Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

GC-MS Related Abstracts

29 GC and GCxGC-MS Composition of Volatile Compounds from Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi by Using Techniques Assisted by Microwaves

Authors: F. Benkaci-Ali, R. Mekaoui, G. Eppe, G. Scholl

Abstract:

The new methods as accelerated steam distillation assisted by microwave (ASDAM) is a combination of microwave heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure at very short extraction time. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. (ASDAM) has been compared with (ASDAM) with cryogrinding of seeds (CG) and a conventional technique, hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM), hydro-distillation (HD) for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herb as caraway and cumin seeds. The essential oils extracted by (ASDAM) for 1 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar to those obtained by ASDAM-CG (1 min) and HD (for 3 h). The accelerated microwave extraction with cryogrinding inhibits numerous enzymatic reactions as hydrolysis of oils. Microwave radiations constitute the adequate mean for the extraction operations from the yields and high content in major component majority point view, and allow to minimise considerably the energy consumption, but especially heating time too, which is one of essential parameters of artifacts formation. The ASDAM and ASDAM-CG are green techniques and yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds comparable to the biosynthesis compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material.

Keywords: Microwave, steam distillation, caraway, cumin, cryogrinding, GC-MS, GCxGC-MS

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28 Isolement and Identification of Major Constituents from Essential Oil of Launaea nudicaulis

Authors: M. Yakoubi, N. Belboukhari, A. Cheriti, K. Sekoum

Abstract:

Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook.f. is a desert, spontaneous plant and endemic to northem Sahara, which belongs to the Asteraceae family. This species exists in the region of Bechar (Local name; El-Rghamma). In our knowledge, no work has been founded, except studies showing the antimicrobial and antifungal activity of methalonic extract of this plant. The present paper describes the chemical composition of the essential oil from Launaea nudicaulis and qualification of isolation and identification of some pure products by column chromatography. The essential oil from the aerial parts of Launaea nudicaulis (Asteraceae) was obtained by hydroditillation in 0.4% yield, led to isolation of four several new products. The isolation is made by column chromatography and followed by GC-IK and GC-MS analysis.

Keywords: Essential Oil, asteraceae, column chromatography, GC-MS, Launaea nudicaulis, GC-FID

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27 GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oil from the Leaves and Fruits of Artemesia Campestris from Algeria

Authors: B. Bakchiche, H. Guenane, M. Bireche, A. Noureddinne, A. Gherib

Abstract:

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Artemisia campestris L (family Asteraceae) collected in Djebel Amour (Sahara Atlas, Algeria). Aerial parts were also evaluated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analyses for leaves and fruits of A. campestris resulted in the identification of thirty-one compounds, representing 91.8 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.33% (v/dry weight). The main components were β-pinene and sabinene (25.6% and 17% respectively) followed by α-pinene (9.9%), limonene (6.6 %) and p-cymene (4.1%).

Keywords: Essential Oil, Algeria, GC-MS, Artemesia campestris

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26 Development of Closed System for Bacterial CO2 Mitigation

Authors: Somesh Misha, Smita Raghuvanshi, Suresh Gupta

Abstract:

Increasing concentration of green house gases (GHG's), such as CO2 is of major concern and start showing its impact nowadays. The recent studies are focused on developing the continuous system using photoautotrophs for CO2 mitigation and simultaneous production of primary and secondary metabolites as a value addition. The advent of carbon concentrating mechanism had blurred the distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs and now the paradigm has shifted towards the carbon capture and utilization (CCU) rather than carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). In the present work, a bioreactor was developed utilizing the chemolithotrophic bacterial species using CO2 mitigation and simultaneous value addition. The kinetic modeling was done and the biokinetic parameters are obtained for developing the bioreactor. The bioreactor was developed and studied for its operation and performance in terms of volumetric loading rate, mass loading rate, elimination capacity and removal efficiency. The characterization of effluent from the bioreactor was carried out for the products obtained using the analyzing techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, and NMR. The developed bioreactor promised an economic, efficient and effective solution for CO2 mitigation and simultaneous value addition.

Keywords: NMR, FTIR, GC-MS, CO2 mitigation, bio-reactor, chemolithotrophic bacterial species

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25 Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium Isolated by Solvent Free Microwave Assisted Extraction and Hydrodistillation Extraction

Authors: Masume Rezaie, Mohammad H. Farjam

Abstract:

Chemical composition of Citrus aurantium was studied by solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) methods. Limonene (76.06% SFME and 67.04% HD), Linalool (4.91% SFME and 10.08% HD) and Linalyl Acetate (8.52% SFME and 5.10% HD) were the major compounds that obtained by SFME and hydrodistillation, respectively.

Keywords: essential oils, GC-MS, hydrodistillation, microwave-assisted, citrus aurantium

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24 Immuno-Modulatory Role of Weeds in Feeds of Cyprinus Carpio

Authors: Vipin Kumar Verma, Neeta Sehgal, Om Prakash

Abstract:

Cyprinus carpio has a wide spread occurrence in the lakes and rivers of Europe and Asia. Heavy losses in natural environment due to anthropogenic activities, including pollution as well as pathogenic diseases have landed this fish in IUCN red list of vulnerable species. The significance of a suitable diet in preserving the health status of fish is widely recognized. In present study, artificial feed supplemented with leaves of two weed plants, Eichhornia crassipes and Ricinus communis were evaluated for their role on the fish immune system. To achieve this objective fish were acclimatized to laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C; 12 L: 12D) for 10 days prior to start of experiment and divided into 4 groups: non-challenged (negative control= A), challenged [positive control (B) and experimental (C & D)]. Group A, B were fed with non-supplemented feed while group C & D were fed with feed supplemented with 5% Eichhornia crassipes and 5% Ricinus communis respectively. Supplemented feeds were evaluated for their effect on growth, health, immune system and disease resistance in fish when challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Fingerlings of C. carpio (weight, 2.0±0.5 g) were exposed with fresh overnight culture of V. harveyi through bath immunization (concentration 2 Χ 105) for 2 hours on 10 days interval for 40 days. The growth was monitored through increase in their relative weight. The rate of mortality due to bacterial infection as well as due to effect of feed was recorded accordingly. Immune response of fish was analyzed through differential leucocyte count, percentage phagocytosis and phagocytic index. The effect of V. harveyi on fish organs were examined through histo-pathological examination of internal organs like spleen, liver and kidney. The change in the immune response was also observed through gene expression analysis. The antioxidant potential of plant extracts was measured through DPPH and FRAP assay and amount of total phenols and flavonoids were calculates through biochemical analysis. The chemical composition of plant’s methanol extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which showed presence of various secondary metabolites and other compounds. Investigation revealed immuno-modulatory effect of plants, when supplemented with the artificial feed of fish.

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio, GC-MS, Ricinus communis, Eichhornia crassipes, immuno-modulation

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23 Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Yasir Anwar, Saleh A. Mohamed, Saleh Mohamed Saleh Al-Garni, Jamal S. M. Sabir, Osama A. H. Abu Zinadah, Mohamed Morsi Ahmed

Abstract:

In the vicinity of the red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54 %) and Penicillium commune (48 %) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has the capability of degradation and can be utilized for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.

Keywords: biodegradation, GC-MS, molecular identification, fungal strains, hydrocarbon contaminants

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22 Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Cymbopogon martini Essential Oil and Comparison of Its Composition with Traditionally Extracted Oils

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

Essential oil was extracted from lemon grass (Cymbopogon martini) with supercritical carbondioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure of 140 bar and temperature of 55 °C and CO2 flow rate of 8 gmin-1, and its composition and yield were compared with other conventional extraction methods of oil, HD (Hydrodistillation), SE (Solvent Extraction), UAE (Ultrasound Assisted Extraction). SC-CO2 extraction is a green and sustainable extraction technique. Each oil was analysed by GC-MS, the major constituents were neral (44%), Z-citral (43%), geranial (27%), caryophyllene (4.6%) and linalool (1%). The essential oil of lemon grass is valued for its neral and citral concentration. The oil obtained by supercritical carbon-dioxide extraction contained maximum concentration of neral (55.05%) whereas ultrasonication extracted oil contained minimum content (5.24%) and it was absent in solvent extracted oil. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods.

Keywords: Essential Oil, HPTLC, FT-IR, GC-MS, cymbopogon martini, SC-CO2

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21 Physico-Chemical, GC-MS Analysis and Cold Saponification of Onion (Allium cepa L) Seed Oil

Authors: A. A Warra, S. Fatima

Abstract:

The experimental investigation revealed that the hexane extract of onion seed oil has acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, relative density and refractive index of 0.03±0.01 mgKOH/g, 129.80±0.21 gI2/100g, 3.00± 0.00 meq H2O2 203.00±0.71 mgKOH/g, 0.82±0.01and 1.44±0.00 respectively. The percentage yield was 50.28±0.01%. The colour of the oil was light green. We restricted our GC-MS spectra interpretation to compounds identification, particularly fatty acids and they are identified as palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid, linolenic acid and eicosatetraenoic acid. The pH , foam ability (cm³), total fatty matter, total alkali and percentage chloride of the onion oil soap were 11.03± 0.02, 75.13±0.15 (cm³), 36.66 ± 0.02 %, 0.92 ± 0.02% and 0.53 ± 0.15 % respectively. The texture was soft and the colour was lighter green. The results indicated that the hexane extract of the onion seed oil has potential for cosmetic industries.

Keywords: physicochemical, GC-MS, soxhlet extraction, onion seeds, cold saponification

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20 Excavation of Phylogenetically Diverse Bioactive Actinobacteria from Unexplored Regions of Sundarbans Mangrove Ecosystem for Mining of Economically Important Antimicrobial Compounds

Authors: Sohan Sengupta, Arnab Pramanik, Abhrajyoti Ghosh, Maitree Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Newly emerged phyto-pathogens and multi drug resistance have been threating the world for last few decades. Actinomycetes, the most endowed group of microorganisms isolated from unexplored regions of the world may be the ultimate solution to these problems. Thus the aim of this study was to isolate several bioactive actinomycetes strains capable of producing antimicrobial secondary metabolite from Sundarbans, the only mangrove tiger land of the world. Fifty four actinomycetes were isolated and analyzed for antimicrobial activity against fifteen test organisms including three phytopathogens. Nine morphologically distinct and biologically active isolates were subjected to polyphasic identification study. 16s rDNA sequencing indicated eight isolates to reveal maximum similarity to the genus streptomyces, whereas one isolate presented only 93.57% similarity with Streptomyces albogriseolus NRRL B-1305T. Seventy-one carbon sources and twenty-three chemical sources utilization assay revealed their metabolic relatedness. Among these nine isolates three specific strains were found to have notably higher degree of antimicrobial potential effective in a broader range including phyto-pathogenic fungus. PCR base whole genome screen for PKS and NRPS genes, confirmed the occurrence of bio-synthetic gene cluster in some of the isolates for novel antibiotic production. Finally the strain SMS_SU21, which showed antimicrobial activity with MIC value of 0.05 mg ml-1and antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.242±0.33 mg ml-1 was detected to be the most potential one. True prospective of this strain was evaluated utilizing GC-MS and the bioactive compound responsible for antimicrobial activity was purified and characterized. Rare bioactive actinomycetes were isolated from unexplored heritage site. Diversity of the biosynthetic gene cluster for antimicrobial compound production has also been evaluated. Antimicrobial compound SU21-C has been identified and purified which is active against a broad range of pathogens.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Actinomycetes, GC-MS, sundarbans, pks nrps, phyto-pathogens

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19 Authenticity of Lipid and Soluble Sugar Profiles of Various Oat Cultivars (Avena sativa)

Authors: Marijana M. Ačanski, Kristian A. Pastor, Djura N. Vujić

Abstract:

The identification of lipid and soluble sugar components in flour samples of different cultivars belonging to common oat species (Avena sativa L.) was performed: spring oat, winter oat and hulless oat. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol). Soluble sugars were then extracted from defatted and dried samples of oat flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into corresponding TMS-oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide). The hexane and ethanol extracts of each oat cultivar were analyzed using GC-MS system. Lipid and simple sugar compositions are very similar in all samples of investigated cultivars. Chemometric tool was applied to numeric values of automatically integrated surface areas of detected lipid and simple sugar components in their corresponding derivatized forms. Hierarchical cluster analysis shows a very high similarity between the investigated flour samples of oat cultivars, according to the fatty acid content (0.9955). Moderate similarity was observed according to the content of soluble sugars (0.50). These preliminary results support the idea of establishing methods for oat flour authentication, and provide the means for distinguishing oat flour samples, regardless of the variety, from flour samples made of other cereal species, just by lipid and simple sugar profile analysis.

Keywords: Authentication, Chemometrics, GC-MS, oat cultivars, lipid composition, soluble sugar composition

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18 Characterization of Sunflower Oil for Illustration of Its Components

Authors: Mehwish Shahzadi

Abstract:

Sunflower is cultivated all over the world not only as an ornament plant but also for the purpose of getting oil. It is the third most cultivated plant in the history because its oil considered best for health. The present study deals with the preparation of sunflower oil from commercial seed sample which was obtained from local market. The physicochemical properties of the oil were determined which included saponification value, acid value and ester value. Results showed that saponification value of the oil was 191.675, acid value was 0.64 and ester value to be 191.035 for the sample under observation. GC-MS analysis of sunflower oil was carried out to check its composition. Oleic acid was determined with linoleic acid and isopropyl palmitate. It represents the presence of three major components of sunflower oil. Other compounds detected were, p-toluylic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4,6-trimethyl-, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl ester and 2,4-decadienal, (E,E).

Keywords: GC-MS, sunflower oil, oleic acid, saponification value

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17 Evaluation of Phthalates Contents and Their Health Effects in Consumed Sachet Water Brands in Delta State, Nigeria

Authors: Edjere Oghenekohwiroro, Asibor Irabor Godwin, Uwem Bassey

Abstract:

This paper determines the presence and levels of phthalates in sachet and borehole water source in some parts of Delta State, Nigeria. Sachet and borehole water samples were collected from seven different water packaging facilities and level of phthalates determined using GC-MS instrumentation. Phthalates concentration in borehole samples varied from 0.00-0.01 (DMP), 0.06-0.20 (DEP), 0.10-0.98 (DBP), 0.21-0.36 (BEHP), 0.01-0.03 (DnOP) µg/L and (BBP) was not detectable; while sachet water varied from 0.03-0.95 (DMP), 0.16-12.45 (DEP), 0.57-3.38 (DBP), 0.00-0.03 (BBP), 0.08-0.31 (BEHP) and 0-0.03 (DnOP) µg/L. Phthalates concentration in the sachet water was higher than that of the corresponding boreholes sources and also showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two. Sources of these phthalate esters were the interaction between water molecules and plastic storage facilities. Although concentration of all phthalate esters analyzed were lower than the threshold limit value(TLV), over time storage of water samples in this medium can lead to substantial increase with negative effects on individuals consuming them.

Keywords: Gas Chromatography, GC-MS, phthalate esters, borehole, sachet water, sample extraction

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16 Microbial Reduction of Terpenes from Pine Wood Material

Authors: Bernhard Widhalm, Cornelia Rieder-Gradinger, Thomas Ters, Ewald Srebotnik, Thomas Kuncinger

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Terpenes are natural components in softwoods and rank among the most frequently emitted volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wood-processing industry. In this study, the main focus was on α- and β-pinene as well as Δ3-carene, which are the major terpenes in softwoods. To lower the total emission level of wood composites, defined terpene degrading microorganisms were applied to basic raw materials (e.g. pine wood particles and strands) in an optimised and industry-compatible testing procedure. In preliminary laboratory tests, bacterial species suitable for the utilisation of α-pinene as single carbon source in liquid culture were selected and then subjected to wood material inoculation. The two species Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens were inoculated onto wood particles and strands and incubated at room temperature. Applying specific pre-cultivation and daily ventilation of the samples enabled a reduction of incubation time from six days to one day. SPME measurements and subsequent GC-MS analysis indicated a complete absence of α- and β-pinene emissions after 24 hours from pine wood particles. When using pine wood strands rather than particles, bacterial treatment resulted in a reduction of α- and β-pinene by 50%, while Δ3-carene emissions were reduced by 30% in comparison to untreated strands. Other terpenes were also reduced in the course of the microbial treatment. The method developed here appears to be feasible for industrial application. However, growth parameters such as time and temperature as well as the technical implementation of the inoculation step will have to be adapted for the production process.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, terpenes, GC-MS, SPME

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15 Reduction of Terpene Emissions from Oriented Strand Boards (OSB) by Bacterial Pre-Treatment

Authors: Bernhard Widhalm, Cornelia Rieder-Gradinger, Ewald Srebotnik

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Pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the basic raw material for the production of Oriented Strand Boards (OSB) and the major source of volatile organic compounds, especially terpenes (like α- and β-pinene). To lower the total emission level of OSB, terpene metabolising microorganisms were therefore applied onto pine wood strands for the production of emission-reduced boards. Suitable microorganisms were identified during preliminary tests under laboratory conditions. At first, their terpene degrading potential was investigated in liquid culture, followed by laboratory tests using unsterile pine wood particles and strands. The main focus was laid on an adoptable terpene reduction in a short incubation time. An optimised bacterial mixture of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens showed the best results and was therefore used for further experiments on a larger scale. In an industry-compatible testing procedure, pine wood strands were incubated with the bacterial mixture for a period of 2 to 4 days. Incubation time was stopped by drying the strands. OSB were then manufactured from the pre-treated strands and emissions were measured by means of SPME/GC-MS analysis. Bacterial pre-treatment of strands resulted in a reduction of α-pinene- and β-pinene-emissions from OSB by 40% and 70%, respectively, even after only 2 days of incubation. The results of the investigation provide a basis for the application of microbial treatment within the industrial OSB production line, where shortest possible incubation times are required. For this purpose, the performance of the bacterial mixture will have to be further optimised.

Keywords: GC-MS, OSB, Pseudomonas sp, terpene degradation

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14 Gut Metabolite Profiling of the Ethnic Groups from Assam, India

Authors: Madhusmita Dehingia, Supriyo Sen, Bhuwan Bhaskar, Tulsi Joishy, Mojibur R. Khan

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Human gut microbes and their metabolites are important for maintaining homeostasis in the gut and are responsible for many metabolic and immune mediated diseases. In the present study, we determined the profiles of the gut metabolites of five different ethnic groups (Bodo, Tai-Phake, Karbi, Tea tribe and Tai-Aiton) of Assam. Fecal metabolite profiling of the 39 individuals belonging to the ethnic groups was carried out using Gas chromatography – Mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and comparison was performed among the tribes for common and unique metabolites produced within their gut. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of the metabolites suggested that the individuals grouped according to their ethnicity. Among the 66 abundant metabolites, 12 metabolites were found to be common among the five ethnic groups. Additionally, ethnicity wise some unique metabolites were also detected. For example, the tea tribe of Assam contained the tea components, Aniline and Benzoate more in their gut in comparison to others. Metabolites of microbial origin were also correlated with the already published metagenomic data of the same ethnic group and functional analysis were carried out based on human metabolome database.

Keywords: Ethnicity, Gut Microbiota, Metabolites, GC-MS

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13 Identification of Lipo-Alkaloids and Fatty Acids in Aconitum carmichaelii Using Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Na Li, Ying Liang

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Lipo-alkaloid is a kind of C19-norditerpenoid alkaloids existed in Aconitum species, which usually contains an aconitane skeleton and one or two fatty acid residues. The structures are very similar to that of diester-type alkaloids, which are considered as the main bioactive components in Aconitum carmichaelii. They have anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-proliferative activities. So far, more than 200 lipo-alkaloids were reported from plants, semisynthesis, and biotransformations. In our research, by the combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and an in-house database, 148 lipo-alkaloids were identified from A. carmichaelii, including 93 potential new compounds and 38 compounds with oxygenated fatty acid moieties. To our knowledge, this is the first time of the reporting of the oxygenated fatty acids as the side chains in naturally-occurring lipo-alkaloids. Considering the fatty acid residues in lipo-alkaloids should come from the free acids in the plant, the fatty acids and their relationship with lipo-alkaloids were further investigated by GC-MS and LC-MS. Among 17 fatty acids identified by GC-MS, 12 were detected as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids, which accounted for about 1/3 of total lipo-alkaloids, while these fatty acid residues were less than 1/4 of total fatty acid residues. And, total of 37 fatty acids were determined by UHPCL-Q-TOF-MS, including 18 oxidized fatty acids firstly identified from A. carmichaelii. These fatty acids were observed as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids. In addition, although over 140 lipo-alkaloids were identified, six lipo-alkaloids, 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (1), 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylaconine (2), 8-O-palmitoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (3), 8-O-oleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (4), 8-O-pal-benzoylaconine (5), and 8-O-ole-Benzoylaconine (6), were found to be the main components, which accounted for over 90% content of total lipo-alkaloids. Therefore, using these six components as standards, a UHPLC-Triple Quadrupole-MS (UHPLC-QQQ-MS) approach was established to investigate the influence of processing on the contents of lipo-alkaloids. Although it was commonly supposed that the contents of lipo-alkaloids increased after processing, our research showed that no significant change was observed before and after processing. Using the same methods, the lipo-alkaloids in the lateral roots of A. carmichaelii and the roots of A. kusnezoffii were determined and quantified. The contents of lipo-alkaloids in A. kusnezoffii were close to that of the parent roots of A. carmichaelii, while the lateral roots had less lipo-alkaloids than the parent roots. This work was supported by Macao Science and Technology Development Fund (086/2013/A3 and 003/2016/A1).

Keywords: Fatty Acids, GC-MS, LC-MS, Aconitum carmichaelii, lipo-alkaloids

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12 Profiling, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Acacia decurrens (Willd) an Invasive South Africa Tree

Authors: Joe Modise, Bamidel Joseph Okoli, Nas Molefe, Imelda Ledwaba

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The present study describes the chemical profile and antioxidant potential of the stem bark of Acacia decurrens. The methanol fraction of A. decurrens stem bark gave the highest yield (20 %), while the hexane fraction had the lowest yield (0.2 %). The GC-MS spectra of the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions confirm the presence of fifty two major compounds and the ICP-OES analysis of the stem bark was found to contain Co(0.41), Zn(1.75), Mn(3.69), Ca(8.67), Ni(10.54), Mg(12.98), Cr(24.38), K(47.88), Fe(154.62) ppm; which is an indication of hyper-accumulation capacity. The UV-Visible spectra of showed four absorption maxima for hexane fraction at 665 (0.028), 410 (0.116), 335 (0.278) and 250 (0.007) nm, three for chloroform fraction at 665 (0.028), 335 (0.278) and 250 (0.007) nm , three for ethyl acetate fraction at 665 (0.070), 390 (0.648) and 345 (0.663) nm and three for methanol fraction at 385 (0.508), 310 (0.886) and 295 (0.899) nm respectively. Quantitative phytochemical screening indicated that the alkaloid (0.6-3.3) % and saponins (5.1-8.6) % contents of the various fractions were significantly lower than the tannin (30.9-55.8) mg TAE/g, steroid(13.92-41.2) %, phenol (40.6-65.5) mgGAE/g and flavonoids (210.2 -284.9) mg RUE/g contents. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was analysed by different methods and revealed good to moderate antioxidant potential with different IC50 values viz. (42.2-49.6) mg/mL for ABTS and (37.8-75.0) μg/ml for DPPH respectively, compared to standard antioxidants. Based on obtained results, the A.decurrens stem bark fractions can be a source of safe, sustainable natural antioxidant drug and can be exploited as a source of controlled green-heavy metal cleaner.

Keywords: DPPH, antioxidant, ICP-OES, GC-MS, ABTS, Acacia decurrens, hyperaccumulation, Menstruum, UV/visible

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11 Chemical Composition of Volatiles Emitted from Ziziphus jujuba Miller Collected during Different Growth Stages

Authors: Rose Vanessa Bandeira Reidel, Bernardo Melai, Pier Luigi Cioni, Luisa Pistelli

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Ziziphus jujuba Miller is a common species of the Ziziphus genus (Rhamnaceae family) native to the tropics and subtropics known for its edible fruits, fresh consumed or used in healthy food, as flavoring and sweetener. Many phytochemicals and biological activities are described for this species. In this work, the aroma profiles emitted in vivo by whole fresh organs (leaf, bud flower, flower, green and red fruits) were analyzed separately by mean of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The emitted volatiles from different plant parts were analysed using Supelco SPME device coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100µm). Fresh plant material was introduced separately into a glass conical flask and allowed to equilibrate for 20 min. After the equilibration time, the fibre was exposed to the headspace for 15 min at room temperature, the fibre was re-inserted into the needle and transferred to the injector of the CG and CG-MS system, where the fibre was desorbed. All the data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis, evidencing many differences amongst the selected plant parts and their developmental stages. A total of 144 compounds were identified corresponding to 94.6-99.4% of the whole aroma profile of jujube samples. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the main chemical class of compounds in leaves also present in similar percentage in flowers and bud flowers where (E, E)-α-farnesene was the main constituent in all cited plant parts. This behavior can be due to a protection mechanism against pathogens and herbivores as well as resistance to abiotic factors. The aroma of green fruits was characterized by high amount of perillene while the red fruits release a volatile blend mainly constituted by different monoterpenes. The terpenoid emission of flesh fruits has important function in the interaction with animals including attraction of seed dispersers and it is related to a good quality of fruits. This study provides for the first time the chemical composition of the volatile emission from different Ziziphus jujuba organs. The SPME analyses of the collected samples showed different patterns of emission and can contribute to understand their ecological interactions and fruit production management.

Keywords: GC-MS, HS-SPME, Rhamnaceae, aroma profile, jujube organs

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10 Lipidomic Profiling of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus abundans towards Deciphering Phospholipids and Glycolipids under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: R. P. Singh, J. Singh, Swati Dubey

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Microalgal strains can accumulate greatly enhanced levels of lipids under nitrogen-deficient condition, making these as one of the most promising sustainable sources for biofuel production. High-grade biofuel production from microalgal biomass could be facilitated by analysing the lipid content of the microalgae and enumerating its dynamics under varying nutrient conditions. In the present study, a detailed investigation of changes in lipid composition in Chlorella species and Scenedesmus abundans in response to nitrogen limited condition was performed to provide novel mechanistic insights into the lipidome during stress conditions. The mass spectroscopic approaches mainly LC-MS and GC-MS were employed for lipidomic profiling in both the microalgal strains. The analyses of lipid profiling using LC-MS revealed distinct forms of lipids mainly phospho- and glycolipids, including betaine lipids, and various other forms of lipids in both the microalgal strains. As detected, an overall decrease in polar lipids was observed. However, GC-MS analyses had revealed that the synthesis of the storage lipid i.e. triacylglycerol (TAG) was substantially stimulated in both the strains under nitrogen limited conditions. The changes observed in the overall fatty acid profile were primarily due to the decrease in proportion of polar lipids to TAGs. This study had enabled in analysing a detailed and orchestrated form of lipidomes in two different microalgal strains having potential for biodiesel production.

Keywords: biofuel, Microalgae, lipid, GC-MS, LC-MS

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9 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama

Abstract:

Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: HPLC, Amino Acid, GC-MS, fatty acid, Moonfish (M. maculata)

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8 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Different Pinus Species from Kosovo

Authors: Fatbardhë Kurti, Giangiacomo Beretta, Behxhet Mustafa, Fabrizio Gelmini, Avni Hajdari

Abstract:

Chemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of total and fractionated essential oils (EOs) (F1 – hexane, F2 – hexane/diethyl ether, F3 – diethyl ether) derived from five Pinus species (Pinus heldreichii, P. peuce, P. mugo, Pinus nigra, P. sylvestris), were investigated. The hydrodistilled EOs and their chromatographic fractions (direct solid phase extraction, SPE) were analysed by GC-MS and 112 compounds separated and identified. The main constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bornyl acetate and 3-carene. The antioxidant activities of total EOs were lower than those of the corresponding fractions, with F2 the strongest in all cases. EOs and fractions showed different degrees of antibacterial efficacy against different microbial pathogens (moderately strong antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and C. krusei ,while low or no activity against E. faecalis and E. coli strains). The detected inhibition zones and MICs for the EOs and fractions were in the range of 14 -35 mm and 0.125 - 1% (v/v), respectively. The components responsible for the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes recovered in the polar EO fractions. These activities seem to be regulated by reciprocal interactions among the different subclasses of phytochemical species present in the EOs.

Keywords: Antagonism, Essential Oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, GC-MS, fractions, pinus

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7 Quality Evaluation of Grape Seed Oils of the Ionian Islands Based on GC-MS and Other Spectroscopic Techniques

Authors: I. Oikonomou, I. Lappa, D. Daferera, C. Kanakis, L. Kiokakis, K. Skordilis, A. Avramouli, E. Kalli, C. Pappas, P. A. Tarantilis, E. Skotti

Abstract:

Grape seeds are waste products of wineries and often referred to as an important agricultural and industrial waste product with the potential to be used in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. In this study, grape seed oil from traditional Ionian varieties was examined for the determination of the quality and the characteristics of each variety. Initially, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, after transesterification. Furthermore, other quality parameters of the grape seed oils were determined by Spectroscopy techniques, UV-Vis and Raman included. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and their antioxidant capacity expressed in Trolox equivalents. K and ΔΚ indices were measured in 232, 268, 270 nm, as an oil quality index. The results indicate that the air-dried grape seed total oil content ranged from 5.26 to 8.77% w/w, which is in accordance with the other grape seed varieties tested in similar studies. The composition of grape seed oil is predominated with linoleic and oleic fatty acids, with the linoleic fatty acid ranging from 53.68 to 69.95% and both the linoleic and oleic fatty acids totaling 78-82% of FAMEs, which is analogous to the fatty acid composition of safflower oil. The antioxidant assays ABTS and DPPH scored high, exhibiting that the oils have potential in the cosmetic and culinary businesses. Above that, our results demonstrate that Ionian grape seed oils have prospects that can go further than cosmetic or culinary use, into the pharmaceuticals industry. Finally, the reclamation of grape seeds from wineries waste stream is in accordance with the bio-economy strategic framework and contributes to environmental protection.

Keywords: Antioxidant Capacity, GC-MS, fatty acid methyl esters, grape seed oil

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6 Secondary Metabolite Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem

Authors: Richa Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem is a monotypic genus belonging to family Bignoniaceae. The plant holds tremendous potential of medicinal value and has been traditionally used in various ailments like syphilis, leukoderma, blood disorders to name a few. The plant has gained prominence due to the presence of some prominent secondary metabolites. The present study focuses on the GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of T. undulata which revealed the presence of certain bioactive compounds like stigmasterol, sitosterol, thiazoline, phytol, pthalic acid, methyl alpha ketopalmitate and so forth. A total of about 20 bioactive compounds were identified from the leaf extract spectra. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract was assayed against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The alkaloids from leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. The flavonoids from leaves showed positive activity against Penicillium species and Candida albicans. The study thus infers that the presence of bioactive components may be the principle behind the antimicrobial property of different plant parts and therefore Tecomella forms a potential plant for herbal drug formulation.

Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, Antimicrobial activity, GC-MS, Tecomella undulata

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5 Biodiesel Production from Fruit Pulp of Cassia fistula L. Using Green Microalga Chlorella minutissima

Authors: Rajesh Chandra, Uttam K. Ghosh

Abstract:

This study demonstrates microalgal bio-diesel generation from a cheap, abundant, non-edible fruit pulp of Cassia fistula L. The Cassia fistula L. fruit pulp aqueous extract (CFAE) was utilized as a growth medium for cultivation of microalga Chlorella minutissima (C. minutissima). This microalga accumulated a high amount of lipids when cultivated with CFAE as a source of nutrition in comparison to BG-11 medium. Different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of CFAE diluted with distilled water were used to cultivate microalga. Effects of light intensity and photoperiod were also observed on biomass and lipid yield of microalga. Light intensity of 8000 lux with a photoperiod of 18 h resulted in maximum biomass and lipid yield of 1.28 ± 0.03 and 0.3968 ± 0.05 g/L, respectively when cultivated with 40% CFAE. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile of bio-diesel obtained shown the presence of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), and gondoic acid (C20:1), as major fatty acids. These facts reflect that the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula L. can be used for cultivation of C. minutissima.

Keywords: biomass, lipid, GC-MS, bio-diesel, Cassia fistula L, C. minutissima

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4 Profiling the Volatile Metabolome in Pear Leaves with Different Resistance to the Pear Psylla Cacopsylla bidens (Sulc) and Characterization of Phenolic Acid Decarboxylase

Authors: Mwafaq Ibdah, Mossab, Yahyaa, Dor Rachmany, Yoram Gerchman, Doron Holland, Liora Shaltiel-Harpaz

Abstract:

Pear Psylla is the most important pest of pear in all pear-growing regions, in Asian, European, and the USA. Pear psylla damages pears in several ways: high-density populations of these insects can cause premature leaf and fruit drop, diminish plant growth, and reduce fruit size. In addition, their honeydew promotes sooty mold on leaves and russeting on fruit. Pear psyllas are also considered vectors of pear pathogens such as Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri causing pear decline that can lead to loss of crop and tree vigor, and sometimes loss of trees. Psylla control is a major obstacle to efficient integrated pest management. Recently we have identified two naturally resistance pear accessions (Py.760-261 and Py.701-202) in the Newe Ya’ar live collection. GC-MS volatile metabolic profiling identified several volatile compounds common in these accessions but lacking, or much less common, in a sensitive accession, the commercial Spadona variety. Among these volatiles were styrene and its derivatives. When the resistant accessions were used as inter-stock, the volatile compounds appear in commercial Spadona scion leaves, and it showed reduced susceptibility to pear psylla. Laboratory experiments and applications of some of these volatile compounds were very effective against psylla eggs, nymphs, and adults. The genes and enzymes involved in the specific reactions that lead to the biosynthesis of styrene in plant are unknown. We have identified a phenolic acid decarboxylase that catalyzes the formation of p-hydroxystyrene, which occurs as a styrene analog in resistant pear genotypes. The His-tagged and affinity chromatography purified E. coli-expressed pear PyPAD1 protein could decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid to p-hydroxystyrene and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxystyrene. In addition, PyPAD1 had the highest activity toward p-coumaric acid. Expression analysis of the PyPAD gene revealed that its expressed as expected, i.e., high when styrene levels and psylla resistance were high.

Keywords: Resistance, GC-MS, volatile, pear Psylla

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3 Postmortem Analysis of Lidocaine in Women Died of Criminal Abortion

Authors: Mohammed A. Arishy, Sultan M. Alharbi, Mohammed A. Hakami, Farid M. Abualsail, Mohammad A. Attafi, Riyadh M. Tobaiqi, Hussain M. Alsalem, Ibraheem M. Attafi

Abstract:

Lidocaine is the most common local anesthetics used for para cervical block to reduce pain associated with surgical abortion. A 25-year-old pregnant woman who. She died before reaching hospital, and she was undergoing criminal abortion during the first trimester. In post-mortem investigations and autopsy shows no clear finding; therefore, toxic substances must be suspected and searched for routinely toxicology analysis. In this case report, the postmortem concentration of lidocaine was detected blood, brain, liver, kidney, and stomach. For lidocaine identification and quantification, sample was extracted using solid phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS (Shimadzu, Japan). Initial screening and confirmatory analysis results showed that only lidocaine was detected in all collected samples, and no other toxic substances or alcohol were detected. The concentrations of lidocaine in samples were 19, 17, 14, 7, and 3 ug/m in the brain, blood, kidney, liver, and stomach, respectively. Lidocaine blood concentration (17 ug/ml) was toxic level and may result in death. Among the tissues, brain showed the highest level of lidocaine, followed by the kidney, liver, and stomach.

Keywords: Forensic Toxicology, GC-MS, lidocaine, postmortem

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2 Influence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on the Activity of Steroid C17-Hydroxylase-C17,20-Lyase in Patients with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

Authors: Martin Hill, Leona Ondrejikova, Antonin Parizek

Abstract:

The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is higher in women predisposed to developing intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Both diseases are associated with altered steroidogenesis when compared with none-ICP controls. However, the effect of GDM on circulating steroids in ICP patients remains unclear. The question remains, whether the levels of circulating steroids differ between ICP patients with and without GDM. In total 10 ICP patients without GDM (ICP+GDM-), 7 ICP patients with GDM (ICP+GDM+), and 15 controls (ICP-GDM-) were monitored during late gestation, at labor, and during three periods postpartum (day 5, week 3, and week 6 postpartum) (Šimják et al., 2018). The relationships between steroid profiles and patients’ status were evaluated using the ANOVA model consisting of subject factor, between-subject factors Group (ICP+GDM+, ICP+GDM-, ICP-GDM-), gestational age at the diagnosis of ICP and gestational age at labor, and within-subject factor Stage and ICP × Stage interaction. The levels of the C21 and C19 Δ5 steroids and 5α/β-reduced C19 steroids were highest in ICP+GDM+, while those for the ICP-GDM-, and ICP+GDM- groups were lower. In the C21 Δ4 steroids and their 5α/β-reduced metabolites, the steroid levels were highest in the ICP+GDM-, intermediate in the ICP-GDM- and lowest in the ICP+GDM+ group. This higher concentration in ICP+GDM- group may be of importance as the 5α-pregnane-3α,20α-diol disulfate, is considered as the substance inducing ICP. In general, these data show that the comorbidity with GDM substantially changes the steroidome in ICP patients towards the higher activity of steroid CYP17A1 lyase step in adrenal zona reticularis reduced CYP17A1 hydroxylase step in zona fasciculata. This is consistent with our previously published hypothesis about the critical role of maternal zona reticularis in the pathophysiology of ICP. Our present data also indicate that the comorbidity with GDM might moderate the gravity of the ICP in this way.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, GC-MS, CYP17A1, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

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1 Optimization of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Technique Coupled with GC MS for Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds Released by Trogoderma Variabile

Authors: Manjree Agarwal, YongLin Ren, Thamer Alshuwaili, Bob Du

Abstract:

The warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is a major pest of packaged and processed stored products. Warehouse beetle is the common name which was given by Okumura (1972). This pest has been reported to infest 119 different commodities, and it is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Also, it is difficult to control because of the insect's ability to stay without food for long times, and it can survive for years under dry conditions and low-moisture food, and it has also developed resistance to many insecticides. The young larvae of these insects can cause damage to seeds, but older larvae prefer to feed on whole grains. The percentage of damage caused by these insects range between 30-70% in the storage. T. variabile is the species most responsible for causing significant damage in grain stores worldwide. Trogoderma spp. is a huge problem for cereal grains, and there are many countries, such as the USA, Australia, China, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania who have specific quarantine regulations against possible importation. Also, grain stocks can be almost completely destroyed because of the massive populations the insect may develop. However, the purpose of the current research was to optimize conditions to collect volatile organic compound from Trogoderma variabile at different life stages by using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (FID). Using SPME technique to extract volatile from insects is an efficient, straightforward and nondestructive method. Result of the study shows that 15 insects were optimal number for larvae and adults. Selection of the number of insects depend on the height of the peak area and the number of peaks. Sixteen hours were optimized as the best extraction time for larvae and 8 hours was the optimal number of adults.

Keywords: GC-MS, Trogoderma variabile, warehouse beetle, Solid phase microextraction

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