 1 was recorded in P2 and P3 and the lowest genetic distance 0.444 was found in P2. The average Nei genetic similarity was observed 0.19, 0.16 and 0.13 in P1, P2 and P3, respectively; however, the average linkage distance was recorded 24.92, 17.14 and 15.28 in P1, P3 and P2 respectively. Based on linkage distance, genetic clusters were generated in three populations where 6 clades and 7 clusters were found in P1, 3 clades and 5 clusters were observed in P2 and 4 clades and 7 clusters were detected in P3. In addition, allelic information was observed where the frequency of p and q alleles were observed 0.093 and 0.907 in P1, 0.076 and 0.924 in P2, 0.074 and 0.926 in P3 respectively. The average gene diversity was observed highest in P2 (0.132) followed by P3 (0.131) and P1 (0.121) respectively.

Keywords: Population, Genetic Diversity, Bangladesh, RAPD, Monopterus cuchia

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16 Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Wild Bulgarian Berries as Determined by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

Authors: Ilian Badjakov, Ivayla Dincheva, Violeta Kondakova, Rossitza Batchvarova

Abstract:

In this study, we present our initial results on the assessment of genetic diversity among wild Bulgarian berry accessions (Rubus idaeus L. Fragaria Vesca L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L.) using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers. Leaves and fruits were collected from two natural habitats - the Balkan Mountain and the Mountain of Orpheus - Rhodope Mountain. All accessions were screened for their polymorphism using five RAPD primers. The phylogenetic distances calculated from RAPD data ranged from 0.29 to 0.82 thus indicating that a high level of gene diversity is present in the selected genotypes. In order to characterize further the structure and grouping of berry accessions, a dendrogram deriving from UPGMA cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity (GS) coefficient matrix was designed. RAPD analysis provided to be efficient for discrimination of accessions within the same species with similar morphological characters

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, RAPD, UPGMA, Bulgarian wild berries

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15 Genetic Diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Genotypes as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Pangirayi Tongoona

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Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown for food, feed and bioenergy. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for conservation of genetic resources and improvement of crop plants through breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity among sorghum genotypes using microsatellite markers. A total of 103 accessions of sorghum genotypes obtained from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the African Centre for Crop Improvement and Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute collections in South Africa were estimated using 30 microsatellite markers. For all the loci analysed, 306 polymorphic alleles were detected with a mean value of 6.4 per locus. The polymorphic information content had an average value of 0.50 with heterozygosity mean value of 0.55 suggesting an important genetic diversity within the sorghum genotypes used. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering based on Euclidian coefficients revealed two major distinct groups without allocating genotypes based on the source of collection or origin. The genotypes 4154.1.1.1, 2055.1.1.1, 4441.1.1.1, 4442.1.1.1, 4722.1.1.1, and 4606.1.1.1 were the most diverse. The sorghum genotypes with high genetic diversity could serve as important sources of novel alleles for breeding and strategic genetic conservation.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, sorghum, genotypes, microsatellites

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14 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) Accessions Using ISSR Makers

Authors: Mehdi Mohebodini, Iman Khalili-Baseri, Mehdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan

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Diversity analysis at the molecular level using PCR-based markers is the efficient and rapid method of identifying the relationships and differences among the genotypes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships among 20 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among the collected accessions and identify genetically diverse purslane accessions. The 25 primers gave a total of 92 bands, of which 62 were polymorphic (67.4%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon’s information index was 0.55, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of an observed allele, effective allele, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei’s index were 2, 1.65, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively.

Keywords: Germplasm, Genetic Diversity, ISSR, Portulaca oleracea L

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13 Genetic Divergence Study of Rice on the Basis of Various Morphological Traits

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sajjad, Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Amna Ali, Urooj Mubashar

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Phenotypic diversity was confirmed by measuring different morphological traits i.e. seed traits (seed length, seed width, seed thickness, seed length-width ratio, 1000 grain weight) and root-shoot traits (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, root-shoot ratio, root numbers and root thickness). Variance and association study of desirable traits determine the genotypic differences among the rice germplasm. All the traits showed significant differences among the genotypes. The traits were studied in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) at different water levels. Some traits showed positive correlation with each other and beneficial for increasing the yield and production of the crop. Seed thickness has positive correlation with seed length and seed width (r= 0.104**, r=0.246**). On the other hand, various root shoot traits showed positive highly significant association at different water levels i.e. root length, fresh root weight, root thickness, shoot thickness and root numbers. Our main focus to study the performance/correlation of root shoots traits under stress condition. Fresh root weight, shoot thickness and root numbers showed positive significant association with shoot length, root length, fresh root and shoot weight (r=0.2530**, r=0.2891**, r=0.4626**, r=0.4515**, r=0.5781**, r=0.7164**, r=0.0603**, r= 0.5570**, r=0.5824**). Long root length genotypes favors and suitable for drought stress conditions and screening of diverse genotypes for the further development of new plant material that performing well under different environmental conditions. After screening genetic diversity of potential rice, lines were studied to check the polymorphism by using some SSR markers. DNA was extracted, and PCR analyses were done to study PIC values and allelic diversity of the genotypes. The main objective of this study is to screen out the genotypes on the basis of various genotypic and phenotypic traits.

Keywords: Germplasm, Variation, Rice, Genetic Diversity, association, morphological traits, water levels

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12 Genetic Diversity of Cord Blood of the National Center of Blood Transfusion, Mexico (NCBT)

Authors: J. Manuel Bello-López, Julieta Rojo-Medina

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Introduction: The transplant of Umbilical Cord Blood Units (UCBU) are a therapeutic possibility for patients with oncohaematological disorders, especially in children. In Mexico, 48.5% of oncological diseases in children 1-4 years old are leukemias; whereas in patients 5-14 and 15-24 years old, lymphomas and leukemias represent the second and third cause of death in these groups respectively. Therefore it is necessary to have more registries of UCBU in order to ensure genetic diversity in the country; the above because the search for appropriate a UCBU is increasingly difficult for patients of mixed ethnicity. Objective: To estimate the genetic diversity (polymorphisms) of Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I (A, B) and Class II (DRB1) in UCBU cryopreserved for transplant at Cord Blood Bank of the NCBT. Material and Methods: HLA typing of 533 UCBU for transplant was performed from 2003-2012 at the Histocompatibility Laboratory from the Research Department (evaluated by Los Angeles Ca. Immunogenetics Center) of the NCBT. Class I HLA-A, HLA-B and Class II HLA-DRB1 typing was performed using medium resolution Sequence-Specific Primer (SSP). In cases of an ambiguity detected by SSP; Sequence-Specific Oligonucleotide (SSO) method was carried out. A strict analysis of populations genetic parameters were done in 5 representative UCBU populations. Results: 46.5% of UCBU were collected from Mexico City, State of Mexico (30.95%), Puebla (8.06%), Morelos (6.37%) and Veracruz (3.37%). The remaining UCBU (4.75%) are represented by other states. The identified genotypes correspond to Amerindian origins (HLA-A*02, 31; HLA-B*39, 15, 48), Caucasian (HLA-A*02, 68, 01, 30, 31; HLA-B*35, 15, 40, 44, 07 y HLA-DRB1*04, 08, 07, 15, 03, 14), Oriental (HLA-A*02, 30, 01, 31; HLA-B* 35, 39, 15, 40, 44, 07,48 y HLA-DRB1*04, 07,15, 03) and African (HLA-A*30 y HLA-DRB1*03). The genetic distances obtained by Cavalli-Sforza analysis of the five states showed significant genetic differences by comparing genetic frequencies. The shortest genetic distance exists between Mexico City and the state of Puebla (0.0039) and the largest between Veracruz and Morelos (0.0084). In order to identify significant differences between this states, the ANOVA test was performed. This demonstrates that UCBU is significantly different according to their origin (P <0.05). This is shown by the divergence between arms at the Dendogram of Neighbor-Joining. Conclusions: The NCBT provides UCBU in patients with oncohaematological disorders in all the country. There is a group of patients for which not compatible UCBU can be find due to the mixed ethnic origin. For example, the population of northern Mexico is mostly Caucasian. Most of the NCBT donors are of various ethnic origins, predominantly Amerindians and Caucasians; although some ethnic minorities like Oriental, African and pure Indian ethnics are not represented. The NCBT is, therefore, establishing agreements with different states of Mexico to promote the altruistic donation of Umbilical Cord Blood in order to enrich the genetic diversity in its files.

Keywords: Cord Blood, Genetic Diversity, transplant, human leucocyte antigen

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11 Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Sorghum Accessions Using Agro-Mophological and Nutritional Traits

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Nemera Shargie

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Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown as a source of calories for many people in tropics and sub-tropics of the world. Proper characterisation and evaluation of crop germplasm is an important component for effective management of genetic resources and their utilisation in the improvement of the crop through plant breeding. The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity present in sorghum accessions grown in South Africa using agro-morphological traits and some nutritional contents. The experiment was carried out in Potchefstroom. Data were subjected to correlations, principal components analysis, and hierarchical clustering using GenStat statistical software. There were highly significance differences among the accessions based on agro-morphological and nutritional quality traits. Grain yield was highly positively correlated with panicle weight. Plant height was highly significantly correlated with internode length, leaf length, leaf number, stem diameter, the number of nodes and starch content. The Principal component analysis revealed three most important PCs with a total variation of 78.6%. The protein content ranged from 7.7 to 14.7%, and starch ranged from 58.52 to 80.44%. The accessions that had high protein and starch content were AS16cyc and MP4277. There was vast genetic diversity observed among the accessions assessed that can be used by plant breeders to improve yield and nutritional traits.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Nutritional Quality, sorghum, accessions

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10 Genetic Differentiation between Members of a Species Complex (Retropinna spp.)

Authors: Md. Rakeb-Ul Islam, Daniel J. Schmidt, Jane M. Hughes

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Population connectivity plays an important role in the conservation and recovery of declining species. It affects genetic diversity, adaptive potential and resilience of species in nature. Loss of genetic variation can affect populations by limiting their ability to persist in stressful environmental conditions. Generally, freshwater fishes show higher levels of genetic structuring and subdivision among populations than those inhabiting estuarine or marine environments due to the presence of artificial (e.g. dams) and natural (e.g. mountain ranges) barriers to dispersal in freshwater ecosystems. The Australian smelt (Retropinnidae: Retropinna spp.) is a common freshwater fish species which is widely distributed throughout coastal and inland drainages in South - eastern Australia. These fish are found in a number of habitats from headwaters to lowland sites. They form large shoals in the mid to upper water column and inhabit deep slow – flowing pools as well as shallow fast flowing riffle-runs. Previously, Australian smelt consisted of two described taxa (Retropinna semoni and Retropinna tasmanica), but recently a complex of five or more species has been recognized based on an analysis of allozyme variation. In many area, they spend their entire life cycle within freshwater. Although most populations of the species are thought to be non-diadromous, it is still unclear whether individuals within coastal populations of Australian Retropinna exhibit diadromous migrations or whether fish collected from marine/estuarine environments are vagrants that have strayed out of the freshwater reaches. In this current study, the population structure and genetic differentiation of Australian smelt fish were investigated among eight rivers of South-East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. 11 microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic variation within and among populations. Genetic diversity was very high. Number of alleles ranged from three to twenty. Expected heterozygosity averaged across loci ranged from 0.572 to 0.852. There was a high degree of genetic differentiation among rivers (FST = 0.23), although low levels of genetic differentiation among populations within rivers. These extremely high levels of genetic differentiation suggest that the all smelt in SEQ complete their life history within freshwater, or, if they go to the estuary, they do not migrate to sea. This hypothesis is being tested further with a micro-chemical analysis of their otoliths.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, otolith, microsatellite, diadromous

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9 Study of Pathogenicity and Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis by Isozymes Systemes

Authors: Abouamama Sidaoui, Noureddine Karkachi, Mebrouk Kihal

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The characteristics of Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. albedinis (Foa) isolates were investigated using electrophoretic studies of isozymes systems (esterase and phosphatase). All the (F.o.a) isolates were pathogenic to the date palm seedlings cultivar Deglet Nour, but they did not induce any disease symptoms on control plants. Fusarium sp. isolated from soil did not show aggression against these seedlings. The isoenzymes profiles revealed polymorphic bands. The data were subjected to analysis with the JMP method. The isolates were delineated into two main groups A and B which were divided into sub-groups. 19 isolates create the group A, and four isolates (E1, E2, E3 and M15A) formed the group B. Analysis of isozyme banding patterns was found to be a reliable marker technology, efficient, and effective tools to find the genetic variability among isolates isolated in different geographical areas.

Keywords: Pathogenicity, Genetic Diversity, Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. albedinis, isozyme analysis

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8 Application of Molecular Markers for Crop Improvement

Authors: Monisha Isaac

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Use of molecular markers for selecting plants with desired traits has been started long back. Due to their heritable characteristics, they are useful for identification and characterization of specific genotypes. The study involves various types of molecular markers used to select multiple desired characters in plants, their properties, and advantages to improve crop productivity in adverse climatological conditions for the purpose of providing food security to fast-growing global population. The study shows that genetic similarities obtained from molecular markers provide more accurate information and the genetic diversity can be better estimated from the genetic relationship obtained from the dendrogram. The information obtained from markers assisted characterization is more suitable for the crops of economic importance like sugarcane.

Keywords: Molecular markers, genotype, Genetic Diversity, crop productivity

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7 Morpho-Genetic Assessment of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Genetic Resources in Pakistan

Authors: Asim Mehmood, Abdul Karim, Muhammad J. Jaskani, Faisal S. Awan, Muhammad W. Sajid

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Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important commercial fruit crop of Pakistan. It is an allogamous crop having 25-40% cross pollination which on the one hand leads to clonal degradation and on the other hand can add variations to generated new cultivars. Morpho-genetic characterization of 37 guava accessions was carried out for study of the genetic diversity among guava accessions located in province Punjab, Pakistan. For morphological analysis, 17 morphological traits were studied, and strong positive correlation was found among the 7 morphological traits which included thickness of outer flesh in relation to core diameter, fruit length, fruit width, fruit juiciness, fruit size, fruit sweetness and number of seeds. For genetic characterization, 18 microsatellites were used, and the sizes of reproducible and scorable bands ranged from 150 to 320 bp. These 18 primer pairs amplified a total of 85 alleles in P. guajava, with an average total number of 4.7 alleles per locus and no more than two displayed bands (nuclear SSR loci). The phylogenetic tree based on the morphological and genetic traits showed the diversity of these 37 guava genotypes into two major groups. These results indicated that Pakistani guava is quite diverse and a more detail study is needed to define the level of genetic variability.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Polymorphism, dendrogram, SSR markers, Psidium guajava L

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