Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

General Relativity Related Abstracts

4 Dual Duality for Unifying Spacetime and Internal Symmetry

Authors: David C. Ni


The current efforts for Grand Unification Theory (GUT) can be classified into General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, String Theory and the related formalisms. In the geometric approaches for extending General Relativity, the efforts are establishing global and local invariance embedded into metric formalisms, thereby additional dimensions are constructed for unifying canonical formulations, such as Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formulations. The approaches of extending Quantum Mechanics adopt symmetry principle to formulate algebra-group theories, which evolved from Maxwell formulation to Yang-Mills non-abelian gauge formulation, and thereafter manifested the Standard model. This thread of efforts has been constructing super-symmetry for mapping fermion and boson as well as gluon and graviton. The efforts of String theory currently have been evolving to so-called gauge/gravity correspondence, particularly the equivalence between type IIB string theory compactified on AdS5 × S5 and N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Other efforts are also adopting cross-breeding approaches of above three formalisms as well as competing formalisms, nevertheless, the related symmetries, dualities, and correspondences are outlined as principles and techniques even these terminologies are defined diversely and often generally coined as duality. In this paper, we firstly classify these dualities from the perspective of physics. Then examine the hierarchical structure of classes from mathematical perspective referring to Coleman-Mandula theorem, Hidden Local Symmetry, Groupoid-Categorization and others. Based on Fundamental Theorems of Algebra, we argue that rather imposing effective constraints on different algebras and the related extensions, which are mainly constructed by self-breeding or self-mapping methodologies for sustaining invariance, we propose a new addition, momentum-angular momentum duality at the level of electromagnetic duality, for rationalizing the duality algebras, and then characterize this duality numerically with attempt for addressing some unsolved problems in physics and astrophysics.

Keywords: Algebra, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, string theory, Symmetry‎, Duality, correspondence, momentum-angular-momentum

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3 Covariance and Quantum Cosmology: A Comparison of Two Matter Clocks

Authors: Theodore Halnon, Martin Bojowald


In relativity, time is relative between reference frames. However, quantum mechanics requires a specific time coordinate in order to write an evolution equation for wave functions. This difference between the two theories leads to the problem of time in quantum gravity. One method to study quantum relativity is to interpret the dynamics of a matter field as a clock. In order to test the relationship between different reference frames, an isotropic cosmological model with two matter ingredients is introduced. One is given by a scalar field and one by vacuum energy or a cosmological constant. There are two matter fields, and thus two different Hamiltonians are derived from the respective clock rates. Semi-classical solutions are found for these equations and a comparison is made of the physical predictions that they imply.

Keywords: Cosmology, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, deparameterization

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2 Experimental Options for the Role of Dynamic Torsion in General Relativity

Authors: Ivan Ravlich, Ivan Linscott, Sigrid Close


The experimental search for spin coupling in General Relativity via torsion has been inconclusive. In this work, further experimental avenues to test dynamic torsion are proposed and evaluated. In the extended theory, by relaxing the torsion free condition on the metric connection, general relativity is reformulated to relate the spin density of particles to a new quantity, the torsion tensor. In torsion theories, the spin tensor and torsion tensor are related in much the same way as the stress-energy tensor is related to the metric connection. Similarly, as the metric is the field associated with the metric connection, fields can be associated with the torsion tensor resulting in a field that is either propagating or static. Experimental searches for static torsion have thus far been inconclusive, and currently, there have been no experimental tests for propagating torsion. Experimental tests of propagating theories of torsion are proposed utilizing various spin densities of matter, such as interfaces in superconducting materials and plasmas. The experimental feasibility and observable bounds are estimated, and the most viable candidates are selected to pursue in detail in a future work.

Keywords: gravitation, General Relativity, propagating torsion, spin density

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1 Next-Generation Lunar and Martian Laser Retro-Reflectors

Authors: Simone Dell'Agnello


There are laser retroreflectors on the Moon and no laser retroreflectors on Mars. Here we describe the design, construction, qualification and imminent deployment of next-generation, optimized laser retroreflectors on the Moon and on Mars (where they will be the first ones). These instruments are positioned by time-of-flight measurements of short laser pulses, the so-called 'laser ranging' technique. Data analysis is carried out with PEP, the Planetary Ephemeris Program of CfA (Center for Astrophysics). Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to Apollo/Lunokhod laser retro-reflector (CCR) arrays supplied accurate tests of General Relativity (GR) and new gravitational physics: possible changes of the gravitational constant Gdot/G, weak and strong equivalence principle, gravitational self-energy (Parametrized Post Newtonian parameter beta), geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law; it can also constraint gravitomagnetism. Some of these measurements also allowed for testing extensions of GR, including spacetime torsion, non-minimally coupled gravity. LLR has also provides significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. In fact, LLR first provided evidence of the existence of a fluid component of the deep lunar interior. In 1969 CCR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the LLR error budget. Since laser station range accuracy improved by more than a factor 100, now, because of lunar librations, current array dominate the error due to their multi-CCR geometry. We developed a next-generation, single, large CCR, MoonLIGHT (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity high-accuracy test) unaffected by librations that supports an improvement of the space segment of the LLR accuracy up to a factor 100. INFN also developed INRRI (INstrument for landing-Roving laser Retro-reflector Investigations), a microreflector to be laser-ranged by orbiters. Their performance is characterized at the SCF_Lab (Satellite/lunar laser ranging Characterization Facilities Lab, INFN-LNF, Frascati, Italy) for their deployment on the lunar surface or the cislunar space. They will be used to accurately position landers, rovers, hoppers, orbiters of Google Lunar X Prize and space agency missions, thanks to LLR observations from station of the International Laser Ranging Service in the USA, in France and in Italy. INRRI was launched in 2016 with the ESA mission ExoMars (Exobiology on Mars) EDM (Entry, descent and landing Demonstration Module), deployed on the Schiaparelli lander and is proposed for the ExoMars 2020 Rover. Based on an agreement between NASA and ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), another microreflector, LaRRI (Laser Retro-Reflector for InSight), was delivered to JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and integrated on NASA’s InSight Mars Lander in August 2017 (launch scheduled in May 2018). Another microreflector, LaRA (Laser Retro-reflector Array) will be delivered to JPL for deployment on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover. The first lunar landing opportunities will be from early 2018 (with TeamIndus) to late 2018 with commercial missions, followed by opportunities with space agency missions, including the proposed deployment of MoonLIGHT and INRRI on NASA’s Resource Prospectors and its evolutions. In conclusion, we will extend significantly the CCR Lunar Geophysical Network and populate the Mars Geophysical Network. These networks will enable very significantly improved tests of GR.

Keywords: General Relativity, laser retroreflectors, lunar laser ranging, Mars geodesy

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