Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 7

GC-MS analysis Related Abstracts

7 Identification of Active Phytocomponents in the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla Retz. DC by Using GC-MS

Authors: M. Sivakumar, D. Chamundeeswari


Glycosmis pentaphylla is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the family Rutaceae, commonly known as “Anam or Panal” in Tamil. Traditionally, leaves are useful in fever, hepatopathy, eczema, skin disease, helminthiasis, wounds, and erysipelas. The fruits are sweet and are useful in vitiated conditions of vata, kapha, cough, and bronchitis. The roots are good for facial inflammations, rheumatism, jaundice, and anemia. The preliminary phytochemical investigations indicated the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, sugar, glycoside, and phenolic compounds. In the present study, the root part of Glycosmis pentaphylla was used, and the root was collected from Western Ghats of South India. The root was sun/shade dried and pulverized to powder in a mechanical grinder. The powder was successively extracted with various solvents, and the ethyl acetate extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla has been subjected to the GC-MS analysis. Amongst the 46 chemical constituents identified from this plant, three major phytoconstituents were reported for the first time. Marmesin, a furanocumarin compound with the chemical structure 7H-Furo (3,2-G) (1)Benzopyran-7-one,2,3–dihydro–2 - (1-Hydroxy-1methylethyl)-(s) is one of the three compounds identified for the first time at the concentration of 11-60% in ethyl acetate extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla. Others include, Beta.-Fagarine (4.71%) and Paverine (13.08%).

Keywords: Phytochemicals, glycosmis pentaphylla, ethyl acetate extract, GC-MS analysis

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6 Biostratigraphic Significance of Shaanxilithes ningqiangensis from the Tal Group (Cambrian), Nigalidhar Syncline, Lesser Himalaya, India and Its GC-MS Analysis

Authors: C. A. Sharma, Birendra P. Singh


We recovered 40 well preserved ribbon-shaped, meandering specimens of S. ningqiangensis from the Earthy Dolomite Member (Krol Group) and calcareous siltstone beds of the Earthy Siltstone Member (Tal Group) showing closely spaced annulations that lacked branching. The beginning and terminal points are indistinguishable. In certain cases, individual specimens are characterized by irregular, low-angle to high-angle sinuosity. It has been variously described as body fossil, ichnofossil and algae. Detailed study of this enigmatic fossil is needed to resolve the long standing controversy regarding its phylogenetic and stratigraphic placements, which will be an important contribution to the evolutionary history of metazoans. S. ningqiangensis has been known from the late Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) of southern and central China (Sichuan, Shaanxi, Quinghai and Guizhou provinces and Ningxia Hui Autonomous region), Siberian platform and across Pc/C Boundary from latest Neoprterozoic to earliest Cambrian of northern India. Shaanxilithes is considered an Ediacaran organism that spans the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary, an interval marked by significant taphonomic and ecological transformations that include not only innovation but also probable extinction. All the past well constrained finds of S. ningqiangensis are restricted to Ediacaran age. However, due to the new recoveries of the fossil from Nigalidhar Syncline, the stratigraphic status of S. ningqiangensis-bearing Earthy Siltstone Member of the Shaliyan Formation of the Tal Group (Cambrian) is rendered uncertain, though the overlying Chert Member in the adjoining Korgai Syncline has yielded definite early Cambrian acritarchs. The moot question is whether the Earthy Siltstone Member represents an Ediacaran or an early Cambrian age?. It would be interesting to find if Shaanxilithes, so far known from Ediacaran sequences, could it transgress to the early Cambrian or in simple words could it withstand the Pc/C Boundary event? GC-MS data shows the S. ningqiangensis structure is formed by hydrocarbon organic compounds which are filled with inorganic elements filler like silica, Calcium, phosphorus etc. The S. ningqiangensis structure is a mixture of organic compounds of high molecular weight, containing several saturated rings with hydrocarbon chains having an occasional isolated carbon-carbon double bond and also containing, in addition, to small amounts of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Data also revealed that the presence of nitrogen which would be either in the form of peptide chains means amide/amine or chemical form i.e. nitrates/nitrites etc. The formula weight and the weight ratio of C/H shows that it would be expected for algae derived organics, since algae produce fatty acids as well as other hydrocarbons such as cartenoids.

Keywords: GC-MS analysis, Lesser Himalaya, Pc/C Boundary, shaanxilithes

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5 Stability of Essential Oils in Pang-Rum by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: K. Jarmkom, P. Eakwaropas, W. Khobjai, S. Techaeoi


Ancient Thai perfumed powder was used as a fragrance for clothing, food, and the body. Plant-based natural Thai perfume products are known as Pang-Rum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of essential oils after six months of incubation. The chemical compositions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in terms of the qualitative composition of the isolated essential oil. The isolation of the essential oil of natural products by incubate sample for 5 min at 40 ºC is described. The volatile components were identified by percentage of total peak areas comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with NIST mass spectral library. The results show no significant difference in the seven chromatograms of perfumed powder (Pang-Rum) both with binder and without binder. Further identification was done by GC-MS. Some components of Pang-Rum with/without binder were changed by temperature and time.

Keywords: Stability, essential oils, GC-MS analysis, pang-rum

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4 Bioefficacy of Catharanthus roseus on Reproductive Performance of Red Cotton Bug, Dysdercus koenigii (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoriedae)

Authors: Kamal Kumar Gupta, Sunil Kayesth


Influence of hexane extract of Catharanthus roseus leaves on reproductive fitness of Dysdercus koenigii was investigated by evaluating mating behaviour, oviposition behaviour and fertility of the treated insects. The volatiles of the plants were extracted in hexane by ‘cold extraction method’. The insects were treated with the extracts by ‘dry film residual method’. Our studies indicated that the treated male showed altered courtship behaviour, less number of mounting attempts, took more time to mate, less percent successful mating, and more disrupted mating. Similarly, the treated female exhibited either mating refusal or neutral behaviour towards courting males. The maximum disruption in the mating was observed in a cross T♂ X T♀, where males and females were treated with Catharanthus extract. The Dysdercus treated with Catharanthus extracts also showed marked reduction in their reproductive success. The treated females laid lesser number of egg batches and eggs in their life span. Catharanthus extract was effective in alteration of the oviposition behaviour. The eggs laid by the mated females were fertile indicating insemination of the mated females. However, the percent hatchability of the eggs laid by the treated females was less than control. The GC-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of juvenile hormone mimics, and the intermediates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Therefore, some of these compounds individually or synergistically alter reproductive behaviour of Dysdercus.

Keywords: dysdercus koenigii, reproductive performance, Catharanthus roseus, GC-MS analysis

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3 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Spilanthes acmella Murr.

Authors: Wanthani Paengsri, Thanyarat Chuesaard, Napapha Promsawan


Spilanthes acmella Murr. was extracted with methanol, yielding methanol crude extract 5.86 %w/w. This study aimed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of methanolic crude extract. The chemical composition of methanolic crude extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The predominant components were found to be palmitic acid (40.08%), 2-hexadecanoyl glycerol (6.96%) and octadecanoic acid (4.06%). Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, for evaluating free radicle scavenging activity. The methanolic extract at 150 µg/mL showed an antioxidant activity with high of radical scavenging activity (75.23%).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, GC-MS analysis, Spilanthes, Phak-Kratt Hauwaen

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2 Chemical Composition, in vitro Antioxidant Activity and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Essential Oil and Extracts of Ruta chalpensis aerial Parts Growing in Tunisian Sahara

Authors: Samir Falhi, Neji Gharsallah, Adel Kadri


Ruta chalpensis L. is a medicinal plant in the family of Rutaceae, has been used as an important traditional in the Mediterranean basin in the treatment of many diseases. The current study was devoted to investigate and evaluate the chemical composition, total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents, and in vitro antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate, ethanol and hydroalcoholic extracts and essential oil from the aerial parts of Ruta chalpensis from Tunisian Sahara. Total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of extracts ranged from 40.39 ± 1.87 to 75.13 ± 1.22 mg of GAE/g, from 22.62 ± 1.55 to 27.51 ± 1.04 mg of QE/g, and from 5.56 ± 1.32 to 10.89 ± 1.10 mg of CE/g respectively. Results showed that the highest antioxidant activities was determined for ethanol extract with IC50 value of 26.23 ± 0.91 µg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and for hydroalcoholic extract with EC50 value of 412.95±6.57 µg/mL and 105.52±2.45 mg of α-tocopherol/g for ferric reducing antioxidant power and total antioxidant capacity assays, respectively. Furthermore, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of essential oil led to identification of 20 compounds representing 98.96 % of the total composition. The major components of essential oil were 2-undecanone (39.13%), 2-nonanone (25.04), 1-nonene (13.81), and α-limonene (7.72). Spectral data of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR) of extracts revealed the presence of functional groups such as C= O, C─O, ─OH, and C─H, which confirmed its richness on polyphenols and biological active functional groups. These results showed that Ruta chalpensis could be a potential natural source of antioxidants that can be used in food and nutraceutical applications.

Keywords: antioxidant, GC-MS analysis, FT-IR analysis, phytochemicals contents, Ruta chalpensis

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1 Identification of ω-3 Fatty Acids Using GC-MS Analysis in Extruded Spelt Product

Authors: Jelena Filipovic, Milenko Kosutic, Marija Bodroza-Solarov, Nebojsa Novkovic, Vladimir Filipovic, Vesna Vucurovic


Spelt wheat is suitable raw material for extruded products such as pasta, special types of bread and other products of altered nutritional characteristics compared to conventional wheat products. During the process of extrusion, spelt is exposed to high temperature and high pressure, during which raw material is also mechanically treated by shear forces. Spelt wheat is growing without the use of pesticides in harsh ecological conditions and in marginal areas of cultivation. So it can be used for organic and health safe food. Pasta is the most popular foodstuff; its consumption has been observed to rise. Pasta quality depends mainly on the properties of flour raw materials, especially protein content and its quality but starch properties are of a lesser importance. Pasta is characterized by significant amounts of complex carbohydrates, low sodium, total fat fiber, minerals, and essential fatty acids and its nutritional value can be improved with additional functional component. Over the past few decades, wheat pasta has been successfully formulated using different ingredients in pasta to cater health-conscious consumers who prefer having a product rich in protein, healthy lipids and other health benefits. Flaxseed flour is used in the production of bakery and pasta products that have properties of functional foods. However, it should be taken into account that food products retain the technological and sensory quality despite the added flax seed. Flaxseed contains important substances in its composition such as vitamins and minerals elements, and it is also an excellent source of fiber and one of the best sources of ω-3 fatty acids and lignin. In this paper, the quality and identification of spelt extruded product with the addition of flax seed, which is positively contributing to the nutritive and technology changes of the product, is investigated. ω-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, and they must be taken with food to satisfy the recommended daily intake. Flaxseed flour is added in the quantity of 10/100 g of sample and 20/100 g of sample on farina. It is shown that the presence of ω-3 fatty acids in pasta can be clearly distinguished from other fatty acids by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Addition of flax seed flour influence chemical content of pasta. The addition of flax seed flour in spelt pasta in the quantities of 20g/100 g significantly increases the share of ω-3 fatty acids, which results in improved ratio of ω-6/ω-3 1:2.4 and completely satisfies minimum daily needs of ω-3 essential fatty acids (3.8 g/100 g) recommended by FDA. Flex flour influenced the pasta quality by increasing of hardness (2377.8 ± 13.3; 2874.5 ± 7.4; 3076.3 ± 5.9) and work of shear (102.6 ± 11.4; 150.8 ± 11.3; 165.0 ± 18.9) and increasing of adhesiveness (11.8 ± 20.6; 9.,98 ± 0.12; 7.1 ± 12.5) of the final product. Presented data point at good indicators of technological quality of spelt pasta with flax seed and that GC-MS analysis can be used in the quality control for flax seed identification. Acknowledgment: The research was financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Project No. III 46005).

Keywords: GC-MS analysis, ω-3 fatty acids, flex seed, spelt wheat, daily needs

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