Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Genetic Algorithms Related Abstracts

25 Parallel Genetic Algorithms Clustering for Handling Recruitment Problem

Authors: Ahmad Shahin, Walid MOUDANI

Abstract:

This research presents a study to handle the recruitment services system. It aims to enhance a business intelligence system by embedding data mining in its core engine and to facilitate the link between job searchers and recruiters companies. The purpose of this study is to present an intelligent management system for supporting recruitment services based on data mining methods. It consists to apply segmentation on the extracted job postings offered by the different recruiters. The details of the job postings are associated to a set of relevant features that are extracted from the web and which are based on critical criterion in order to define consistent clusters. Thereafter, we assign the job searchers to the best cluster while providing a ranking according to the job postings of the selected cluster. The performance of the proposed model used is analyzed, based on a real case study, with the clustered job postings dataset and classified job searchers dataset by using some metrics.

Keywords: Business Intelligence, Genetic Algorithms, Clustering, job postings, job searchers

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24 Solving the Wireless Mesh Network Design Problem Using Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing Optimization Methods

Authors: Tarek M. Mahmoud, Moheb R. Girgis, Bahgat A. Abdullatif, Ahmed M. Rabie

Abstract:

Mesh clients, mesh routers and gateways are components of Wireless Mesh Network (WMN). In WMN, gateways connect to Internet using wireline links and supply Internet access services for users. We usually need multiple gateways, which takes time and costs a lot of money set up, due to the limited wireless channel bit rate. WMN is a highly developed technology that offers to end users a wireless broadband access. It offers a high degree of flexibility contrasted to conventional networks; however, this attribute comes at the expense of a more complex construction. Therefore, a challenge is the planning and optimization of WMNs. In this paper, we concentrate on this challenge using a genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. The genetic algorithm and simulated annealing enable searching for a low-cost WMN configuration with constraints and determine the number of used gateways. Experimental results proved that the performance of the genetic algorithm and simulated annealing in minimizing WMN network costs while satisfying quality of service. The proposed models are presented to significantly outperform the existing solutions.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Wireless Mesh Networks, simulated annealing, Topology Design

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23 Hybrid Genetic Approach for Solving Economic Dispatch Problems with Valve-Point Effect

Authors: Mohamed I. Mahrous, Mohamed G. Ashmawy

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Hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed in this paper to determine the economic scheduling of electric power generation over a fixed time period under various system and operational constraints. The proposed technique can outperform conventional genetic algorithms (CGAs) in the sense that HGA make it possible to improve both the quality of the solution and reduce the computing expenses. In contrast, any carefully designed GA is only able to balance the exploration and the exploitation of the search effort, which means that an increase in the accuracy of a solution can only occure at the sacrifice of convergent speed, and vice visa. It is unlikely that both of them can be improved simultaneously. The proposed hybrid scheme is developed in such a way that a simple GA is acting as a base level search, which makes a quick decision to direct the search towards the optimal region, and a local search method (pattern search technique) is next employed to do the fine tuning. The aim of the strategy is to achieve the cost reduction within a reasonable computing time. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid technique is verified on two real public electricity supply systems with 13 and 40 generator units respectively. The simulation results obtained with the HGA for the two real systems are very encouraging with regard to the computational expenses and the cost reduction of power generation.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Pattern Search, economic dispatch

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22 Genetic Algorithms Multi-Objective Model for Project Scheduling

Authors: Elsheikh Asser

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Time and cost are the main goals of the construction project management. The first schedule developed may not be a suitable schedule for beginning or completing the project to achieve the target completion time at a minimum total cost. In general, there are trade-offs between time and cost (TCT) to complete the activities of a project. This research presents genetic algorithms (GAs) multi-objective model for project scheduling considering different scenarios such as least cost, least time, and target time.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Project Scheduling, time-cost trade-off, multi-objective model

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21 Dynamic Construction Site Layout Using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Yassir Abdelrazig

Abstract:

Evolutionary optimization methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. More recently, ant colony optimization algorithms, which are evolutionary methods based on the foraging behavior of ants, have been successfully applied to benchmark combinatorial optimization problems. This paper proposes a formulation of the site layout problem in terms of a sequencing problem that is suitable for solution using an ant colony optimization algorithm. In the construction industry, site layout is a very important planning problem. The objective of site layout is to position temporary facilities both geographically and at the correct time such that the construction work can be performed satisfactorily with minimal costs and improved safety and working environment. During the last decade, evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. This paper proposes an ant colony optimization model for construction site layout. A simple case study for a highway project is utilized to illustrate the application of the model.

Keywords: Optimization, Genetic Algorithms, ant colony, construction site layout

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20 Life Prediction Method of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Grey Support Vector Machines

Authors: Xiaogang Li, Jieqiong Miao

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As for the problem of the grey forecasting model prediction accuracy is low, an improved grey prediction model is put forward. Firstly, use trigonometric function transform the original data sequence in order to improve the smoothness of data , this model called SGM( smoothness of grey prediction model), then combine the improved grey model with support vector machine , and put forward the grey support vector machine model (SGM - SVM).Before the establishment of the model, we use trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation preprocessing data in order to enhance the smoothness of the data and weaken the randomness of the data, then use support vector machine (SVM) to establish a prediction model for pre-processed data and select model parameters using genetic algorithms to obtain the optimum value of the global search. Finally, restore data through the "regressive generate" operation to get forecasting data. In order to prove that the SGM-SVM model is superior to other models, we select the battery life data from calce. The presented model is used to predict life of battery and the predicted result was compared with that of grey model and support vector machines.For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this paper presents root mean square error of this three different models .The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine (SGM-SVM) to predict life is optimal, and the root mean square error is only 3.18%. Keywords: grey forecasting model, trigonometric function, support vector machine, genetic algorithms, root mean square error

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Support Vector Machines, Trigonometric Functions, root mean square error, Grey prediction model

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19 Development of a Decision Model to Optimize Total Cost in Food Supply Chain

Authors: Dilupa Nakandala, Henry Lau, Li Zhao

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All along the length of the supply chain, fresh food firms face the challenge of managing both product quality, due to the perishable nature of the products, and product cost. This paper develops a method to assist logistics managers upstream in the fresh food supply chain in making cost optimized decisions regarding transportation, with the objective of minimizing the total cost while maintaining the quality of food products above acceptable levels. Considering the case of multiple fresh food products collected from multiple farms being transported to a warehouse or a retailer, this study develops a total cost model that includes various costs incurred during transportation. The practical application of the model is illustrated by using several computational intelligence approaches including Genetic Algorithms (GA), Fuzzy Genetic Algorithms (FGA) as well as an improved Simulated Annealing (SA) procedure applied with a repair mechanism for efficiency benchmarking. We demonstrate the practical viability of these approaches by using a simulation study based on pertinent data and evaluate the simulation outcomes. The application of the proposed total cost model was demonstrated using three approaches of GA, FGA and SA with a repair mechanism. All three approaches are adoptable; however, based on the performance evaluation, it was evident that the FGA is more likely to produce a better performance than the other two approaches of GA and SA. This study provides a pragmatic approach for supporting logistics and supply chain practitioners in fresh food industry in making important decisions on the arrangements and procedures related to the transportation of multiple fresh food products to a warehouse from multiple farms in a cost-effective way without compromising product quality. This study extends the literature on cold supply chain management by investigating cost and quality optimization in a multi-product scenario from farms to a retailer and, minimizing cost by managing the quality above expected quality levels at delivery. The scalability of the proposed generic function enables the application to alternative situations in practice such as different storage environments and transportation conditions.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Transportation, Fuzzy Sets, Cost Optimization, Food Supply Chain, Product Quality

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18 Scheduling of Repetitive Activities for Height-Rise Buildings: Optimisation by Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Mohammed Aljoma

Abstract:

In this paper, a developed prototype for the scheduling of repetitive activities in height-rise buildings was presented. The activities that describe the behavior of the most of activities in multi-storey buildings are scheduled using the developed approach. The prototype combines three methods to attain the optimized planning. The methods include Critical Path Method (CPM), Gantt and Line of Balance (LOB). The developed prototype; POTER is used to schedule repetitive and non-repetitive activities with respect to all constraints that can be automatically generated using a generic database. The prototype uses the method of genetic algorithms for optimizing the planning process. As a result, this approach enables contracting organizations to evaluate various planning solutions that are calculated, tested and classified by POTER to attain an optimal time-cost equilibrium according to their own criteria of time or coast.

Keywords: Planning, Risk management, Genetic Algorithms, Construction Management, Scheduling, project duration, planning scheduling, repetitive activity

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17 Multiclass Support Vector Machines with Simultaneous Multi-Factors Optimization for Corporate Credit Ratings

Authors: Hyunchul Ahn, William X. S. Wong

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Corporate credit rating prediction is one of the most important topics, which has been studied by researchers in the last decade. Over the last decade, researchers are pushing the limit to enhance the exactness of the corporate credit rating prediction model by applying several data-driven tools including statistical and artificial intelligence methods. Among them, multiclass support vector machine (MSVM) has been widely applied due to its good predictability. However, heuristics, for example, parameters of a kernel function, appropriate feature and instance subset, has become the main reason for the critics on MSVM, as they have dictate the MSVM architectural variables. This study presents a hybrid MSVM model that is intended to optimize all the parameter such as feature selection, instance selection, and kernel parameter. Our model adopts genetic algorithm (GA) to simultaneously optimize multiple heterogeneous design factors of MSVM.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Feature selection, corporate credit rating prediction, instance selection, multiclass support vector machines

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16 Sensitivity Analysis during the Optimization Process Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: M. A. Rubio, A. Urquia

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Genetic algorithms (GA) are applied to the solution of high-dimensional optimization problems. Additionally, sensitivity analysis (SA) is usually carried out to determine the effect on optimal solutions of changes in parameter values of the objective function. These two analyses (i.e., optimization and sensitivity analysis) are computationally intensive when applied to high-dimensional functions. The approach presented in this paper consists in performing the SA during the GA execution, by statistically analyzing the data obtained of running the GA. The advantage is that in this case SA does not involve making additional evaluations of the objective function and, consequently, this proposed approach requires less computational effort than conducting optimization and SA in two consecutive steps.

Keywords: Optimization, Genetic Algorithms, Model Calibration, Sensitivity

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15 Optimization of Pumping Power of Water between Reservoir Using Ant Colony System

Authors: Thiago Ribeiro de Alencar, Jacyro Gramulia Junior, Patricia Teixeira Leite Asano

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The area of the electricity sector that deals with energy needs by the hydropower and thermoelectric in a coordinated way is called Planning Operating Hydrothermal Power Systems. The aim of this area is to find a political operative to provide electrical power to the system in a specified period with minimization of operating cost. This article proposes a computational tool for solving the planning problem. In addition, this article will be introducing a methodology to find new transfer points between reservoirs increasing energy production in hydroelectric power plants cascade systems. The computational tool proposed in this article applies: i) genetic algorithms to optimize the water transfer and operation of hydroelectric plants systems; and ii) Ant Colony algorithm to find the trajectory with the least energy pumping for the construction of pipes transfer between reservoirs considering the topography of the region. The computational tool has a database consisting of 35 hydropower plants and 41 reservoirs, which are part of the southeastern Brazilian system, which has been implemented in an individualized way.

Keywords: Optimization, Genetic Algorithms, Hydroelectric, Hydrothermal Systems, ant colony system, water transfer between rivers

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14 Multi-Criteria Evolutionary Algorithm to Develop Efficient Schedules for Complex Maintenance Problems

Authors: Christopher M. Schlick, Sven Tackenberg, Sönke Duckwitz, Andreas Petz

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This paper introduces an extension to the well-established Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP) to apply it to complex maintenance problems. The problem is to assign technicians to a team which has to process several tasks with multi-level skill requirements during a work shift. Here, several alternative activities for a task allow both, the temporal shift of activities or the reallocation of technicians and tools. As a result, switches from one valid work process variant to another can be considered and may be selected by the developed evolutionary algorithm based on the present skill level of technicians or the available tools. An additional complication of the observed scheduling problem is that the locations of the construction sites are only temporarily accessible during a day. Due to intensive rail traffic, the available time slots for maintenance and repair works are extremely short and are often distributed throughout the day. To identify efficient working periods, a first concept of a Bayesian network is introduced and is integrated into the extended RCPSP with pre-emptive and non-pre-emptive tasks. Thereby, the Bayesian network is used to calculate the probability of a maintenance task to be processed during a specific period of the shift. Focusing on the domain of maintenance of the railway infrastructure in metropolitan areas as the most unproductive implementation process at construction site, the paper illustrates how the extended RCPSP can be applied for maintenance planning support. A multi-criteria evolutionary algorithm with a problem representation is introduced which is capable of revising technician-task allocations, whereas the duration of the task may be stochastic. The approach uses a novel activity list representation to ensure easily describable and modifiable elements which can be converted into detailed shift schedules. Thereby, the main objective is to develop a shift plan which maximizes the utilization of each technician due to a minimization of the waiting times caused by rail traffic. The results of the already implemented core algorithm illustrate a fast convergence towards an optimal team composition for a shift, an efficient sequence of tasks and a high probability of the subsequent implementation due to the stochastic durations of the tasks. In the paper, the algorithm for the extended RCPSP is analyzed in experimental evaluation using real-world example problems with various size, resource complexity, tightness and so forth.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Scheduling, Maintenance Management, resource constrained project scheduling problem

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13 A First Step towards Automatic Evolutionary for Gas Lifts Allocation Optimization

Authors: Younis Elhaddad, Alfonso Ortega

Abstract:

Oil production by means of gas lift is a standard technique in oil production industry. To optimize the total amount of oil production in terms of the amount of gas injected is a key question in this domain. Different methods have been tested to propose a general methodology. Many of them apply well-known numerical methods. Some of them have taken into account the power of evolutionary approaches. Our goal is to provide the experts of the domain with a powerful automatic searching engine into which they can introduce their knowledge in a format close to the one used in their domain, and get solutions comprehensible in the same terms, as well. These proposals introduced in the genetic engine the most expressive formal models to represent the solutions to the problem. These algorithms have proven to be as effective as other genetic systems but more flexible and comfortable for the researcher although they usually require huge search spaces to justify their use due to the computational resources involved in the formal models. The first step to evaluate the viability of applying our approaches to this realm is to fully understand the domain and to select an instance of the problem (gas lift optimization) in which applying genetic approaches could seem promising. After analyzing the state of the art of this topic, we have decided to choose a previous work from the literature that faces the problem by means of numerical methods. This contribution includes details enough to be reproduced and complete data to be carefully analyzed. We have designed a classical, simple genetic algorithm just to try to get the same results and to understand the problem in depth. We could easily incorporate the well mathematical model, and the well data used by the authors and easily translate their mathematical model, to be numerically optimized, into a proper fitness function. We have analyzed the 100 curves they use in their experiment, similar results were observed, in addition, our system has automatically inferred an optimum total amount of injected gas for the field compatible with the addition of the optimum gas injected in each well by them. We have identified several constraints that could be interesting to incorporate to the optimization process but that could be difficult to numerically express. It could be interesting to automatically propose other mathematical models to fit both, individual well curves and also the behaviour of the complete field. All these facts and conclusions justify continuing exploring the viability of applying the approaches more sophisticated previously proposed by our research group.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, oil production, evolutionary automatic programming, gas lift

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12 A Hybrid Data Mining Algorithm Based System for Intelligent Defence Mission Readiness and Maintenance Scheduling

Authors: Durga Toshniwal, Shivam Dwivedi, Sumit Prakash Gupta

Abstract:

It is a challenging task in today’s date to keep defence forces in the highest state of combat readiness with budgetary constraints. A huge amount of time and money is squandered in the unnecessary and expensive traditional maintenance activities. To overcome this limitation Defence Intelligent Mission Readiness and Maintenance Scheduling System has been proposed, which ameliorates the maintenance system by diagnosing the condition and predicting the maintenance requirements. Based on new data mining algorithms, this system intelligently optimises mission readiness for imminent operations and maintenance scheduling in repair echelons. With modified data mining algorithms such as Weighted Feature Ranking Genetic Algorithm and SVM-Random Forest Linear ensemble, it improves the reliability, availability and safety, alongside reducing maintenance cost and Equipment Out of Action (EOA) time. The results clearly conclude that the introduced algorithms have an edge over the conventional data mining algorithms. The system utilizing the intelligent condition-based maintenance approach improves the operational and maintenance decision strategy of the defence force.

Keywords: Data Mining, Genetic Algorithms, Ensemble, Condition Based Maintenance, Maintenance Scheduling, defence maintenance, mission capability

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11 Approach on Conceptual Design and Dimensional Synthesis of the Linear Delta Robot for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Efrain Rodriguez, Cristhian Riano, Alberto Alvares

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In recent years, robots manipulators with parallel architectures are used in additive manufacturing processes – 3D printing. These robots have advantages such as speed and lightness that make them suitable to help with the efficiency and productivity of these processes. Consequently, the interest for the development of parallel robots for additive manufacturing applications has increased. This article deals with the conceptual design and dimensional synthesis of the linear delta robot for additive manufacturing. Firstly, a methodology based on structured processes for the development of products through the phases of informational design, conceptual design and detailed design is adopted: a) In the informational design phase the Mudge diagram and the QFD matrix are used to aid a set of technical requirements, to define the form, functions and features of the robot. b) In the conceptual design phase, the functional modeling of the system through of an IDEF0 diagram is performed, and the solution principles for the requirements are formulated using a morphological matrix. This phase includes the description of the mechanical, electro-electronic and computational subsystems that constitute the general architecture of the robot. c) In the detailed design phase, a digital model of the robot is drawn on CAD software. A list of commercial and manufactured parts is detailed. Tolerances and adjustments are defined for some parts of the robot structure. The necessary manufacturing processes and tools are also listed, including: milling, turning and 3D printing. Secondly, a dimensional synthesis method applied on design of the linear delta robot is presented. One of the most important key factors in the design of a parallel robot is the useful workspace, which strongly depends on the joint space, the dimensions of the mechanism bodies and the possible interferences between these bodies. The objective function is based on the verification of the kinematic model for a prescribed cylindrical workspace, considering geometric constraints that possibly lead to singularities of the mechanism. The aim is to determine the minimum dimensional parameters of the mechanism bodies for the proposed workspace. A method based on genetic algorithms was used to solve this problem. The method uses a cloud of points with the cylindrical shape of the workspace and checks the kinematic model for each of the points within the cloud. The evolution of the population (point cloud) provides the optimal parameters for the design of the delta robot. The development process of the linear delta robot with optimal dimensions for additive manufacture is presented. The dimensional synthesis enabled to design the mechanism of the delta robot in function of the prescribed workspace. Finally, the implementation of the robotic platform developed based on a linear delta robot in an additive manufacturing application using the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technique is presented.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Additive manufacturing, delta parallel robot, dimensional synthesis

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10 [Keynote Talk]: Machining Parameters Optimization with Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Dejan Tanikic, Miodrag Manic, Jelena Đoković, Saša Kalinović

Abstract:

This paper deals with the determination of the optimum machining parameters, according to the measured and modelled data of the cutting temperature and surface roughness, during the turning of the AISI 4140 steel. The high cutting temperatures are unwanted occurences in the metal cutting process. They impact negatively on the quality of the machined part. The machining experiments were performed using different cutting regimes (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut), with different values of the workpiece hardness, which causes different values of the measured cutting temperature as well as the measured surface roughness. The temperature and surface roughness data were modelled after that using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The obtained RSM models are used in the process of optimization of the cutting regimes using the Genetic Algorithms (GA) tool, which enables the metal cutting process in the optimum conditions.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, response surface methodology, machining parameters, turning process

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9 A Numerical Description of a Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Henrik L. Funke, Lars Ulke-Winter, Sandra Gelbrich, Lothar Kroll

Abstract:

This work reports about an approach for an automatic adaptation of concrete formulations based on genetic algorithms (GA) to optimize a wide range of different fit-functions. In order to achieve the goal, a method was developed which provides a numerical description of a fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) mixture regarding the production technology and the property spectrum of the concrete. In a first step, the FRC mixture with seven fixed components was characterized by varying amounts of the components. For that purpose, ten concrete mixtures were prepared and tested. The testing procedure comprised flow spread, compressive and bending tensile strength. The analysis and approximation of the determined data was carried out by GAs. The aim was to obtain a closed mathematical expression which best describes the given seven-point cloud of FRC by applying a Gene Expression Programming with Free Coefficients (GEP-FC) strategy. The seven-parametric FRC-mixtures model which is generated according to this method correlated well with the measured data. The developed procedure can be used for concrete mixtures finding closed mathematical expressions, which are based on the measured data.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, fibre reinforced concrete, concrete design, GEP-FC

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8 Relay Node Placement for Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Hanieh Tarbiat Khosrowshahi, Mojtaba Shakeri

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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a set of sensor nodes with limited capability. WSNs may suffer from multiple node failures when they are exposed to harsh environments such as military zones or disaster locations and lose connectivity by getting partitioned into disjoint segments. Relay nodes (RNs) are alternatively introduced to restore connectivity. They cost more than sensors as they benefit from mobility, more power and more transmission range, enforcing a minimum number of them to be used. This paper addresses the problem of RN placement in a multiple disjoint network by developing a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem is reintroduced as the Steiner tree problem (which is known to be an NP-hard problem) by the aim of finding the minimum number of Steiner points where RNs are to be placed for restoring connectivity. An upper bound to the number of RNs is first computed to set up the length of initial chromosomes. The GA algorithm then iteratively reduces the number of RNs and determines their location at the same time. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA is capable of establishing network connectivity using a reasonable number of RNs compared to the best existing work.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Wireless Sensor Networks, connectivity restoration, multiple-node failure, relay nodes

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7 An Approach to Building a Recommendation Engine for Travel Applications Using Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks

Authors: Adrian Ionita, Ana-Maria Ghimes

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The lack of features, design and the lack of promoting an integrated booking application are some of the reasons why most online travel platforms only offer automation of old booking processes, being limited to the integration of a smaller number of services without addressing the user experience. This paper represents a practical study on how to improve travel applications creating user-profiles through data-mining based on neural networks and genetic algorithms. Choices made by users and their ‘friends’ in the ‘social’ network context can be considered input data for a recommendation engine. The purpose of using these algorithms and this design is to improve user experience and to deliver more features to the users. The paper aims to highlight a broader range of improvements that could be applied to travel applications in terms of design and service integration, while the main scientific approach remains the technical implementation of the neural network solution. The motivation of the technologies used is also related to the initiative of some online booking providers that have made the fact that they use some ‘neural network’ related designs public. These companies use similar Big-Data technologies to provide recommendations for hotels, restaurants, and cinemas with a neural network based recommendation engine for building a user ‘DNA profile’. This implementation of the ‘profile’ a collection of neural networks trained from previous user choices, can improve the usability and design of any type of application.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Artificial Intelligence, Cloud Computing, Optimization, Genetic Algorithms, Machine Learning, Big Data, User profiling, recommendation system, DNA profile

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6 Probability Modeling and Genetic Algorithms in Small Wind Turbine Design Optimization: Mentored Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research at LaGuardia Community College

Authors: Marina Nechayeva, Malgorzata Marciniak, Vladimir Przhebelskiy, A. Dragutan, S. Lamichhane, S. Oikawa

Abstract:

This presentation is a progress report on a faculty-student research collaboration at CUNY LaGuardia Community College (LaGCC) aimed at designing a small horizontal axis wind turbine optimized for the wind patterns on the roof of our campus. Our project combines statistical and engineering research. Our wind modeling protocol is based upon a recent wind study by a faculty-student research group at MIT, and some of our blade design methods are adopted from a senior engineering project at CUNY City College. Our use of genetic algorithms has been inspired by the work on small wind turbines’ design by David Wood. We combine these diverse approaches in our interdisciplinary project in a way that has not been done before and improve upon certain techniques used by our predecessors. We employ several estimation methods to determine the best fitting parametric probability distribution model for the local wind speed data obtained through correlating short-term on-site measurements with a long-term time series at the nearby airport. The model serves as a foundation for engineering research that focuses on adapting and implementing genetic algorithms (GAs) to engineering optimization of the wind turbine design using Blade Element Momentum Theory. GAs are used to create new airfoils with desirable aerodynamic specifications. Small scale models of best performing designs are 3D printed and tested in the wind tunnel to verify the accuracy of relevant calculations. Genetic algorithms are applied to selected airfoils to determine the blade design (radial cord and pitch distribution) that would optimize the coefficient of power profile of the turbine. Our approach improves upon the traditional blade design methods in that it lets us dispense with assumptions necessary to simplify the system of Blade Element Momentum Theory equations, thus resulting in more accurate aerodynamic performance calculations. Furthermore, it enables us to design blades optimized for a whole range of wind speeds rather than a single value. Lastly, we improve upon known GA-based methods in that our algorithms are constructed to work with XFoil generated airfoils data which enables us to optimize blades using our own high glide ratio airfoil designs, without having to rely upon available empirical data from existing airfoils, such as NACA series. Beyond its immediate goal, this ongoing project serves as a training and selection platform for CUNY Research Scholars Program (CRSP) through its annual Aerodynamics and Wind Energy Research Seminar (AWERS), an undergraduate summer research boot camp, designed to introduce prospective researchers to the relevant theoretical background and methodology, get them up to speed with the current state of our research, and test their abilities and commitment to the program. Furthermore, several aspects of the research (e.g., writing code for 3D printing of airfoils) are adapted in the form of classroom research activities to enhance Calculus sequence instruction at LaGCC.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, horizontal axis wind turbine, engineering design optimization, wind modeling

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5 Resource Constrained Time-Cost Trade-Off Analysis in Construction Project Planning and Control

Authors: Sangwon Han, Chengquan Jin

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Time-cost trade-off (TCTO) is one of the most significant part of construction project management. Despite the significance, current TCTO analysis, based on the Critical Path Method, does not consider resource constraint, and accordingly sometimes generates an impractical and/or infeasible schedule planning in terms of resource availability. Therefore, resource constraint needs to be considered when doing TCTO analysis. In this research, genetic algorithms (GA) based optimization model is created in order to find the optimal schedule. This model is utilized to compare four distinct scenarios (i.e., 1) initial CPM, 2) TCTO without considering resource constraint, 3) resource allocation after TCTO, and 4) TCTO with considering resource constraint) in terms of duration, cost, and resource utilization. The comparison results identify that ‘TCTO with considering resource constraint’ generates the optimal schedule with the respect of duration, cost, and resource. This verifies the need for consideration of resource constraint when doing TCTO analysis. It is expected that the proposed model will produce more feasible and optimal schedule.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Critical Path, time-cost trade-off, resource availability

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4 Controller Design for Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology Using Structured Singular Value and Direct Search Method

Authors: Marek Dlapa

Abstract:

The algebraic approach is applied to the control of the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology). The objective is to find a robust controller which guarantees robust stability and decoupled control of longitudinal model of a scaled remotely controlled vehicle version of the advanced fighter HiMAT. Control design is performed by decoupling the nominal MIMO (multi-input multi-output) system into two identical SISO (single-input single-output) plants which are approximated by a 4th order transfer function. The algebraic approach is then used for pole placement design, and the nominal closed-loop poles are tuned so that the peak of the µ-function is minimal. As an optimization tool, evolutionary algorithm Differential Migration is used in order to overcome the multimodality of the cost function yielding simple controller with decoupling for nominal plant which is compared with the D-K iteration through simulations of standard longitudinal manoeuvres documenting decoupled control obtained from algebraic approach for nominal plant as well as worst case perturbation.

Keywords: Robust Control, Genetic Algorithms, Evolutionary Computation, algebraic approach, HiMAT, structured singular value

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3 Multi-Objectives Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Machining Process Parameters

Authors: Dylan Santos De Pinho, Nabil Ouerhani

Abstract:

Energy consumption of machine-tools is becoming critical for machine-tool builders and end-users because of economic, ecological and legislation-related reasons. Many machine-tool builders are seeking for solutions that allow the reduction of energy consumption of machine-tools while preserving the same productivity rate and the same quality of machined parts. In this paper, we present the first results of a project conducted jointly by academic and industrial partners to reduce the energy consumption of a Swiss-Type lathe. We employ genetic algorithms to find optimal machining parameters – the set of parameters that lead to the best trade-off between energy consumption, part quality and tool lifetime. Three main machining process parameters are considered in our optimization technique, namely depth of cut, spindle rotation speed and material feed rate. These machining process parameters have been identified as the most influential ones in the configuration of the Swiss-type machining process. A state-of-the-art multi-objective genetic algorithm has been used. The algorithm combines three fitness functions, which are objective functions that permit to evaluate a set of parameters against the three objectives: energy consumption, quality of the machined parts, and tool lifetime. In this paper, we focus on the investigation of the fitness function related to energy consumption. Four different energy consumption related fitness functions have been investigated and compared. The first fitness function refers to the Kienzle cutting force model. The second fitness function uses the Material Removal Rate (RMM) as an indicator of energy consumption. The two other fitness functions are non-deterministic, learning-based functions. One fitness function uses a simple Neural Network to learn the relation between the process parameters and the energy consumption from experimental data. Another fitness function uses Lasso regression to determine the same relation. The goal is, then, to find out which fitness functions predict best the energy consumption of a Swiss-Type machining process for the given set of machining process parameters. Once determined, these functions may be used for optimization purposes – determine the optimal machining process parameters leading to minimum energy consumption. The performance of the four fitness functions has been evaluated. The Tornos DT13 Swiss-Type Lathe has been used to carry out the experiments. A mechanical part including various Swiss-Type machining operations has been selected for the experiments. The evaluation process starts with generating a set of CNC (Computer Numerical Control) programs for machining the part at hand. Each CNC program considers a different set of machining process parameters. During the machining process, the power consumption of the spindle is measured. All collected data are assigned to the appropriate CNC program and thus to the set of machining process parameters. The evaluation approach consists in calculating the correlation between the normalized measured power consumption and the normalized power consumption prediction for each of the four fitness functions. The evaluation shows that the Lasso and Neural Network fitness functions have the highest correlation coefficient with 97%. The fitness function “Material Removal Rate” (MRR) has a correlation coefficient of 90%, whereas the Kienzle-based fitness function has a correlation coefficient of 80%.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Smart Manufacturing, adaptive machining, parameters optimization

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2 Genetic Algorithms Based ACPS Safety

Authors: Emine Laarouchi, Daniela Cancila, Laurent Soulier, Hakima Chaouchi

Abstract:

Cyber-Physical Systems as drones proved their efficiency for supporting emergency applications. For these particular applications, travel time and autonomous navigation algorithms are of paramount importance, especially when missions are performed in urban environments with high obstacle density. In this context, however, safety properties are not properly addressed. Our ambition is to optimize the system safety level under autonomous navigation systems, by preserving performance of the CPS. At this aim, we introduce genetic algorithms in the autonomous navigation process of the drone to better infer its trajectory considering the possible obstacles. We first model the wished safety requirements through a cost function and then seek to optimize it though genetics algorithms (GA). The main advantage in the use of GA is to consider different parameters together, for example, the level of battery for navigation system selection. Our tests show that the GA introduction in the autonomous navigation systems minimize the risk of safety lossless. Finally, although our simulation has been tested for autonomous drones, our approach and results could be extended for other autonomous navigation systems such as autonomous cars, robots, etc.

Keywords: Safety, Genetic Algorithms, Drones, Path Planning, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, cps, ACPS

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1 A Survey of Grammar-Based Genetic Programming and Applications

Authors: Matthew T. Wilson

Abstract:

This paper covers a selection of research utilizing grammar-based genetic programming, and illustrates how context-free grammar can be used to constrain genetic programming. It focuses heavily on grammatical evolution, one of the most popular variants of grammar-based genetic programming, and the way its operators and terminals are specialized and modified from those in genetic programming. A variety of implementations of grammatical evolution for general use are covered, as well as research each focused on using grammatical evolution or grammar-based genetic programming on a single application, or to solve a specific problem, including some of the classically considered genetic programming problems, such as the Santa Fe Trail.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Genetic Programming, context-free grammar, grammatical evolution

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