Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Gender Inequality Related Abstracts

8 Gender Inequalities in Depression among Palestinian Citizens in Israel

Authors: Nihaya Daoud, Adi Finkelstein


Depression is a major public health concern and it is estimated to be the second leading cause of morbidity in 2020. One of the most consistent findings in mental health in the Western societies is inequalities in depression between men and women. Studies on differences in depression between Arab men and women are scarce. In this paper, we use data of a countrywide study on the Arab minority in Israel to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms between men and women and examine factors that contribute to this gender inequality in the context of Arab society. The study was conducted in 2005-2006. It included a sample of Palestinian citizens of Israel, aged 30–70. The final sample included 902 respondents (381 women and 521 men) who were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire in Arabic, before which they each signed an informed consent form. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Hadassah – Hebrew University Medical Center. Results show that women had significantly higher depressive symptoms (DS) than men. In addition, while Arab women had steady rates of depressive symptoms between the ages of 40-54 and a peak at the age group of 55-59, among Arab men there was a peak almost every 10 years (more results will show in the full presentation). We assume that our findings might be attributed to the specific structural changes in the Arab society in Israel in the last decades.

Keywords: Depression, Gender Inequality, Arab men, Arab women

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7 Gender Inequality on Marine Tourism Development in Small Island

Authors: Khodijah Ismail, Elfindri


Tourism development have many environmental, economically and sociocultural benefits. Small islands have a lot of potential for marine tourism development. But, stereotype gender issues still dominate the social and cultural life of rural communities that have an impact on the gap in benefits of local development. The purpose of this study is to found development strategy concept of marine tourism in small islands gender-based. This study found in the marine tourism development of small islands not involved women, from planning to monitor marine tourism development in small islands. It's affects to the low of socio-economic of women in the coastal village and small islands. This condition is not advantage for sustainable development of marine tourism in small islands. Therefore, strengthening of livelihood assets by gender based through the marine tourism development in small islands is very important to attention, that women can contributed to household welfare, bargaining positioned in social culture was better and increase broad access to local government development policies. To realize it requires the full support of the government and relevant stakeholders through gender empowerment and strengthening of accessibility, connectivity, regulation, and design institution.

Keywords: Development, Tourism Management, Marine tourism, Gender Inequality

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6 Redefining State Security Using Gender: Case Study of the United States of America Post-Cold War

Authors: E. K. Linsenmayer


Traditional international relations theorists define state security, the principal national interest, as a state’s military force. However, many political theorists argue the current definition of security is not comprehensive and therefore, problematic. This paper argues that women’s physical security is not only linked but also necessary to achieve state security. In today’s unipolar political international system, the United States continues to accredit national security to its military. However, in one of the most militarized countries, women remain insecure. Through a case study method of the United States, this paper illuminates a necessary political prescription: the empowerment of women through an inside-out, feminist theoretical approach that makes state security attainable. The research through empirical testing, drawing from several databases, shows the positive effects of women’s physical security on state security. Women’s physical security is defined in terms of equal legal practices, health, education, and female representation in the government. State security is measured by the relative peace of a state, its involvement in conflict and a state’s relations with neighboring states. This paper shows that empowering women, 50% of the world’s population, is necessary for ending the current vicious circle of militarization, war, and insecurity. Without undoing gender power dynamics at the individual and societal level, security at all levels remains unattainable.

Keywords: Politics, Gender Inequality, state security, women's security

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5 Gender Differences in E-Society: The Case of Slovenia

Authors: Mitja Dečman


The ever-increasing presence and use of information and communication technology (ICT) influences the different social relationships of today's society. Gender differences are especially important from the viewpoint of modern society since ICT can either deepen the existing inequalities or diminish them. In a developed Western world, gender equality has been a well-focused area for decades in many parts of society including education, employment or politics and has led to a decrease in the inequality of women and men in these and other areas. The area of digital equality, or inequality for that matter, is one of the areas where gender differences still exist in many countries of the world. The research presented in this paper focuses on Slovenia, one of the smallest EU member states, being an average achiever in the area of e-society according to the many different European benchmarking indexes. On the other hand, Slovenia is working in an alignment with many European gender equality guidelines and showing good results. The results of our research are based on the analysis of survey data from 2014 to 2017 dealing with Slovenian citizens and their households and the use of ICT. Considering gender issues, the synthesis showed that cultural differences influence some measured ICT indicators but on the other hand the differences are low and only sometimes statistically significant.

Keywords: e-Society, Digital Divide, Gender Inequality, Slovenia

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4 Wadjda, a Film That Quietly Sets the Stage for a Cultural Revolution in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Anouar El Younssi


This study seeks to shed some light on the political and social ramifications and implications of Haifaa al-Mansour’s 2012 film Wadjda. The film made international headlines following its release, and was touted as the first film ever to be shot in its entirety inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and also the first to be directed by a female (Haifaa al-Mansour). Wadjda revolves around a simple storyline: A teenage Saudi girl living in the capital city Riyadh—named Wadjda—wants to have a bicycle just like her male teenage neighbor and friend Abdullah, but her ultra-conservative Saudi society places so many constraints on its female population—including not allowing girls and women to ride bicycles. Wadjda, who displays a rebellious spirit, takes concrete steps to save money in order to realize her dream of buying a bicycle. For example, she starts making and selling sports bracelets to her school mates, and she decides to participate in a Qur’an competition in hopes of winning a sum of money that comes with the first prize. In the end, Wadjda could not beat the system on her own, but the film reverses course, and the audience gets a happy ending: Wadjda’s mother, whose husband has decided to take a second wife, defies the system and buys her daughter the very bicycle Wadjda has been dreaming of. It is quite significant that the mother takes her daughter’s side on the subject of the bicycle at the end of the film, for this shows that she finally came to the realization that she and her daughter are both oppressed by the cultural norms prevalent in Saudi society. It is no coincidence that this change of heart and action on the part of the mother takes place immediately after the wedding night celebrating her husband’s second marriage. Gender inequality is thus placed front and center in the film. Nevertheless, a major finding of this study is that the film carries out its social critique in a soft and almost covert manner. The female actors in the film never issue a direct criticism of Saudi society or government; the criticism is consistently implied and subtle throughout. It is a criticism that relies more on showing than telling. The film shows us—rather than tells us directly—what is wrong, and lets us, the audience, decide and make a judgment. In fact, showing could arguably be more powerful and impactful than telling. Regarding methodology, this study will focus on and analyze the visuals and a number of key utterances by the main actor Wadjda in order to corroborate the study’s argument about the film’s bent on critiquing patriarchy. This research will attempt to establish a link between the film as an art object and as a social text. Ultimately, Wadjda sends a message of hope, that change is possible and that it is already happening slowly inside the Kingdom. It also sends the message that an insurrectional approach regarding women’s rights in Saudi Arabia is perhaps not the right one, at least at this historical juncture.

Keywords: Gender Inequality, Women’s Rights, bicycle, social critique, Wadjda

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3 The Impact of Gender Inequality on Corruption:Evidence from Politics and Labor Market

Authors: Mahmoud Salari


Corruption and gender inequality are the main topics of interest for both economists and policymakers. This study develops various static and dynamic estimation models to examine the impact of gender inequality in politics and the labor market on corruption using data of 170 countries from 1998 to 2014. This study uses two most reliable corruption indexes, including Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and Corruption Control (CC), to evaluate corruption levels across countries. The results indicate that gender inequality in politics has a strong impact on corruption level, and those countries that have larger/smaller gender inequality in their parliaments are faced with higher/lower corruption, respectively. Meanwhile, there is no enough evidence that supports the relationship between gender inequality in the labor market and corruption, and the results indicate that gender inequality in the labor market is not directly linked to the corruption level.

Keywords: Politics, Corruption, Gender Inequality, female labor force participation

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2 Stereotypes and Glass Ceiling Barriers for Young Women’s Leadership

Authors: Amna Khaliq


In this article, the phenomena of common stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers in women’s career advancement in men dominating society are explored. A brief background is provided on the misconception for women as soft, delicate, polite and compassionate at a workplace in the place of strong head and go-getter. Then, the literature review supports that stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers are still in existence for young women’s leadership. Increased encouragement, emotional intelligence, and better communication skills are recommended to parents, educators, and employers to prepare young women for senior leadership roles. Young women need mentorship from other women with no competition.

Keywords: Leadership, Gender Inequality, glass ceiling, stereotypes

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1 Gender Inequality and Human Trafficking

Authors: Kimberly McCabe


The trafficking of women and children for abuse and exploitation is not a new problem under the umbrella of human trafficking; however, over the last decade, the problem has attracted increased attention from international governments and non-profits attempting to reduce victimization and provide services for survivors. Research on human trafficking suggests that the trafficking of human beings is, largely, a symptom of poverty. As the trafficking of human beings may be viewed as a response to the demand for people for various forms of exploitation, a product of poverty, and a consequence of the subordinate positions of women and children in society, it reaches beyond randomized victimization. Hence, human trafficking, and especially the trafficking of women and children, goes beyond the realm of poorness. Therefore, to begin to understand the reasons for the existence of human trafficking, one must identify and consider not only the immediate causes but also those underlying structural determinants that facilitate this form of victimization. Specifically, one must acknowledge the economic, social, and cultural factors that support human trafficking. This research attempts to study human trafficking at the country level by focusing on economic, social, and cultural characteristics. This study focuses on inequality and, in particular, gender inequality as related to legislative attempts to address human trafficking. Within the design of this project is the use of the US State Department’s tier classification system for Trafficking in Persons (TIP) and the USA CIA Fact Sheet of country characteristics for over 150 countries in an attempt to model legal outcomes as related to human trafficking. Results of this research demonstrate the significance of characteristics beyond poverty as related to country-level responses to human trafficking.

Keywords: Inequality, Human trafficking, Gender Inequality, child trafficking

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