Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Gender Discrimination Related Abstracts

16 The Status and Role of Women in Indian IT Industry and Relevant Role and Scope of HRM

Authors: Shivani Kolarkar


Splendid growth in Indian IT has generated women employment on a large scale in India and continues to do it. Indian IT industry has achieved this in spite of total masculine dominance in other Indian engineering industries, where the ratio of women employment is almost negligible as compared to men. Indian IT today proudly enjoys a strong pool of technically educated, intellectual, and skillful women employees. IT industry has encouraged technical education for women in India, to a great extent. The software industry has definitely contributed to developing a positive and dignified role and status of women employees in Indian IT industry. It has promoted women’s social and economic role and status. In spite of all, gender discrimination still persists in Indian IT, also, which is low as compared to other industries, but it is a matter of concern. An Indian woman is bound to carry dual roles which are equally over-stressed for IT women employees. Long working hours, night shifts, work pressures and insufficient safety majors and necessary facilities for women contributes to making her physical-mental life, family and married life troublesome. Which forces her either to cluster at low-end jobs in IT/elsewhere or to sacrifice her career. Nature, role and status of HRM needs to be broadened, deepened and shaped into research-oriented multidimensional perspective in the context of really enhancing role and status of Indian IT women with high appreciation of women employees’ dignity and entity.

Keywords: Safety, attrition, Technical Education, Gender Discrimination, Job Satisfaction, HRM, Indian IT, software industry, women employment

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15 Inquiry of Gender Discrimination in Contrast Emotions: A Study on Perception of Gender of Youth University

Authors: Duygu Alptekin


Patriarchal social structure is based on a gender-based discrimination. Due to confrontational nature of discrimination; in a patriarchal society men and women exists in a based on contrasts and inequalities interaction patterns and this situation continues as socio-cultural with dominant gender perception in society. In this context gender perception of youth is a required vision tool for multidimensional understanding and resolving of gender discrimination problem and making projections about future. The aim of the study is explaining the gender discrimination by helping of Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and hostile benevolent sexism which are subdimensions of (ASI). Additionally the sexism perception of youth will be try to analyse ın the context of conflict of conventionalism and modernism. For that purpose survey have carried aout with the participation of students at the Selcuk University and the conclusions revealed that reached ampirically Young people's perceptions about the hierarchy of power revealed between men and women; sexual, economic and occupational segregation by pointing to statements about male-female relationships commitment, guardianship, gratitude, expressions containing highlights the superiority of socio-psychological (ASI) where results are determined by the application. The results of the factor analysis performed in this direction with the detection of the previous studies were evaluated by blending.

Keywords: Youth, Conventionalism, Gender Discrimination, ambivalent sexism inventory

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14 Dowry System and Gender Discrimination

Authors: Vanitha Dapparabail


Dowry is a system attached to Indian marriage system, it is practice of exchanging the goods and articles in a majority of Indian weddings. Although its practice became illegal in 1961, dowry flourishes among all social classes. Families of the bride and groom negotiate transfer of assets to the groom and his family in exchange for marrying the bride, often within the context of an arranged marriage. Dissatisfaction with the amount of dowry may result in abuse of the bride. In extreme cases “dowry deaths” or the murder of the bride by her husband and his family take place. This article conducts a feminist psychological analysis of the dowry phenomenon, its link to domestic violence against women, and the role of the perpetrators. Existing and new explanations of the dowry system and its ramifications are explored. Psychologically dowry system is greater mental stress for the Indian women and it is a really a part of gender discrimination. This part of the study can explore the amount of gender discrimination in Indian society.

Keywords: Violence, India, Gender Discrimination, Dowry system

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13 Gender Considerations and Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria

Authors: Tirimisiyu Olaide Gbadamosi


Individuals go into business for the sake of obtaining regular income, becoming self-employed. Although, there different kinds of business enterprises that female and male can go into, often times, some businesses are regarded more suitable for a particular sex and not the other. This means that there is some gender discrimination in the choice of business one goes into and by extension in entrepreneurship development. Apparently, gender attitudes and behaviors will have positive or negative effects on entrepreneurship development in a society or economy. This research work therefore intends to take a critical look at gender discrimination as they affect entrepreneurship development with particular reference to northern Nigeria in general, using Exceptional Production Services Limited Kaduna, Kaduna North Local Government area as a case study, and also to suggest the possible solution to unidentified problems and give recommendation where necessary. Statement of research problem: Entrepreneurship has generally been recognised as a good medium or strategy for economic development of an individual, a community and a nation. It is also a known a known fact that some gender discrimination are often used in the choice of business or even the decision to go into business. For example, some businesses are regarded as more suitable to men than women. The question here is, is this the right approach to economic development through entrepreneurship? Of what effect is this approach to entrepreneurship development? These and the other questions are what this research intends to find answers to and if possible make recommendations. Significance of the study: The findings of this study will provide a guide for anyone for the establishment of a business in Nigeria. The study will help any prospective entrepreneur to make the right decision of which business to go into and how to contend with gender related issues that might influence its success in business. Furthermore, it is hoped that the study will assist the government and her agencies in the process in developing entrepreneurship development programs. Conclusion: There has been growing recognition that various types of discrimination do not always affect women and men in the same way. Moreover, gender discrimination may be intensified and facilitated by all other forms of discrimination. It has been increasingly recognized that without gender analysis of all forms of discrimination in business, including multiple forms of discrimination, and, in particular, in this context, related intolerance, violations of the human rights of women might escape detection and remedies to address racism may also fail to meet the needs of women and girls. It is also important that efforts to address gender discrimination incorporate approaches to the elimination of all forms of discrimination. Recommendation: Campaigning and raising awareness among young men and women, parents, teachers and employers about gender stereotypical attitudes towards academic performances and the likely consequences of overall educational choices for employment and entrepreneurship opportunities, career progression and earnings.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Economic Development, Gender Discrimination, small medium enterprises

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12 Gender Discrimination and Pay Gap on Tourism Labor Market

Authors: Alka Obadić


The research concentrates on the role of tourism in generating female employment and on impact of gender discrimination in tourism sector. Unfortunately, in many countries there are still some barriers to the inclusion of women at all hierarchical levels of tourism labor market. Research analysis focuses on EU countries where tourism is a main employer of women. The analysis shows that women represent over third persons employed in the non-financial business economy and almost two thirds in core tourism activities. Women's gross hourly earnings in accommodation and food services were below those of men in the European Union and only countries who recorded increase of gender pay gap from the beginning of crisis are Bulgaria and Croatia. Women in tourism industry are still overrepresented in lower status jobs with fewer opportunities for career progression and are often treated unequally.

Keywords: Employment, Tourism, Gender Discrimination, women’s participation

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11 Chaupadi Practice: A Cruel Discrimination against Women a Case Study of Achham District of Nepal

Authors: Santosh Thapa, Sankar Gurung


Chaupadi is a tradition widely practiced in the far and mid-western region of Nepal. It is a practice where girls and women are not allowed to inter the house and touch the food, water and milk during their menstruation period of 4-7 days. They have to spend all the nights during the period in a specific hut (Chhaupadi Goth) which is a bit far from their residence where they faces various kinds of risk and violence like bullying, snakes and insect bite, wild animal attack etc. Sometimes the girls even do not go to school during their menstruation periods. After childbirth, the woman must stay in a cow shed for 11 days in such Chhaupadi practiced areas. This study limits the Achham district of the far western region which is the most vulnerable Chhaupadi practicing district. Several governmental and non-governmental organizations have been involving and spending huge amount of money for capacity building and awareness raising campaign for last 2 decades but still 9 out of 75 Village Development Committees (VDCs) have been partially practicing Chaupadi in the district. This study shows that the school attendance rate of the girls during the period have visibly increased which helps to increase the number of the girl graduation as well. Similarly, the practice of Chhaupadi is one of the reasons for increasing the number of cases of uterus prolapsus and poor reproductive health of women and girls. Triggering tools are the one of the best ways to accelerate the awareness campaign in the VDCs. This study recommends that the local bodies should coordinate and lead the overall awareness campaign program to sustain the Chaupadi free VDCs.

Keywords: Violence, Gender Discrimination, awareness campaign, chaupadi practice

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10 Gender Discrimination and Wellbeing in Family Sphere Due to Male Migration and Remittances: A Study of Doaba Region of Punjab

Authors: Atinder Pal Kaur


A central characteristic of people is their apparent movement from one station to other for their sustenance. Human migration has become one of the most challenging issues faced by the world today. Migration represents an important dimension in world-wide setting; and remittances received by families constitute a major agent in integrating societies in the all over the world, both economically and socially. This paper is an attempt to explore the impact of male migration and remittances upon the family system. This paper brings out how the women play the role of head of the household and take all the economic decisions, but still faces discrimination in the family, that bring loneliness and emotional breakdown on their personal front. For the purpose of this study, data was collected using 30 interviews and 10 case studies in the Doaba region of Punjab. The respondents were classified into two age groups 20-35 years and above 40 years aged women whose husbands migrated abroad. The findings of this study revealed that even though the women were taking some of the economic decisions, but in majority of the cases the patriarchal structure still existed and power remained in the hands of their husbands or in-laws. It was found that women of different age groups reported differently in terms of authority that they have regarding remittances and its consequences in their emotional well-being. The distinction related to their participation in public and private spheres still exists and public spheres are mostly dominated by male members of the family. It can be concluded that freedom of women to take decision on their own is still restricted and they are subjugated to follow their husband or in-law’s opinion in matters related to both public and private spheres. However, old age group women enjoyed more independence and freedom to take decision in comparison to young age women. Loneliness and depression were more common in the young age respondent’s group than in old age women.

Keywords: Migration, Gender Discrimination, remittances, patriarchal structure

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9 Deconstructing the Dialectics of Gender: An Analysis of Nigerian Igbo Women's Writing

Authors: R. Vidhya


Nigeria, the seat of canonical literature in Africa, though widely acclaimed as the literary capital of the continent, it failed to produce women writers in its literary arena till the 1960s. Only after 1966, with the publication of the first novel by a women writer, Nigeria saw the emergence of women’s writing through which the world witnessed an upsurge in the sensitization of women’s issues in Africa. The Nigerian Igbo women’s writing threw light on gender discrimination in postcolonial Africa. Their works were instrumental in bringing a remarkable change in the perception of gender in a male dominated society. The social mindscape of the land which strongly believed that feminist ideologies could be highly detrimental to its patriarchal setup is slowly changed through the changing perspectives of gender. This paper aims to analyse the select works of Flora Nwapa, Buchi Emecheta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie to deconstruct the dialectics of gender, which has been realised in the works of these women writers.

Keywords: Gender Discrimination, Igbo women's writings, postcolonial Africa, changing perspective

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8 Equality at Home and Equality at Work: The Effect of European Court of Human Rights Jurisprudence on Turkish Gender Policy

Authors: Olgun Akbulut


Turkey has entered in the European human rights monitoring in the early 1990s. Since then many improvements have been observed in domestic law. However, one area stays the least developed one: gender discrimination. Although the country is proud of the fact that electoral rights for women were recognized in Turkey even before many developed countries in the west, interestingly the first Turkish case where the European Court of Human Rights (ECrtHR) found discrimination concerned gender discrimination. With the proposed paper, the author is willing to determine and analyze the findings of the ECrtHR in cases decided against Turkey concerning gender discrimination, identify whether Turkish public institutions display coordination in engagement or disengagement in implementing the judgments where the ECrtHR found discrimination on the basis of gender and evaluate the effectiveness of the Court's jurisprudence on Turkish gender policy.

Keywords: Human Rights, Turkey, Equality, Gender Discrimination

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7 Sexual Harassment at Workplace in Cuttack District

Authors: Anasuya P. Pradhan, Netajee Abhinandan


Today's workplace is diverse and keeps changing continuously. Sexual harassment in the work place has emerged as a growing obstacle in women’s progress and being a sex discrimination issue has made the society vulnerable.Such issues indicate that, today women are comparatively more insecure in our society irrespective of their social status, position, and educational qualification. Hence, it needs to be addressed in the academic pedagogy.The study aimed to learn how far people are gender-sensitized, how far they are aware about the laws related to the issue, and how far women employees raise their voice against it. The findings revealed that even being educated and working in the organized sectors, people are unaware and are not sensitized. The study therefore recommends both the Government and managers of institutions how to critically identify the root causes of sexual harassment, its implications on our society and how best to address it.

Keywords: Sexual harassment, Gender Discrimination, workplace power, gender sensitization

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6 Gender Gap in Education and Empowerment Influenced by Parents’ Attitude

Authors: N. Kashif, M. K. Naseer


This is an undeniable fact that parents are the very first role model for their children and children are the silent observers and followers of their parents. The environment they would be provided will leave either positive or negative lasting impact on their physical and mental behavior and abilities to grow, progress and conquer. This paper focuses on the observation particularly in South Asian countries where females have been facing problems in accessing education and getting financially independent or stable. This paper emphasizes on a survey conducted in rural areas of Punjab State in Pakistan. It explains how the parents’ educational background, financial status, conservative and interdependent accommodation style influence a prominent inequality of giving their female child right to study and get empowered. The forces behind this gender discrimination are not limited to parents’ life style impact but also include some major social problems like distant schools, gender-based harassment, and threat, insecurities, employment opportunities, so on. As a grass root level solution, it is proposed to develop an institution which collects data regarding child birth in their region and can contact the parent when their child is ready to start school. Building up trust based relationship with parents is the most crucial and significant factor. Secondly, celebrities and public figures can play an extraordinary role in running a campaign to advocate and encourage people living in rural areas, villages and small towns. All possible solutions can never be implemented without the support of the state government. Therefore, this paper invites more thoughtful actions, properly planned strategies, initiators to take the lead and make a platform for those who are underprivileged and deprived of their basic rights. Any country, where female constitute 49% of its entire population can never progress without promoting female empowerment and their right to compulsory education, and it is never late or impossible to admit the facts and practically start a flexible solution- oriented approach.

Keywords: Inequality, Gender Discrimination, employment opportunities, female empowerment, gender based harassment, parents' life style impact

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5 Challenges in Creating Social Capital: A Perspective of Muslim Female Managers in Malaysia

Authors: Zubeida Rossenkhan, Pervaiz K. Ahmed, Wee Chan Au


In view of cross cultural career experiences, to the author’s best knowledge, the crucial role of culture and religious traditions in Asia remains understudied. Drawing on the notion of social capital as an invaluable resource needed for manager’s to progress, the purpose of this study is to probe the contextual experiences of Muslim women to elucidate unique challenges associated with social capital and career progress. Twenty-three in-depth interviews with top level Malay managers were conducted to probe experiences of upward career mobility and inequities in the workplace. Interpretive phenomenology was used to surface unique challenges and processes of creating and leveraging social capital. The study uncovers the unique challenges of Muslim women in Malaysia. Narratives of participants highlight not only generic forms of gender discrimination, but also culturally specific stereotypes and social expectations limiting their advancement. Interestingly, the findings identify a gender-religion handicap in the form of perceived inequality and restrictions rooted from the women manager’s gender and religion. The analysis also reveals how these Muslim women managers’ negotiate their challenges, especially how they access social capital and progress their careers. The research offers a unique perspective on the career experiences of Malay women managers’ in top management. The research provides insight into the unique processes of developing social capital utilized by this group of women for career success.

Keywords: Muslim Women, Social Capital, Gender Discrimination, Malaysia, career success

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4 An Analysis of Gender Discrimination and Horizontal Hostility among Working Women in Pakistan

Authors: Nadia Noor, Farida Faisal


Horizontal hostility has been identified as a special type of workplace violence and refers to the aggressive behavior inflicted by women towards other women due to gender issues or towards minority group members due to minority issues. Many women, while they want eagerly to succeed and invest invigorated efforts to achieve success, harbor negative feelings for other women to succeed in their career. This phenomenon has been known as Horizontal Violence, Horizontal Hostility, Lateral Violence, Indirect Aggression, or The Tall Poppy Syndrome in Australian culture. Tall Poppy is referred to as a visibly successful individual who attracts envy or hostility due to distinctive characteristics. Therefore, horizontal hostility provides theoretical foundation to examine fierce competition among females than males for their limited access to top level management positions. In Pakistan, gender discrimination persists due to male dominance in the society and women do not enjoy basic equality rights in all aspects of life. They are oppressed at social and organizational level. As Government has been trying to enhance women participation through providing more employment opportunities, provision of peaceful workplace is mandatory that will enable aspiring females to achieve objectives of career success. This research study will help to understand antecedents, dimensions and outcomes of horizontal hostility that hinder career success of competitive females. The present paper is a review paper and various forms of horizontal hostility have been discussed in detail. Different psychological and organizational level drivers of horizontal hostility have been explored through literature. Psychological drivers include oppression, lack of empowerment, learned helplessness and low self-esteem. Organizational level drivers include sticky floor, glass ceiling, toxic work environment and leadership role. Horizontal hostility among working women results in psychological and physical outcomes including stress, low motivation, poor job performance and intention to leave. The study recommends provision of healthy and peaceful work environment that will enable competent women to achieve objectives of career success. In this regard, concrete actions and effective steps are required to promote gender equality at social and organizational level. The need is to ensure the enforcement of legal frameworks by government agencies in order to provide healthy working environment to women by reducing harassment and violence against them. Organizations must eradicate drivers of horizontal hostility and provide women peaceful work environment. In order to develop coping skills, training and mentoring must be provided to them.

Keywords: Gender Discrimination, Oppression, glass ceiling, horizontal hostility

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3 Patriarchy and Gender Discrimination as seen in the Novels of Ahdaf Soueif’s In the Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002)

Authors: Nagwa Soliman


Women for centuries have undergone gender discrimination under the pretext of patriarchy which is engraved in the culture and tradition of some societies. It is important to highlight that this condition has been encoded by the male gender to dominate and manipulate women. It is therefore necessary to draw attention to this important obstacle that stands in the way of women’s achievement of their full potential and humanity in the face of these cultural traditions. The appropriate style that was chosen for this literary analysis is a qualitative research method that relies on the feminist technique using Freud’s psychological theories. This article explores patriarchy and gender discrimination as portrayed in Ahdaf Soueif’s In The Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002). It could be argued that those two novels describe a society that is feminist, patriarchal, and gender discriminatory. Moreover, it is important to assert that patriarchy and gender discrimination are part of the system’s social order which compels the female characters to adjust to society’s norms and conventions. This social order is supported by traditional and cultural masculine attitudes and results in sustaining gender inequality, female stereo typing and patriarchy which suppress women’s beliefs and dreams.

Keywords: Feminism, Gender Discrimination, patriarchy, stereotype

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2 Cross Analysis of Gender Discrimination in Print Media of Subcontinent via James Paul Gee Model

Authors: Luqman Shah


The myopic gender discrimination is now a well-documented and recognized fact. However, gender is only one facet of an individual’s multiple identities. The aim of this work is to investigate gender discrimination highlighted in print media in the subcontinent with a specific focus on Pakistan and India. In this study, an approach is adopted by using the James Paul Gee model for the identification of gender discrimination. As a matter of fact, gender discrimination is not consistent in its nature and intensity across global societies and varies as social, geographical, and cultural background change. The World has been changed enormously in every aspect of life, and there are also obvious changes towards gender discrimination, prejudices, and biases, but still, the world has a long way to go to recognize women as equal as men in every sphere of life. The history of the world is full of gender-based incidents and violence. Now the time came that this issue must be seriously addressed and to eradicate this evil, which will lead to harmonize society and consequently heading towards peace and prosperity. The study was carried out by a mixed model research method. The data was extracted from the contents of five Pakistani English newspapers out of a total of 23 daily English newspapers, and likewise, five Indian daily English newspapers out of 52 those were published 2018-2019. Two news stories from each of these newspapers, in total, twenty news stories were taken as sampling for this research. Content and semiotic analysis techniques were used to analyze through James Paul Gee's seven building tasks of language. The resources of renowned e-papers are utilized, and the highlighted cases in Pakistani newspapers of Indian gender-based stories and vice versa are scrutinized as per the requirement of this research paper. For analysis of the written stretches of discourse taken from e-papers and processing of data for the focused problem, James Paul Gee 'Seven Building Tasks of Language' is used. Tabulation of findings is carried to pinpoint the issue with certainty. Findings after processing the data showed that there is a gross human rights violation on the basis of gender discrimination. The print media needs a more realistic representation of what is what not what seems to be. The study recommends the equality and parity of genders.

Keywords: Gender Discrimination, print media, subcontinent, Paul Gee model

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1 Female Fans in Global Football Governance: A Call for Change

Authors: Yaron Covo, Tamar Kofman, Shira Palti


Over the recent decades, debates about the engagement of fans in football governance have focused on the club level and national level, emphasizing the significance of fans’ involvement in increasing the connection of clubs with the community, and in safeguarding the transparency, accountability, and clubs’ financial stability. This paper will offer a different conceptual justification for providing fans with access to decision-making processes in football. First, it will suggest that the participation of fans is necessary for addressing discriminatory practices against women in football stadiums. Second, it will argue that fans’ involvement in football governance is important not only at the club and national level but also at the global level, relying on the principles of Global Administrative Law. In contemporary men’s football, female fans face different forms of discrimination. Iranian women are still prohibited from attending football games at the domestic level; In Saudi Arabia, female fans are only permitted to enter designated family areas; Qatar – the host of the 2022 FIFA world cup – requires women to attend matches wearing modest clothing. Similarly, in Turkey, Lebanon, UAE, and Algeria, women face cultural barriers when attending men’s football games. In other countries, female fans suffer from subtle discrimination, including micro-aggressions, misogyny, sexism, and noninstitutionalized exclusion. Despite the vital role of fans in world football and the importance of football for many women’s lives, little has been done to address this problem. While FIFA recognizes that these discriminatory practices contradict its statutes, this recognition fails to materialize into meaningful change. This paper will argue that FIFA’s omission stems from two interrelated characteristics of world football: (1) the ultra-masculine nature of the game; (2) the insufficient recognition of fans’ significance. While fans have been given a voice in various football bodies on the domestic level, FIFA has yet to allow the representation of fans as stakeholders in world football governance. Since fans are a more heterogeneous group than players, the voices of those fans who do not fit the ultra-masculine model are not heard. Thus, by focusing mainly on male players, FIFA reproduces the hegemonic masculinity that feeds back into fan dynamics and marginalizes female fans. To rectify this problem, we will call on FIFA to provide fans and female fans in particular, with voice mechanisms and access to decision-making processes. In addition to its impact on the formation of fans’ identities, such a move will allow fans to demand better enforcement of existing anti-discrimination norms and new regulations to address their needs. The literature has yet to address the relationship between fans’ gender discrimination and global football governance. Building on Global Administrative Law scholarship and feminist theories, this paper will aim to fill this gap.

Keywords: Human Rights, Global Administrative Law, Gender Discrimination, Fans, FIFA, football governance

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