Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Gelatin Related Abstracts

16 Preparation of Natural Polymeric Scaffold with Desired Pore Morphology for Stem Cell Differentiation

Authors: Mojdeh Mohseni

Abstract:

In the context of tissue engineering, the effect of microtopography as afforded by scaffold morphology is an important design parameter. Since the morphology of pores can effect on cell behavior, in this study, porous Chitosan (CHIT) - Gelatin (GEL)- Alginate (ALG) scaffolds with microtubule orientation structure were manufactured by unidirectional freeze-drying method and the effect of pore morphology on differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) was investigated. This study showed that, the provided scaffold with natural polymer had good properties for cell behavior and the pores with highest orientation rate have produced appropriate substrate for the differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: Stem cell differentiation, Gelatin, alginate, chitosan, pore morphology

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15 Polarimetric Study of System Gelatin / Carboxymethylcellulose in the Food Field

Authors: Sihem Bazid, Meriem El Kolli, Aicha Medjahed

Abstract:

Proteins and polysaccharides are the two types of biopolymers most frequently used in the food industry to control the mechanical properties and structural stability and organoleptic properties of the products. The textural and structural properties of these two types of blend polymers depend on their interaction and their ability to form organized structures. From an industrial point of view, a better understanding of mixtures protein / polysaccharide is an important issue since they are already heavily involved in processed food. It is in this context that we have chosen to work on a model system composed of a fibrous protein mixture (gelatin)/anionic polysaccharide (sodium carboxymethylcellulose). Gelatin, one of the most popular biopolymers, is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and photographic applications, because of its unique functional and technological properties. Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) is an anionic linear polysaccharide derived from cellulose. It is an important industrial polymer with a wide range of applications. The functional properties of this anionic polysaccharide can be modified by the presence of proteins with which it might interact. Another factor may also manage the interaction of protein-polysaccharide mixtures is the triple helix of the gelatin. Its complex synthesis method results in an extracellular assembly containing several levels. Collagen can be in a soluble state or associate into fibrils, which can associate in fiber. Each level corresponds to an organization recognized by the cellular and metabolic system. Gelatin allows this approach, the formation of gelatin gel has triple helical folding of denatured collagen chains, this gel has been the subject of numerous studies, and it is now known that the properties depend only on the rate of triple helices forming the network. Chemical modification of this system is quite controlled. Observe the dynamics of the triple helix may be relevant in understanding the interactions involved in protein-polysaccharides mixtures. Gelatin is central to any industrial process, understand and analyze the molecular dynamics induced by the triple helix in the transitions gelatin, can have great economic importance in all fields and especially the food. The goal is to understand the possible mechanisms involved depending on the nature of the mixtures obtained. From a fundamental point of view, it is clear that the protective effect of NaCMC on gelatin and conformational changes of the α helix are strongly influenced by the nature of the medium. Our goal is to minimize the maximum the α helix structure changes to maintain more stable gelatin and protect against denaturation that occurs during such conversion processes in the food industry. In order to study the nature of interactions and assess the properties of mixtures, polarimetry was used to monitor the optical parameters and to assess the rate of helicity gelatin.

Keywords: Gelatin, Polarimetry, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, interaction gelatin-NaCMC, the rate of helicity

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14 Synthesis and Properties of Chitosan-Graft-Polyacrylamide/Gelatin Superabsorbent Composites for Wastewater Purification

Authors: Hafida Ferfera-Harrar, Nacera Aiouaz, Nassima Dairi

Abstract:

Super absorbents polymers received much attention and are used in many fields because of their superior characters to traditional absorbents, e.g., sponge and cotton. So, it is very important but challenging to prepare highly and fast-swelling super absorbents. A reliable, efficient and low-cost technique for removing heavy metal ions from waste water is the adsorption using bio-adsorbents obtained from biological materials, such as polysaccharides-based hydrogels super absorbents. In this study, novel multi-functional super absorbent composites type semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPNs) were prepared via graft polymerization of acrylamide onto chitosan backbone in presence of gelatin, CTS-g-PAAm/Ge, using potassium persulfate and N,N’ -methylenebisacrylamide as initiator and cross linker, respectively. These hydrogels were also partially hydrolyzed to achieve superabsorbents with ampholytic properties and uppermost swelling capacity. The formation of the grafted network was evidenced by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The porous structures were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From TGA analysis, it was concluded that the incorporation of the Ge in the CTS-g-PAAm network has marginally affected its thermal stability. The effect of gelatin content on the swelling capacities of these super absorbent composites was examined in various media (distilled water, saline and pH-solutions).The water absorbency was enhanced by adding Ge in the network, where the optimum value was reached at 2 wt. % of Ge. Their hydrolysis has not only greatly optimized their absorption capacity but also improved the swelling kinetic. These materials have also showed reswelling ability. We believe that these super-absorbing materials would be very effective for the adsorption of harmful metal ions from waste water.

Keywords: Gelatin, chitosan, superabsorbent, water absorbency

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13 Development and Utilization of Keratin-Fibrin-Gelatin Composite Films as Potential Material for Skin Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Sivakumar Singaravelu, Giriprasath Ramanathan, M. D. Raja, Uma Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam

Abstract:

The goal of the present study was to develop and evaluate composite film for tissue engineering application. The keratin was extracted from bovine horn and used for preparation of keratin (HK), physiologically clotted fibrin (PCF) and gelatin (G) blend films in different stoichiometric ratios (1:1:1, 1:1:2 and 1:1:3) by using solvent casting method. The composite films (HK-PCF-G) were characterized physiochemically using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the composite films were analyzed. The results of tensile strength show that ultimate strength and elongation were 10.72 Mpa and 4.83 MPA respectively for 1:1:3 ratio combination. The SEM image showed a slight smooth surface for 1:1:3 ratio combination compared to other films. In order to impart antibacterial activities, the composite films were loaded with Mupirocin (MP) to act against infection. The composite films acted as a suitable carrier to protect and release the drug in a controlled manner. This developed composite film would be a suitable alternative material for tissue engineering application.

Keywords: Tensile Strength, Gelatin, keratin, bovine horn, fibrin

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12 Effect of Different Parameters in the Preparation of Antidiabetic Microparticules by Coacervation

Authors: Kamel Daoud, Nawel Ouennoughi

Abstract:

During recent years, new pharmaceutical dosage forms were developed in the research laboratories and which consists of encapsulating one or more active molecules in a polymeric envelope. Several techniques of encapsulation allow obtaining the microparticles or the nanoparticles containing one or several polymers. In the industry, microencapsulation is implemented to fill the following objectives: to ensure protection, the compatibility and the stabilization of an active matter in a formulation, to carry out an adapted working, to improve the presentation of a product, to mask a taste or an odor, to modify and control the profile of release of an active matter to obtain, for example, prolonged or started effect. To this end, we focus ourselves on the encapsulation of the antidiabetic. It is an oral hypoglycemic agent belonging to the second generation of sulfonylurea’s commonly employed in the treatment of type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes in order to improve profile them dissolution. Our choice was made on the technique of encapsulation by complex coacervation with two types of polymers (gelatin and the gum Arabic) which is a physicochemical process. Several parameters were studied at the time of the formulation of the microparticles and the nanoparticles: temperature, pH, ratio of polymers etc. The microparticles and the nanoparticles obtained were characterized by microscopy, laser granulometry, FTIR and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The profile of dissolution obtained for the microparticles showed an improvement of the kinetics of dissolution compared to that obtained for the active ingredient.

Keywords: Gelatin, microencapsulation, gum arabic, coacervation

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11 Development of Essential Oil-Loaded Gelatin Hydrogels for Use as Antibacterial Wound Dressing

Authors: Piyachat Chuysinuan, Nitirat Chimnoi, Arthit Makarasen, Nanthawan Reuk-Ngam, Pitt Supaphol, Supanna Techasakul

Abstract:

In this work, biomaterial wound dressings was developed based on gelatin containing herbal substances (essential oil), a substance from the plant Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng (Crofton weed) that used as traditional wound healers. Gelatin hydrogel was prepared from a 10 wt-% gelatin solution. The oil in water (o/w) emulsion Eupatorium adenophorum of essential oil were prepared and used Pluronic F68 as a surfactant. The 10, 20, and 30 % v/v emulsion were mixed with gelatin solution and cast into film. These hydrogels were tested for their gel fraction, swelling and weight loss behavior. With an increase in the emulsion concentration the emulsion-loaded in hydrogels, the gel fraction were decreased due to the crosslink density, while the swelling and weight loss behavior were increased with an increasing in the emulsion content. The potential to use the emulsion-containing gelatin hydrogels as wound dressing was assessed on investigation the release characteristics of the as-loaded hydrogels. The E. adenophorum essential oil was first identified the chemical composition by using GC-MS analysis. The principal components of the oil were p-cymene (16.23%), bornyl acetate (11.84%), and amorpha-4, 7(11)-diene (10.51%). The hydrogel wound dressing containing essential oil was then characterized for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative in order to elucidate their potential for use as antibacterial wound dressings by using agar disk diffusion methods. The result showed that E. adenophorum essential oil and the emulsion-loaded gelatin hydrogel inhibited the growth of the test pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and increased with increasing the initial amount of essential oil in the hydrogels which confirmed their application as antibacterial wound dressings. Furthermore, the potential use of these wound dressings was further assessed in terms of the indirect cytotoxicity, in vitro attachment and proliferation of dermal human fibroblasts cultured in the hydrogel wound dressings.

Keywords: Hydrogel, Gelatin, antibacterial wound dressing, Eupatorium adenophorum essential oil

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10 Quality Rabbit Skin Gelatin with Acetic Acid Extract

Authors: Wehandaka Pancapalaga

Abstract:

This study aimed to analyze the water content, yield, fat content, protein content, viscosity, gel strength, pH, melting and organoleptic rabbit skin gelatin with acetic acid extraction levels are different. The materials used in this study were Rex rabbit skin male. Treatments that P1 = the extraction of acetic acid 2% (v / v); P2 = the extraction of acetic acid 3% (v / v); P3 = the extraction of acetic acid 4 % (v / v). P5 = the extraction of acetic acid 5% (v / v). The results showed that the greater the concentration of acetic acid as the extraction of rabbit skin can reduce the water content and fat content of rabbit skin gelatin but increase the protein content, viscosity, pH, gel strength, yield and melting point rabbit skin gelatin. texture, color and smell of gelatin rabbits there were no differences with cow skin gelatin. The results showed that the quality of rabbit skin gelatin accordance Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Conclusion 5% acetic acid extraction produces the best quality gelatin.

Keywords: Quality, Gelatin, skin rabbit, acetic acid extraction

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9 Study of Dispersion of Silica and Chitosan Nanoparticles into Gelatin Film

Authors: Mohit Batra, Noel Sarkar, Jayeeta Mitra

Abstract:

In this study silica nanoparticles were synthesized using different methods and different silica sources namely Tetraethyl ortho silicate (TEOS), Sodium Silicate, Rice husk while chitosan nanoparticles were prepared with ionic gelation method using Sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Size and texture of silica nanoparticles were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) along with the effect of change in concentration of various reagents in different synthesis processes. Size and dispersion of Silica nanoparticles prepared from TEOS using stobber’s method were found better than other methods while nanoparticles prepared using rice husk were cheaper than other ones. Catalyst found to play a very significant role in controlling the size of nanoparticles in all methods.

Keywords: Bio-Nanocomposites, Gelatin, SEM, chitosan, TEM, silica nanoparticles

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8 Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Hyaluronic Acid-Polycaprolactone Membrane Containing 0.5 % Atorvastatin Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as a Nanocomposite Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering

Authors: Mahsa Ahmadi, Mehdi Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Jaleh Varshosaz, Shadi Farsaei

Abstract:

Gelatin and hyaluronic acid are commonly used in skin tissue engineering scaffolds, but because of their low mechanical properties and high biodegradation rate, adding a synthetic polymer such as polycaprolactone could improve the scaffold properties. Therefore, we developed a gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone scaffold, containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for skin tissue engineering. The atorvastatin loaded NLCs solution was prepared by solvent evaporation method and freeze drying process. Synthesized atorvastatin loaded NLCs was added to the gelatin and hyaluronic acid solution, and a membrane was fabricated with solvent evaporation method. Thereafter it was coated by a thin layer of polycaprolactone via spine coating set. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Moreover, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation in 7 days period, and in vitro drug release of scaffolds were also evaluated. SEM images showed the uniform distributed NLCs with an average size of 100 nm in the scaffold structure. Mechanical test indicated that the scaffold had a 70.08 Mpa tensile modulus which was twofold of tensile modulus of normal human skin. A Franz-cell diffusion test was performed to investigate the scaffold drug release in phosphate buffered saline (pH=7.4) medium. Results showed that 72% of atorvastatin was released during 5 days. In vitro degradation test demonstrated that the membrane was degradated approximately 97%. In conclusion, suitable physicochemical and biological properties of membrane indicated that the developed gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone nanocomposite scaffold containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded NLCs could be used as a good candidate for skin tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Gelatin, hyaluronic acid, polycaprolactone, atorvastatin, nano lipid carriers (NLCs), skin tissue engineering, solvent casting, solvent evaporation

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7 Synthesis of Ni/Mesopore Silica-Alumina Catalyst for Hydrocracking of Pyrolyzed α-Cellulose

Authors: Wega Trisunaryanti, Hesty Kusumastuti, Iip Izul Falah, Muhammad Fajar Marsuki, Rahmad Nuryanto

Abstract:

Synthesis of Ni supported on mesopore silica-alumina (MSA) for hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose had been carried out. The silica and alumina were extracted from Sidoarjo mud. Gelatin from catfish bone was used as a template for the mesopore design. The MSA was synthesized by using hydrothermal method at 100 °C for 24 h and calcined at 550 °C for 4 h then characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD) and Nitrogen Gas Sorption Analyzer (GAS). The Ni metal was loaded to the MSA by wet impregnation method. The catalytic activity in the hydrocracking reaction of pyrolyzed α-cellulose was carried out at 450 °C for 2 h. The MSA synthesized in this work is an amorphous material with specific surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter of 212.29 m²/g, 1.29 cm³/g, and 20.05 nm, respectively. The Ni/MSA catalyst produced 73.02 wt.% of liquid product in hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose.

Keywords: Catalyst, Gelatin, hydrocracking, mesopore silica-alumina, α-cellulose

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6 The Use of Gelatin in Biomedical Engineering: Halal Perspective

Authors: Norhidayu Muhamad Zain, Syazwani Ramli

Abstract:

Nowadays, the use of gelatin as biomaterials in tissue engineering are evolving especially in skin graft and wound dressing applications. Towards year 2018, Malaysia is in the way of planning to get the halal certification for biomedical device in order to cater the needs of Muslims and non-Muslims in Malaysia. However, the use of gelatins in tissue engineering are mostly derived from non-halal sources. Currently, gelatin production mostly comes from mammalian gelatin sources. Moreover, within these past years, just a few studies of the uses of gelatin in tissue engineering from halal perspective has been studied. Thus, this paper aims to give overview of the use of gelatin from different sources from halal perspectives. This review also discussing the current status of halal for the emerging biomedical devices. In addition, the different sources of gelatin used in tissue engineering are being identified and provides better alternatives for halal gelatin. Cold- water fish skin gelatin could be an effective alternative to substitute the mammalian sources. Therefore, this review is important because the information about the halal biomedical devices will delighted Muslim consumers and give better insight of halal gelatin in tissue engineering application.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, Gelatin, Biomedical device, halal, skin graft

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5 Viscoelastic Characterization of Gelatin/Cellulose Nanocrystals Aqueous Bionanocomposites

Authors: Liliane Samara Ferreira Leite, Francys Kley Vieira Moreira, Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso

Abstract:

The increasing environmental concern regarding the plastic pollution worldwide has stimulated the development of low-cost biodegradable materials. Proteins are renewable feedstocks that could be used to produce biodegradable plastics. Gelatin, for example, is a cheap film-forming protein extracted from animal skin and connective tissues of Brazilian Livestock residues; thus it has a good potential in low-cost biodegradable plastic production. However, gelatin plastics are limited in terms of mechanical and barrier properties. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are efficient nanofillers that have been used to extend physical properties of polymers. This work was aimed at evaluating the reinforcing efficiency of CNC on gelatin films. Specifically, we have employed the continuous casting as the processing method for obtaining the gelatin/CNC bionanocomposites. This required a first rheological study for assessing the effect of gelatin-CNC and CNC-CNC interactions on the colloidal state of the aqueous bionanocomposite formulations. CNC were isolated from eucalyptus pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis (65 wt%) at 55 °C for 30 min. Gelatin was solubilized in ultra-pure water at 85°C for 20 min and then mixed with glycerol at 20 wt.% and CNC at 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 2.5 wt%. Rotational measurements were performed to determine linear viscosity (η) of bionanocomposite solutions, which increased with increasing CNC content. At 2.5 wt% CNC, η increased by 118% regarding the neat gelatin solution, which was ascribed to percolation CNC network formation. Storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G″) further determined by oscillatory tests revealed that a gel-like behavior was dominant in the bionanocomposite solutions (G’ > G’’) over a broad range of temperature (20 – 85 °C), particularly at 2.5 wt% CNC. These results confirm effective interactions in the aqueous gelatin-CNC bionanocomposites that could substantially increase the physical properties of the gelatin plastics. Tensile tests are underway to confirm this hypothesis. The authors would like to thank the Fapesp (process n 2016/03080-3) for support.

Keywords: bionanocomposites, Gelatin, cellulose nanocrystals, viscoelastic characterization

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4 Impact of Autoclave Sterilization of Gelatin on Endotoxin Level and Physical Properties Compared to Surfactant Purified Gelatins

Authors: Jos Olijve

Abstract:

Introduction and Purpose: Endotoxins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and have profound in vitro and in vivo responses. They can trigger strong immune responses and negatively affect various cellar activities particular cells expressing toll-like receptors. They are therefore unwanted contaminants of biomaterials sourced from natural raw materials, and their activity must be as low as possible. Collagen and gelatin are natural extracellular matrix components and have, due to their low allergenic potential, suitable biological properties, and tunable physical characteristics, high potential in biomedical applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of autoclave sterilization of gelatin on physical properties and endotoxin level compared to surfactant purified gelatin. Methods: Type A gelatin from Sigma-Aldrich (G1890) with endotoxin level of 35000 endotoxin units (EU) per gram gelatin and type A gelatins from Rousselot Gent with endotoxin activity of 30000 EU per gram were used. A 10 w/w% G1890 gelatin solution was autoclave sterilized during 30 minutes at 121°C and 1 bar over pressure. The physical properties and the endotoxin level of the sterilized G1890 gelatin were compared to a type A gelatin from Rousselot purified with Triton X100 surfactant. The Triton X100 was added to a concentration of 0.5 w/w% which is above the critical micellar concentration. The gelatin surfactant mixtures were kept for 30-45 minutes under constant stirring at 55-60°C. The Triton X100 was removed by active carbon filtration. The endotoxin levels of the gelatins were measured using the Endozyme recombinant factor C method from Hyglos GmbH (Germany). Results and Discussion: Autoclave sterilization significantly affect the physical properties of gelatin. Molecular weight of G1890 decreased from 140 to 50kDa, and gel strength decreased from 300 to 40g. The endotoxin level of the gelatin reduced after sterilization from 35000 EU/g to levels of 400-500 EU/g. These endotoxin levels are however still far above the upper endotoxin level of 0.05 EU/ml, which resembles 5 EU/g gelatin based on a 1% gelatin solution, to avoid cell proliferation alteration. Molecular weight and gel strength of Rousselot gelatin was not altered after Triton X100 purification and remained 150kDa and 300g respectively. The endotoxin levels of Triton X100 purified Rousselot gelatin was < 5EU/g gelatin. Conclusion: Autoclave sterilization of gelatin is, in comparison to Triton X100 purification, not efficient to inactivate endotoxin levels in gelatin to levels below the upper limit to avoid cell proliferation alteration. Autoclave sterilization gave a significant decrease in molecular weight and gel strength which makes autoclave sterilized gelatin, in comparison to Triton X100 purified gelatin, not suitable for 3D printing.

Keywords: Endotoxin, Gelatin, sterilization, molecular weight, Triton X100

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3 Biopolymer Nanoparticles Loaded with Calcium as a Source of Fertilizer

Authors: Erwin San Juan Martinez, Miguel Angel Aguilar Mendez, Manuel Sandoval Villa, Libia Iris Trejo Tellez

Abstract:

Some nanomaterials may improve the vegetal growth in certain concentration intervals, and could be used as nanofertilizers in order to increase crops yield, and decreasing the environmental pollution due to non-controlled use of conventional fertilizers, therefore the present investigation’s objective was to synthetize and characterize gelatin nanoparticles loaded with calcium generated through pulverization technique and be used as nanofertilizers. To obtain these materials, a fractional factorial design 27-4 was used in order to evaluate the largest number of factors (concentration of Ca2+, temperature and agitation time of the solution and calcium concentration, drying temperature, and % spray) with a possible effect on the size, distribution and morphology of nanoparticles. For the formation of nanoparticles, a Nano Spray-Dryer B - 90® (Buchi, Flawil, Switzerland), equipped with a spray cap of 4 µm was used. Size and morphology of the obtained nanoparticles were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (JOEL JSM-6390LV model; Tokyo, Japan) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray X (EDS) detector. The total quantification of Ca2+ as well as its release by the nanoparticles was carried out in an equipment of induction atomic emission spectroscopy coupled plasma (ICP-ES 725, Agilent, Mulgrave, Australia). Of the seven factors evaluated, only the concentration of fertilizer, % spray and concentration of polymer presented a statistically significant effect on particle size. Micrographs of SEM from six of the eight conditions evaluated in this research showed particles separated and with a good degree of sphericity, while in the other two particles had amorphous morphology and aggregation. In all treatments, most of the particles showed smooth surfaces. The average size of smallest particle obtained was 492 nm, while EDS results showed an even distribution of Ca2+ in the polymer matrix. The largest concentration of Ca2+ in ICP was 10.5%, which agrees with the theoretical value calculated, while the release kinetics showed an upward trend within 24 h. Using the technique employed in this research, it was possible to obtain nanoparticles loaded with calcium, of good size, sphericity and with release controlled properties. The characteristics of nanoparticles resulted from manipulation of the conditions of synthesis which allow control of the size and shape of the particles, and provides the means to adapt the properties of the materials to an specific application.

Keywords: controlled release, Calcium, Gelatin, nano spraydryer, nanofertilizer

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2 Electrospinning and Characterization of Silk Fibroin/Gelatin Nanofibre Mats

Authors: S. Mohammadzadehmoghadam, Y. Dong

Abstract:

In this study, Bombyx mori silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/GT) nanocomposite with different GT ratio (SF/GT 100/0, 90/10 and 70/30) were prepared by electrospinning process and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor. Properties of crosslinked SF/GT nanocomposites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical test, water uptake capacity (WUC) and porosity. From SEM images, it was found that fiber diameter increased as GT content increased. The results of mechanical test indicated that the SF/GT 70/30 nanocomposites had both the highest Young’s modulus of 342 MPa and the highest tensile strength of about 14 MPa. However, porosity and WUC decreased from 62% and 405% for pristine SF to 47% and 232% for SF/GT 70/30, respectively. This behavior can be related to higher degree of crosslinking as GT ratio increased which altered the structure and physical properties of scaffolds. This study showed that incorporation of GT into SF nanofibers can enhance mechanical properties of resultant nanocomposite, but the GA treatment should be optimized to control and fine-tune other properties to warrant their biomedical application.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Electrospinning, Mechanical Properties, Gelatin, Silk Fibroin

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1 Effects of Certain Natural Food Additives (Pectin, Gelatin and Whey Proteins) on the Qualities of Fermented Milk

Authors: Abderrahim Cheriguene, Fatiha Arioui

Abstract:

The experimental study focuses on the extraction of pectin, whey protein and gelatin, and the study of their functional properties. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory approach integrated has been implanted to study the effect of the incorporation of these natural food additives in the matrix of a fermented milk type set yogurt, to study the stability of the product during the periods of fermentation and post-acidification over a period of 21 days at 4°C. Pectin was extracted in hot HCl solution. Thermo-precipitation was carried out to obtain the whey proteins while the gelatin was extracted by hydrolysis of the collagen from bovine ossein. The fermented milk was prepared by varying the concentration of the incorporated additives. The measures and controls carried performed periodically on fermented milk experimental tests were carried out: pH, acidity, viscosity, the enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, taste, aftertaste, whey exudation, and odor. It appears that the acidity, viscosity, and number of Streptococcus thermophilus increased with increasing concentration of additive added in the experimental tests. Indeed, it seems clear that the quality of fermented milk and storability is more improved than the incorporation rate is high. The products showed a better test and a firmer texture limiting the whey exudation.

Keywords: Conservation, Quality, Valorization, Whey Proteins, Gelatin, functional properties, pectin, fermented milk

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