Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Generation Related Abstracts

7 Critical Review of Clean Energy Mix as Means of Boosting Power Generation in Nigeria

Authors: B. Adebayo, A. A. Adebayo

Abstract:

Adequate power generation and supply are enormous challenges confronting Nigeria state today. This is a powerful mechanism that drives industrial development and socio-economy of any nation. The present level of power generation and supply have become national embarrassment to both government and the citizens of Nigeria, where over 60% of the population have no access to electricity. This paper is set to review the abundant clean energy alternative sources available in abundance that are capable of boosting power generation. The clean energy sources waiting to be exploited include: nuclear, solar and wind energy. The environmental benefits of these sources of power generation are identified. Nuclear energy is a powerful clean energy source. However, Africa accounted for 20% of known recoverable reserve and uranium produces heat of 500,000 MJ/kg. Moreover, Nigeria receives average daily solar radiation of over 5.249 kWh/m2/day. Researchers have shown that wind speed and power flux densities varied from 1.5 – 4.1 m/s and 5.7 – 22.5 W/m2 respectively. It is a fact that the cost of doing business in Nigeria is very high, leading to winding up of the multi-national companies and then led to increase unemployment level. More importantly, readily available vast quantity of energy will reduce cost of running industries. Hence, more industries will come on board, goods, services, and more job creation will be achieved. This clean source of power generation is devoid of production of green house gases, elimination of environmental pollution, and reduced waste disposal. Then Nigerians will live in harmony with the environment.

Keywords: Energy, Industrial, Power, Clean, Generation, mix

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6 A Comparison of Generation Dependent Brain Targeting Potential of(Poly Propylene Mine) Dendrimers

Authors: Nitin Dwivedi, Jigna Shah

Abstract:

Aim and objective of study: This article indicates a comparison among various generations of dendrimers, a dendrimer is a bioactive material has repetitively branched molecule and used for delivery of various therapeutic active agents. This debut report compares the effect various generations of PPI dendrimers for brain targeting and management of neurodegenerative disorders potential on single platform. This report involves the study of the various mechanism of synthesis ligand anchored various generations PPI dendrimers deliver the drug directly to the CNS, prove their effectiveness in the management of the various neurodegenerative disease. Material and Methods: The Memantine an anti-Alzheimer drug loaded in different generations (3.0G, 4.0G, and 5.0G) of PPI dendrimers which were synthesized were synthesized. The various studies investigate the effect of PPI dendrimers generation on different characteristic parameters i.e. synthesis procedure, drug loading, release behavior, hemolysis profile at different concentration, MRI study for determine the route drug from olfactory transfer, animal model study in vitro, as well as in vivo performance. The outcomes of the investigation indicate drug delivery benefit as well as superior biocompatibility of 4.0G PPI dendrimer over 3.0G and 5.0G dendrimer, respectively. Results and Conclusion: The above study indicate the superiority of in drug delivery system with maximum drug utilization and minimize the drug dose for neurodegenerative disorder over 5.0G PPI dendrimers. So, 4.0G PPI dendrimers are the safe formulations for the symptomatic treatment of the neurodegenerative disorder. The fifth-generation poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendrimers, inherent toxicity due to the presence of many peripheral cationic groups is the major issue that limits their applicability.

Keywords: Alzheimer Disease, Generation, memantine, PPI

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5 Fruit of the General Status of Usak Provicce District of Sivasli

Authors: Ayşen Melda Çolak, Volkan Okatan, Ercan Yıldız

Abstract:

In our country, fruit production was determined as 17.2 million tons in 2011 according to official data. Turkey fig, apricot, cherry and quince production ranks first in the world. Almost all the regions of our country, despite the growing of fruit 54% of the total fruit production occur in the Mediterranean and the Aegean Region. However, fruit production in the country is consumed in the domestic market and export rates are often very low. In this study, a questionnaire to 100 farmers face-to-face interview. According to the survey, 40% of those in fruit and 7 da of 7 hectares land are small. 30% of soil testing for manufacturers, testing for 20% of the water. Manufacturers who deliberately fertilization rate of only 10%.

Keywords: Generation, Fruit, potential, Sivasli survey

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4 Review on Future Economic Potential Stems from Global Electronic Waste Generation and Sustainable Recycling Practices.

Authors: Shamim Ahsan

Abstract:

Abstract Global digital advances associated with consumer’s strong inclination for the state of art digital technologies is causing overwhelming social and environmental challenges for global community. During recent years not only economic advances of electronic industries has taken place at steadfast rate, also the generation of e-waste outshined the growth of any other types of wastes. The estimated global e-waste volume is expected to reach 65.4 million tons annually by 2017. Formal recycling practices in developed countries are stemming economic liability, opening paths for illegal trafficking to developing countries. Informal crude management of large volume of e-waste is transforming into an emergent environmental and health challenge in. Contrariwise, in several studies formal and informal recycling of e-waste has also exhibited potentials for economic returns both in developed and developing countries. Some research on China illustrated that from large volume of e-wastes generation there are recycling potential in evolving from ∼16 (10−22) billion US$ in 2010, to an anticipated ∼73.4 (44.5−103.4) billion US$ by 2030. While in another study, researcher found from an economic analysis of 14 common categories of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) the overall worth is calculated as €2.15 billion to European markets, with a potential rise to €3.67 billion as volumes increase. These economic returns and environmental protection approaches are feasible only when sustainable policy options are embraced with stricter regulatory mechanism. This study will critically review current researches to stipulate how global e-waste generation and sustainable e-waste recycling practices demonstrate future economic development potential in terms of both quantity and processing capacity, also triggering complex some environmental challenges.

Keywords: Recycling, E-Waste, Generation, economic potential

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3 Managing the Effects of Wet Coal on Generation in Thermal Power Station: A Case Study

Authors: Ravindra Gohane, S. V. Deshmukh

Abstract:

The coal acts as a fuel on a very large scale. Coal forms the basis of any thermal power plant. Different types of coal are available for utilization. The moisture content, volatile nature and ash content determines the type of the coal. Out of these moisture plays a very important part as it is present naturally within the coal and is added while handling the coal and is termed as wet coal. The problems of wet coal are many and more particularly during rainy season such as generation loss, jamming of crusher, reduction in calorific value, transportation of coal etc. Efforts are made to resolve the problems arising out of wet coal worldwide. This paper highlights the issue of resolving the problem due to wet coal with the help of a case study involving installation of V-type wiper on the conveyer belt.

Keywords: Generation, coal handling plant, wet coal, v-type

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2 Optimisation of Structural Design by Integrating Genetic Algorithms in the Building Information Modelling Environment

Authors: Sepehr Abrishami, Tofigh Hamidavi, Pasquale Ponterosso, David Begg

Abstract:

Structural design and analysis is an important and time-consuming process, particularly at the conceptual design stage. Decisions made at this stage can have an enormous effect on the entire project, as it becomes ever costlier and more difficult to alter the choices made early on in the construction process. Hence, optimisation of the early stages of structural design can provide important efficiencies in terms of cost and time. This paper suggests a structural design optimisation (SDO) framework in which Genetic Algorithms (GAs) may be used to semi-automate the production and optimisation of early structural design alternatives. This framework has the potential to leverage conceptual structural design innovation in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) projects. Moreover, this framework improves the collaboration between the architectural stage and the structural stage. It will be shown that this SDO framework can make this achievable by generating the structural model based on the extracted data from the architectural model. At the moment, the proposed SDO framework is in the process of validation, involving the distribution of an online questionnaire among structural engineers in the UK.

Keywords: Design, Modelling, Population, Optimisation, Structure, Genetic Algorithm, Selection, building information, bim, Generation, Mutation, AEC, crossover, offspring, architecture-engineering-construction

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1 Solar Energy Generation Based Urban Development: A Case of Jodhpur City

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Devadas Varuvel

Abstract:

India has the most suitable condition with the second-highest solar irradiation of 4-7 kWh/ sq. meter in the world and its year-round favorable sunny conditions, India holds the capacity to become the global solar hub. In India with the successful effort of Both the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Government of India, we have cumulative solar power as 2632 MW in 2014, and now 12289 MW in the year 2017, whereas the potential of Rooftop Solar power has yet to be explored for proposed solar cities in India. There is no doubt about quadrupled energy growth from 2014 to 2017 in the solar energy sector, but this entire capacity has a very little contribution from the Urban system, which is proposed under the national program of solar city and smart city. As per the power generation capacity of India, the country is ranked among the top six nations. About 70% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal, 15.6% by hydel, 2.26% by nuclear and rest by 12% from renewable energy sources like biomass, solar, waste-based, wind, etc. The Indian power sector is majorly reliable on thermal power plants whereas the coal-based power generation alone contributes to 86.77% of total thermal power generation capacity. The total installed thermal power capacity of India is 158496 MW (70%) and renewable power generation is 31696 MW (2015) which is only 12% of the total power generation capacity 261006 MW. Population exposition and comparatively slow growth of power generation capacity of secondary sources the demand-supply gap observed are 3.8% (4.6% peak) in Feb 2014 and 2.5% (2.8% peak) in Feb 2015. Per capita power consumption in India is 957 kWh (as in 2014) with the cost of supply is 3.74 Rs./ kWh. The research aims to analyze the gap in energy scenario in Jodhpur City and proposes interventions of solar energy generation systems as a catalyst for urban development. The research is based on the system concept which deals with simulation between the city system as a whole and its interactions between different subsystems. A System-Dynamics based mathematical model is developed by identifying the control parameters using regression and correlation analysis to assess the gap energy sector. The base modal validation is done using the past 10 years timeline data collected from secondary sources. Further, the energy consumption and solar energy generation based projection are made for testing different scenarios to conclude the feasibility of solar energy-based energy independence at the city level. The study is concluded with proposing the suitable key areas using Point-Solar Tool based GIS technique for roof-top based solar energy generations and the optimum control parameters based recommendation are prepared for maintaining the city level energy independence till year 2045.

Keywords: Energy, City, consumption, Generation

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