Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Gender Differences Related Abstracts

21 Reading Strategy Awareness of English Major Students

Authors: Hsin-Yi Lien


The study explored the role of metacognition in foreign language anxiety on a sample of 411 Taiwanese students of English as a Foreign Language. The reading strategy inventory was employed to evaluate the tertiary learners’ level of metacognitive awareness and a semi-structured background questionnaire was also used to examine the learners’ perceptions of their English proficiency and satisfaction of their current English learning. In addition, gender and academic level differences in employment of reading strategies were investigated. The results showed the frequency of reading strategy use increase slightly along with academic years and males and females actually employ different reading strategies. The EFL tertiary learners in the present study utilized cognitive strategies more frequently than metacognitive strategies or support strategies. Male students use metacognitive strategy more often while female students use cognitive and support strategy more frequently.

Keywords: Gender Differences, cognitive strategy, metacognitive strategy, support strategy

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20 Transmission of Values among Polish Young Adults and Their Parents: Pseudo Dyad Analysis and Gender Differences

Authors: Karolina Pietras, Joanna Fryt, Aleksandra Gronostaj, Tomasz Smolen


Young women and men differ from their parents in preferred values. Those differences enable their adaptability to a new socio-cultural context and help with fulfilling developmental tasks specific to young adulthood. At the same time core values, with special importance to family members, are transmitted within families. Intergenerational similarities in values may thus be both an effect of value transmission within a family and a consequence of sharing the same socio-cultural context. These processes are difficult to separate. In our study we assessed similarities and differences in values within four intergenerational family dyads (mothers-daughters, fathers-daughters, mothers-sons, fathers-sons). Sixty Polish young adults (30 women and 30 men aged 19-25) along with their parents (a total of 180 participants) completed the Schwartz’ Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-21). To determine which values may be transmitted within families, we used a correlation analysis and pseudo dyad analysis that allows for the estimation of a baseline likeness between all tested subjects and consequently makes it possible to determine if similarities between actual family members are greater than chance. We also assessed whether different strategies of measuring similarity between family members render different results, and checked whether resemblances in family dyads are influenced by child’s and parent’s gender. Reported similarities were interpreted in light of the evolutionary and the value salience perspective.

Keywords: Gender Differences, intergenerational differences in values, pseudo dyad analysis, transmission of values

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19 Comparison of Impulsivity Trait in Males and Females: Exploring the Sex Difference in Impulsivity

Authors: Pinhas Dannon, Aviv Weinstein


Impulsivity is raising major interest clinically because it is associated with various clinical conditions such as delinquency, antisocial behavior, suicide attempts, aggression, and criminal activity. The evolutionary perspective argued that impulsivity relates to self-regulation and it has predicted that female individuals should have evolved a greater ability to inhibit pre-potent responses. There is supportive evidence showing that female individuals have better performance on cognitive tasks measuring impulsivity such as delay in gratification and delayed discounting mainly in childhood. During adolescence, brain imaging studies using diffusion tensor imaging on white matter architecture indicated contrary to the evolutionary perspective hypothesis, that young adolescent male individuals may be less vulnerable than age-matched female individuals to risk- and reward- related maladaptive behaviors. In adults, the results are mixed presumably owing to hormonal effects on neuro-biological mechanisms of reward. Consequently, female individuals were less impulsive than male individuals only during fertile stages of the menstrual cycle. Finally, there is evidence the serotonin (5-HT) system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women. Overall, there seem to be sex differences in impulsivity but these differences are more pronounced in childhood and they are later subject to maturational and hormonal changes during adolescence and adulthood and their effects on the brain, cognition, and behavior.

Keywords: Gender Differences, Reward, impulse control, male population, female population, neurocognitive tests

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18 Gender Differences in Research Output, Funding and Collaboration

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova


In spite of the global efforts toward gender equality, female researchers are still underrepresented in professional scientific activities. The gender gap is more seen in engineering and math-intensive technological scientific fields thus calling for a specific attention. This paper focuses on the Canadian funded researchers who are active in natural sciences and engineering, and analyses the gender aspects of researchers’ performance, their scientific collaboration patterns as well as their share of the federal funding within the period of 2000 to 2010. Our results confirm the existence of gender disparity among the examined Canadian researchers. Although it was observed that male researchers have been performing better in terms of number of publications, the impact of the research was almost the same for both genders. In addition, it was observed that research funding is more biased towards male researchers and they have more control over their scientific community as well.

Keywords: Bibliometrics, Collaboration, funding, Gender Differences, research output

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17 Gender Differences in Attitudes to Technology in Primary Education

Authors: Martina Manenova, Radek Novotný


This article presents a summary of reviews on gender differences in perception of information and communication technology (ICT) by pupils in primary education. The article outlines the meaning of ICT in primary education then summarizes different studies of the use of ICT in primary education from the point of view of gender. The article also presents the specific differences of gender in the knowledge of modalities of use of specialized digital tools and the perception and value assigned to ICT, accordingly the article provides insight into the background of gender differences in performance in relation to ICT to determinate the complex meaning of pupils attitudes to the ICT.

Keywords: Gender Differences, ICT in primary education, attitudes to ICT, gender and ICT

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16 Underrepresentation of Women in Management Information Systems: Gender Differences in Key Environmental Barriers

Authors: Asli Yagmur Akbulut


Despite a robust and growing job market and lucrative salaries, there is a global shortage of Information Technology (IT) professionals. To make matters worse, women continue to be underrepresented in the IT workforce and among IT degree holders. In today’s knowledge based economy and society, it is extremely important to increase the presence of women in the IT field. In order to do so, it is necessary to reduce entry barriers and attract more women to pursue degrees in various IT fields including the field of Management Information Systems (MIS). Even though MIS is considered to have a more feminine nature, women still tend to avoid majoring in this field. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research that investigates the specific factors that may deter women from pursuing a degree in MIS. To address this research gap, this study examined a set of key environmental barriers that might prevent women from pursuing an MIS degree and explored whether there were any gender differences between female and male students in terms of these key barriers. Based on a survey of 280 students enrolled in an introductory level MIS course, the study empirically confirmed that there were significant differences between male and female students in terms of the key contextual barriers perceived. Female students demonstrated major concerns about gender discrimination related barriers, whereas male students were more concerned about negative social influences. Both male and female students were equally concerned about not being able to fit in well with other MIS majors. The findings have important implications for MIS programs, as the information gained can be used to design and implement specific intervention strategies to overcome the barriers and attract larger pools of women to the MIS discipline. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings, implications, and future research directions.

Keywords: Gender Differences, MIS major, underrepresentation, women in IT

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15 Gender Diversity in Early Years Education: An Exploratory Study Applied to Preschool Curriculum System in Romania

Authors: Emilia-Gheorghina Negru


As an EU goal, gender diversity in early year’s education aims and promotes equality of chances and respect for gender peculiarities of the pupils which are involved in formal educational activities. Early year’s education, as the first step to the Curriculum, prints to teachers the need to identify the role of the gender dimension on this stage, depending on the age level of preschool children through effective, complex, innovative and analytical awareness of gender diversity teaching and management strategies. Through gender educational work we, as teachers, will examine the effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum the gender development of school-aged children. PATHS and a school-based preventive intervention model are necessary to be designed to improve children's ability to discuss and understand equality and gender concepts. Our teachers must create an intervention model and provide PATHS lessons during the school year. Results of the intervention will be effective for both low- and high-risk children in improving their range of math’s skills for girls and vocabulary, fluency and emotional part for boys in discussing gender experiences, their efficacy beliefs regarding the management of equality in gender area, and their developmental understanding of some aspects of gender.

Keywords: Gender, Gender equality, Gender Differences, Gender Role, gender stereotypes

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14 Impact of Cultural Intelligence on Decision Making Styles of Managers: A Turkish Case

Authors: Fusun Akdag


Today, as business becomes increasingly global, managers/leaders of multinational companies or local companies work with employees or customers from a variety of cultural backgrounds. To do this effectively, they need to develop cultural competence. Therefore, cultural intelligence (CQ) becomes a vitally important aptitude and skill, especially for leaders. The organizational success or failure depends upon the way, the kind of leadership which has been provided to its members. The culture we are born into deeply effects our values, beliefs, and behavior. Cultural intelligence (CQ) focuses on how well individuals can relate and work across cultures. CQ helps minimize conflict and maximize performance of a diverse workforce. The term 'decision,' refers to a commitment to a course of action that is intended to serve the interests and values of particular people. One dimension of culture that has received attention is individualism-collectivism or, independence-interdependence. These dimensions are associated with different conceptualizations of the 'self.' Individualistic cultures tend to value personal goal pursuit as opposed to pursuit of others’ goals. Collectivistic cultures, by contrast, view the 'self' as part of a whole. Each person is expected to work with his or her in-group toward goals, generally pursue group harmony. These differences underlie cross-cultural variation in decision-making, such as the decision modes people use, their preferences, negotiation styles, creativity, and more. The aim of this study is determining the effect of CQ on decision making styles of male and female managers in Turkey, an emergent economy framework. The survey is distributed to gather data from managers at various companies. The questionnaire consists of three parts: demographics, The Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) to measure the four dimensions of cultural intelligence and General Decision Making Style (GMDS) Inventory to measure the five subscales of decision making. The results will indicate the Turkish managers’ score at metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral aspects of cultural intelligence and to what extent these scores affect their rational, avoidant, dependent, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles since business leaders make dozens of decisions every day that influence the success of the company and also having an impact on employees, customers, shareholders and the market.

Keywords: Decision Making, management Styles, Gender Differences, cultural intelligence

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13 Parents-Children Communication in College

Authors: Chih-Chun Wu, Yin-Chen Liu, Mei-He Shih


In this technology society, using ICT(Information and communications technology) to contact each other is very common. Interpersonal ICT communication maintains social support. Therefore, the study investigated the ICT communication between undergraduates and their parents, and gender differences were also detected. The sample size was 1,209 undergraduates, including 624(51.6%) males, 584(48.3%) females, and 1 gender unidentified. In the sample, 91.8% of the sample used phones to contact their fathers and 93.8% of them use phones to contact their mothers. 78.5% and 87.6% of the sample utilized LINE to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. As for Facebook, only 13.4% and 16.5% of the sample would use to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. Aforementioned results implied that the undergraduates nowadays use phone and LINE to contact their parents more common than Facebook. According to results from Pearson correlations, the more undergraduates refused to add their fathers as their Facebook friends, the more they refused to add their mothers as Facebook friends. The possible reasons for it could be that to distinguish different social network such as family and friends. Another possible reason could be avoiding parents’ controlling. It could be why the kids prefer to use phone and LINE to Facebook when contacting their parents. Result from Pearson correlations showed that the more undergraduates actively contact their fathers, the more they actively contact their mothers. On the other hand, the more their fathers actively contact them, the more their mothers actively contact them. Based on the results, this study encourages both parents and undergraduates to contact each other, for any contact between any two family members is associated with contact between other two family members. Obviously, the contact between family members is bidirectional. Future research might want to investigate if this bidirectional contact is associated with the family relation. For gender differences, results from the independent t-tests showed that compared to sons, daughters actively contacted their parents more. Maybe it is because parents keep saying that it is dangerous out there for their daughters, so they build up the habit for their daughters to contact them more. Results from paired sample t-tests showed that the undergraduates agreed that talking to mother on the phone had more satisfaction, felt more intimacy and supported than fathers.

Keywords: Gender Differences, family ICT communication, parent-child ICT communication, FACEBOOK and LINE

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12 An Exploration of Gender Differences in Academic Writing in Science

Authors: Gayani Ranawake, Kate Wilson


Underrepresentation of women in academia, particularly in science, has been discussed by many scholars for decades. The causes of this underrepresentation are debated to this day. Publication is an important aspect of success in academia, and publication and citation rates are significant metrics in performance review, promotion, and employment. It has been established that men’s and women’s language use in general, both spoken and written, is different. However, no one, to our knowledge, has looked at whether men’s and women’s writing in science is different. If there are significant differences in the writing of men and women, then these differences may affect women’s ability to succeed in science. This study is part of a larger project to explore whether differences can be recognized in the academic science writing of men and women. Mono authored articles from high ranking physics, biology and psychology journals by men and women authors were compared in terms of readability statistics. In particular, the abstract and introduction sections were compared, as these are the first sections encountered by a reviewer, and so may have an important effect on their impression of the work. The Flesch Reading Ease, the percentage of passive sentences and the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level were calculated for each section of each article, along with counts of numbers of sentences, words per sentence and sentences per paragraph. Significance of differences was tested using the Behrens statistic. It was found that for both physics and biology papers there were no significant differences in the complexity or verbosity of the writing of men and women authors. However, there was a significant difference between the two disciplines, with physics articles being generally more readable (higher readability score) while also more passive (higher number of passive sentences). In contrast, the psychology articles showed a difference between men and women authors which may be significant. The average readability for introductions in women’s articles was 28 which was higher than for men’s articles, which was 19 (higher values indicate more readable). Women’s articles in psychology also had a greater proportion of passive sentences. It can be concluded that, at least in the more traditional sciences, men and women have adopted similar ways of writing, and that disciplinary differences are greater than gender differences. This may not be the case in psychology, which many consider to be more closely aligned with the humanities. Whether the lack of differences is because women have adapted to a masculine way of writing, or whether the genre itself is gender neutral needs further investigation.

Keywords: Science, Gender Differences, readability, academic writing

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11 Information and Communication Technology Skills of Finnish Students in Particular by Gender

Authors: Antero J. S. Kivinen, Suvi-Sadetta Kaarakainen


Digitalization touches every aspect of contemporary society, changing the way we live our everyday life. Contemporary society is sometimes described as knowledge society including unprecedented amount of information people face daily. The tools to manage this information flow are ICT-skills which are both technical skills and reflective skills needed to manage incoming information. Therefore schools are under constant pressure of revision. In the latest Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) girls have been outperforming boys in all Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the gender gap between girls and boys is widest in Finland. This paper presents results of the Comprehensive Schools in the Digital Age project of RUSE, University of Turku. The project is in connection with Finnish Government Analysis, Assessment and Research Activities. First of all, this paper examines gender differences in ICT-skills of Finnish upper comprehensive school students. Secondly, it explores in which way differences are changing when students proceed to upper secondary and vocational education. ICT skills are measured using a performance-based ICT-skill test. Data is collected in 3 phases, January-March 2017 (upper comprehensive schools, n=5455), September-December 2017 (upper secondary and vocational schools, n~3500) and January-March 2018 (Upper comprehensive schools). The age of upper comprehensive school student’s is 15-16 and upper secondary and vocational school 16-18. The test is divided into 6 categories: basic operations, productivity software, social networking and communication, content creation and publishing, applications and requirements for the ICT study programs. Students have filled a survey about their ICT-usage and study materials they use in school and home. Cronbach's alpha was used to estimate the reliability of the ICT skill test. Statistical differences between genders were examined using two-tailed independent samples t-test. Results of first data from upper comprehensive schools show that there is no statistically significant difference in ICT-skill tests total scores between genders (boys 10.24 and girls 10.64, maximum being 36). Although, there were no gender difference in total test scores, there are differences in above mentioned six categories. Girls get better scores on school related and social networking test subjects while boys perform better on more technical oriented subjects. Test scores on basic operations are quite low for both groups. Perhaps these can partly be explained by the fact that the test was made on computers and majority of students ICT-usage consist of smartphones and tablets. Against this background it is important to analyze further the reasons for these differences. In a context of ongoing digitalization of everyday life and especially working life, the significant purpose of this analyses is to find answers how to guarantee the adequate ICT skills for all students.

Keywords: Vocational Education, Basic Education, Gender Differences, Digitalization, ICT-skills, upper comprehensive education, upper secondary education

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10 Examining the Investment Behavior of Arab Women in the Stock Market

Authors: Razan Salem


Gender plays a vital role in the stock markets because men and women differ in their behavior when investing in stocks. Accordingly, the role of gender differences in investment behavior is an increasingly important strand in the field of behavioral finance research. The investment behaviors of women relative to men have been examined in the behavioral finance literature, mainly for comparison purposes. Women's roles in the stock market have not been examined in the behavioral finance literature, however, particularly with respect to the Arab region. This study aims to contribute towards a better understanding of the investment behavior of Arab women (in regards to their risk tolerance, investment confidence, and investment literacy levels) relative to Arab men; using a sample from Arab women and men investors living in Saudi Arabia and Jordan. In order to achieve the study's main aim, the researcher used non-parametric tests, as Mann-Whitney U test, along with frequency distribution analysis to analyze the study’s primary data. The researcher distributed close-ended online questionnaires to a sample of 550 Arab male and female individuals investing in stocks in both Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The results confirm that the sample Arab women invest less in stocks compared to Arab men due to their risk-averse behaviors and limited confidence levels. The results also reveal that due to Arab women’s very low investment literacy levels, they fear from taking the risk and invest often in stocks relative to Arab men. Overall, the study’s main variables (risk tolerance, investment confidence, and investment literacy levels) have a combined effect on the investment behavior of Arab women and their limited participation in the stock market. Hence, this study is one of the very first studies that indicate the combined effect of the three main variables (which are usually studied separately in the existing literature) on the investment behavior of women, particularly Arab women. This study makes three important contributions to the growing literature on gender differences in investment behavior. First, while the behavioral finance literature documents evidence on gender differences in investment behaviors in many developed countries, there are very limited studies that investigate such differences in Arab countries. Arab women investors, generally, are ignored from the behavioral finance literature due probably to cultural barriers and data collection difficulties. Thus, this study extends the literature to include Arab women and their investment behaviors when trading stock relative to Arab men. Moreover, the study associates women investment literacy and confidence levels with their financial risk behaviors and participation in the stock market. This study provides direct evidence on Arab women's investment behaviors when trading stocks. Overall, studying Arab women investors is important to investigate whether the investment behavior identified for Western women investors are also found in Arab women investors.

Keywords: stock markets, Gender Differences, Arab women, investment behavior

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9 Empirical Investigation of Gender Differences in Information Processing Style, Tinkering, and Self-Efficacy for Robot Tele-Operation

Authors: Dilruba Showkat, Cindy Grimm


As robots become more ubiquitous, it is significant for us to understand how different groups of people respond to possible ways of interacting with the robot. In this study, we focused on gender differences while users were tele-operating a humanoid robot that was physically co-located with them. We investigated three factors during the human-robot interaction (1) information processing strategy (2) self-efficacy and (3) tinkering or exploratory behavior. The experimental results show that the information on how to use the robot was processed comprehensively by the female participants whereas males processed them selectively (p < 0.001). Males were more confident when using the robot than females (p = 0.0002). Males tinkered more with the robot than females (p = 0.0021). We found that tinkering was positively correlated (p = 0.0068) with task success and negatively correlated (p = 0.0032) with task completion time. Tinkering might have resulted in greater task success and lower task completion time for males. Findings from this research can be used for making design decisions for robots and open new research directions. Our results show the importance of accounting for gender differences when developing interfaces for interacting with robots and open new research directions.

Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction, Humanoid Robots, Gender Differences, tele-operation

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8 Gender Differences in Biology Academic Performances among Foundation Students of PERMATApintar® National Gifted Center

Authors: N. Nor Azman, M. F. Kamarudin, S. I. Ong, N. Maaulot


PERMATApintar® National Gifted Center is, to the author’s best of knowledge, the first center in Malaysia that provides a platform for Malaysian talented students with high ability in thinking. This center has built a teaching and learning biology curriculum that suits the ability of these gifted students. The level of PERMATApintar® biology curriculum is basically higher than the national biology curriculum. Here, the foundation students are exposed to the PERMATApintar® biology curriculum at the age of as early as 11 years old. This center practices a 4-time-a-year examination system to monitor the academic performances of the students. Generally, most of the time, male students show no or low interest towards biology subject compared to female students. This study is to investigate the association of students’ gender and their academic performances in biology examination. A total of 39 students’ scores in twelve sets of biology examinations in 3 years have been collected and analyzed by using the statistical analysis. Based on the analysis, there are no significant differences between male and female students against the biology academic performances with a significant level of p = 0.05. This indicates that gender is not associated with the scores of biology examinations among the students. Another result showed that the average score for male studenta was higher than the female students. Future research can be done by comparing the biology academic achievement in Malaysian National Examination (Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia, SPM) between the Foundation 3 students (Grade 9) and Level 2 students (Grade 11) with similar PERMATApintar® biology curriculum.

Keywords: Biology, Gender Differences, Gifted Students, academic performances

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7 Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Behavior: Case Study of Saudi Arabia and Jordan

Authors: Razan Salem


Men and women have different approaches towards investing, both in terms of strategies and risk attitudes. This study aims to focus mainly on investigating the financial risk behaviors of Arab women investors and to examine the financial risk tolerance levels of Arab women relative to Arab men investors. Using survey data on 547 Arab men and women investors, the results of Wilcoxon Signed-Rank (One-Sample) test Mann-Whitney U test reveal that Arab women are risk-averse investors and have lower financial risk tolerance levels relative to Arab men. Such findings can be explained by the fact of women's nature and lower investment literacy levels. Further, the current political uncertainty in the Arab region may be considered as another explanation of Arab women’s risk aversion behavior. The study's findings support the existing literature by validating the stereotype of “women are more risk-averse than men” in the Arab region. Overall, when it comes to investment and financial behaviors, women around the world behave similarly.

Keywords: Culture, Gender Differences, Arab region, financial risk behavior, women investors

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6 Attitudes Towards Different Types of Rape

Authors: Avigail Moor


Rape by an acquaintance is a prevalent type of sexual assault that is often misperceived and downplayed. To date, there has been no empirical investigation of the prevailing social attitudes towards this type of rape as compared to stranger rape. The present study seeks to address this issue by evaluating widely held attitudes towards these different types of rape. The mediating role of gender and rape myths acceptance is assessed as well. Three hundred and twenty participants, equally divided by gender, completed self-report questionnaires. The results indicate that sexual coercion by strangers is perceived as rape to a significantly greater degree than forced sex by an acquaintance, which in turn is believed to be more harmful than coercion within a steady relationship, particularly by men who view rape in accordance with prevailing rape-supportive attitudes. The same pattern of differentiation emerged in the participants' attitudes toward the psychological harm expected following each, as well as the advisability of reporting the incidents to the police. Implications for preventive efforts are discussed.

Keywords: Sexual assault, Gender Differences, rape supportive attitudes, acquaintance rape

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5 The Effect of Gender Differences on Mate Selection in Private University

Authors: Hui Min Kong, Rajalakshmi A/P Ganesan


The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gender differences in mate selection in a private university. Mate selection is an important process and decision to the people around the world, especially for single people. The future partner we have chosen could be our lifetime friend, supporter, and lover. Mate selection is important to us, but we have never fully understood the evolution of gender differences in mate selection. Besides, there was an insufficient empirical finding of gender differences in mate selection in Malaysia. Hence, the research would allow us to understand our feelings and thoughts about our future partners. The research null hypotheses have stated that there was no significant difference on 18 mate selections characteristics between males and females. A quantitative method was performed to test the hypotheses through independent t-test. There was a total of 373 heterosexual participants with the age range of 18 to 35 in the study. The instrument used was Factors in choosing a mate developed by Buss and Barnes (1986). Results indicated that females (M= 26.69) were found to be highly valued on refinement and neatness, good financial prospect, dependable character, emotional stability and maturity, desire for home and children, favorable social status or rating, similar religious background, ambition and industriousness, mutual attraction, good health and education and intelligence than males (M= 23.25). These results demonstrated that there were 61.11% significant gender differences in mate selections characteristics. Findings of this research have highlighted the importance of human mate selections in Malaysia. Further research is needed to identify the factors that could have a possible moderating effect of gender differences in mate selection.

Keywords: Evolution, Gender Differences, mate selections, future partner

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4 Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustment of Fresh Students in Kwara State University Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Usman Tunde Saadu


The study examined gender differences in emotional adjustment of fresh students in Kwara State University, Malete. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study, and 300 fresh students were randomly selected across the six colleges in the University. An adapted Questionnaire from Nadia (2012) was used to collect data from respondents on emotional adjustment. One research question was answered with a descriptive statistic of frequency count and percentage, and one hypothesis was tested with t-test statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that fresh students have a low level of emotional adjustment, and male students were found to have more emotional adjustment than female. Based on these findings, the researcher, therefore, concluded that fresh students have a low level of emotional adjustment. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended among others that emotional adjustment skills should be introduced into the secondary school curriculum to give students the opportunity to learn about these skills before they are being admitted into University.

Keywords: Gender Differences, students, emotional adjustment, fresh students

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3 Referring to Jordanian Female Relatives in Public

Authors: Ibrahim Darwish, Noora Abu Ain


Referring to female relatives by male Jordanian speakers in public is governed by various linguistic and social constraints. Although Jordanian society is less conservative than it was a few decades ago, women are still considered the weaker link in society and men still believe that they need to protect them. Conservative Jordanians often avoid referring to their female relatives overtly, i.e., using their real names. Instead, they use covert names, such as pseudonyms, nicknames, pet names, etc. The reason behind such language use has to do with how Arab men, in general, see women as part of their honor. This study intends to investigate to what extent Jordanian males hide their female relatives’ names in public domains. The data was collected from spontaneous informal voice-recorded interviews carried out in the village of Saham in the far north of Jordan. Saham’s dialect is part of a larger Horani dialect used by speakers along a wide area that stretches from Salt in the south to the Syrian borders in the north of Jordan. The voice-recorded interviews were originally carried out as an audio record of some customs and traditions in the village of Saham in 2013. During most of these interviews, the researchers observed how the male participants indirectly referred to their female relatives. Instead of using real names, the male speakers used broad terms to refer to their female relatives, such al-Beit ‘the home,’ al-ciyaal ‘the kids’, um-x ‘the mother of x,’ etc. All tokens related to the issue in question were collected, analyzed and quantified about three age cohorts: young, middle-aged and old speakers. The results show that young speakers are more direct in referring to their female relatives than the other two age groups. This can point to a possible change in progress in the speech community of Saham. It is argued that due to contact with other urban speech communities, the young speakers in Saham do not feel the need to hide the real names of their female relatives as they consider them as equals. Indeed, the young generation is more open to the idea of women's rights and call for expanding Jordanian women’s roles in Jordanian society.

Keywords: Gender Differences, Horan, proper names, social constraints

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2 The Impact of Perspective Taking and Gender Differences on the Encouragement of Social Competence for the Next Generation: The Evidence From Chinese Parents

Authors: Yi Huang


Background: For the development of children, it is important for parents to encourage children not only on academic competence but also on children’s social competence. In the western cultural context, parents emphasize more heavily on female children’s social-behavioral development. However, whether the conclusion is correct in eastern culture and whether the parent’s gender affects such an emphasis remains unclear. And, more valuably, from the perspective of intervention, except for the nature factors - child’s gender and parent’s gender, it is also worth to probe whether the improvable factors, such as parent’s perspective taking, influence parent’s emphasis on child’s social competence. Aim: This study was aimed to investigate the impact of parent’s gender, child’s gender, and parent’s perspective-taking on parent’s attitudes of encouragement of the child’s social competence under the Chinese cultural context. Method: 461 Chinese parents whose children were in the first year of middle school during the research time participated in this study. Among all participants, there were 155 fathers and 306 mothers. The research adopted the self-report of perspective-taking, which is the sub-scale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and the self-report of the encouragement on a child’s social communication, which is the sub-scale of the Chinese version of The Children Rearing Practice Report. In this study, 291 parents reported regarding male children, and 170 parents reported regarding female children. Results: Contrary to the traditional western theory, which usually suggests parent puts more attention on social development and competence to girl the instead of the boy, in the Chinese context, parent emphasizes social competence more on the male child. Analogically, in China, compared to mother, father underscores the child’s social competence more heavily. By constructing the hierarchical regression model, the result indicated that after controlling the variables of the gender of child and the gender of parent, parent’s perspective-taking still explains for the variance of parent’s encouragement on child’s social competence, which means, parent’s perspective-taking predicts parent’s encouragement on child’s social competence after excluding the impact of the gender of parent and child. Conclusion: For Chinese parents, the ability of perspective-taking is beneficial to enhance their awareness of encouraging children’s social competence.

Keywords: Social Development, Gender Differences, parent; child, perspective-taking

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1 Women's Challenges in Access to Urban Spaces and Infrastructures: A Comparative Study of the Urban Infrastructures Conforming to Women's Needs in Tehran and Istanbul

Authors: Parastoo Kazemiyan


Over the past 80 years, in compliance with the advent of modernity in Iran and Turkey, the presence of women in economic and social arenas has creates serious challenges in the capacity of urban spaces to respond to their presence and transport because urban spaces up until then were based on masculine criteria and therefore, women could use such spaces in the company of their fathers or husbands. However, as modernity expanded by Reza Shah and Ataturk, women found the opportunity to work and be present in urban spaces alongside men and their presence in economic and social domains resulted in their presence in these spaces in the early and late hours of the day. Therefore, the city had to be transformed in structural, social, and environmental terms to accommodate women's activities and presence in various urban arenas, which was a huge step in transition from a masculine man-based culture to an all-inclusive human-based culture in these two countries. However, the optimization of urban space was subject to political changes in the two countries, leading to significant differences in designing urban spaces in Tehran and Istanbul. What shows the importance and novelty of the present study lie in the differences in urban planning and optimization in the two capital cities, which gave rise to different outcomes in desirability and quality of living in these two capital cities. Due to the importance of the topic, one of the most significant factors in desirability and acceptability of urban space for women was examined using a descriptive-analytic method based on qualitative methodology in Tehran and Istanbul. The results showed that the infrastructural factors in Istanbul, including safety of access, variety, and number of public transport modes, transparency, and supervision over public spaces have provided women with a safer and more constant presence compared to Tehran. It seems that challenges involved in providing access to urban spaces in Tehran in terms of infrastructure and function have made Tehran unable to respond to the most basic needs of its female citizens.

Keywords: Gender Differences, urban space security, access to transportation systems, women's challenges

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